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1.
Exp Mol Pathol ; : 104855, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36736685

RESUMO

Detecting MLH1 promoter methylation is highly relevant to differentiate between possible Lynch syndrome patients or patients with sporadic causes of MLH1/PMS2 deficiency in colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancers. Here, we aimed to develop a test for assessing MLH1 promoter methylation based in next generation sequencing (NGS), and to evaluate the concordance of MLH1 methylation and BRAF-V600 mutation status in CRC. For that, we performed a series of experiments with DNA from tumor, saliva and commercial control samples and our in house developed amplicon-based NGS test. In patients' samples, MLH1 methylation above 10% was only observed in tumors with MLH1/PMS2 loss. We confirmed the reproducibility and accuracy of MLH1 promoter analysis performing a serial dilution experiment with completely methylated and unmethylated control DNAs and a comparison between two NGS platforms (Ion Proton and Illumina). In MLH1/PMS2 deficient tumors, the MLH1 methylation status was concordant with the BRAF mutation status in 90% (18/20) of the cases. Our amplicon-based NGS test showed a great sensitivity and specificity for detecting MLH1 methylation in CRC samples, with a high agreement with the evaluation of BRAF mutation. This simple and affordable test could be used as a reflex test to identify patients with sporadic causes of MLH1/PMS2 deficiency in CRC, aiding to genetic test referral and identification of Lynch syndrome patients.

2.
Front Oncol ; 12: 976959, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119527

RESUMO

Introduction: BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline pathogenic variants (GPVs) account for most of the 5-10% of breast cancer (BC) that is attributable to inherited genetic variants. BRCA1 GPVs are associated with the triple negative subtype, whereas BRCA2 GPVs are likely to result in higher grade, estrogen-receptor positive BCs. The contribution of other genes of high and moderate risk for BC has not been well defined and risk estimates to specific BC subtypes is lacking, especially for an admixed population like Brazilian. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of a multigene panel in detecting germline mutations in cancer-predisposing genes for Brazilian BC patients and its relation with molecular subtypes and the predominant molecular ancestry. Patients and methods: A total of 321 unrelated BC patients who fulfilled NCCN criteria for BRCA1/2 testing between 2016-2018 were investigated with a 94-genes panel. Molecular subtypes were retrieved from medical records and ancestry-specific variants were obtained from off-target reads obtained from the sequencing data. Results: We detected 83 GPVs in 81 patients (positivity rate of 25.2%). Among GPVs, 47% (39/83) were identified in high-risk BC genes (BRCA1/2, PALB2 and TP53) and 18% (15/83) in moderate-penetrance genes (ATM, CHEK2 and RAD51C). The remainder of the GPVs (35% - 29/83), were identified in lower-risk genes. As for the molecular subtypes, triple negative BC had a mutation frequency of 31.6% (25/79), with predominance in BRCA1 (12.6%; 10/79). Among the luminal subtypes, except Luminal B HER2-positive, 18.7% (29/155) had GPV with BRCA1/2 genes contributing 7.1% (11/155) and non-BRCA1/2 genes, 12.9% (20/155). For Luminal B HER2-positive subtype, 40% (16/40) had GPVs, with a predominance of ATM gene (15% - 6/40) and BRCA2 with only 2.5% (1/40). Finally, HER2-enriched subtype presented a mutation rate of 30.8% (4/13) with contribution of BRCA2 of 7.5% (1/13) and non-BRCA1/2 of 23% (3/13). Variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were identified in 77.6% (249/321) of the patients and the number of VUS was increased in patients with Asian and Native American ancestry. Conclusion: The multigene panel contributed to identify GPVs in genes other than BRCA1/2, increasing the positivity of the genetic test from 9.6% (BRCA1/2) to 25.2% and, considering only the most clinically relevant BC predisposing genes, to 16.2%. These results indicate that women with clinical criteria for hereditary BC may benefit from a multigene panel testing, as it allows identifying GPVs in genes that directly impact the clinical management of these patients and family members.

3.
Pathol Res Pract ; 238: 154113, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099718

RESUMO

Salivary gland neoplasms comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions with multiple histological subtypes, each with distinct growth patterns, resulting in a spectrum of tumor-specific prognoses; pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) are the most common representatives of these neoplasms. Many studies have associated specific profiles of membrane and adhesion molecules in salivary gland tissues; these profiles appear to be relevant in tumor biology as well as be interpreted as fingerprints for tumor classification, diagnostic prognostic and therapeutic targets. One of these membrane molecule complexes are the tight junctions, composed by various proteins, in which claudins are protagonists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressions of genes that encode tight junction proteins (CLDN-1, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -11, occludin [OCLN], zonula occludens [TJP1, TJP2, and TJP3] and junctional adhesion molecule A [F11R]) in MEC and PA using real time RT-PCR. We observed high expression of CLDN-1 and -7 and low expression of CLDN-3, -11 and TJP2 in MEC compared to PA. PA samples demonstrated high OCLN expression when compared to MEC. CRTC1::MAML2 fusion was detected in 12 of 20 (60.0%) MEC samples and was associated with CLDN7 expression, while the absence of fusion was associated with high histological grade. Increased CLDN5 expression was associated with submandibular gland tumors. This study demonstrated differential expressions of genes encoding tight junction constituent proteins and their associations with tumor characteristics, suggesting their potential future role as diagnostic and prognostic markers.

4.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 16: 1344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35242225

RESUMO

Identifying polymorphisms in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) genes is gaining importance as predictors of fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. The recommendation of dose adjustment for chemotherapy guided by the presence of polymorphisms of the DPYD gene can potentially improve treatment safety for a large number of patients, saving lives, avoiding complications and reducing health care costs. This article discusses how personalisation of fluoropyrimidine treatment based on the identification of DPYD variants can mitigate toxicities and be cost effective.

6.
Curr Oncol ; 29(2): 411-422, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200537

RESUMO

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare and aggressive condition that is associated with the SMARCA4 mutation and has a dismal prognosis. It is generally diagnosed in young women. Here, we report a case of a young woman with SCCOHT harboring a rare molecular finding with a highly aggressive biological behavior. The patient had a somatic SMARCB1 mutation instead of an expected SMARCA4 alteration. Even though the patient was treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation, she evolved with disease progression and died 11 months after her first symptoms appeared. We present a literature review of this rare disease and discuss the findings in the present patient in comparison to expected molecular alterations and options for SCCOHT treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Tumor Rabdoide , Proteína SMARCB1 , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/terapia , DNA Helicases/genética , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Ovário/patologia , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/patologia , Tumor Rabdoide/terapia , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262419, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085295

RESUMO

Genetic predisposition accounts for nearly 10% of all melanoma cases and has been associated with a dozen moderate- to high-penetrance genes, including CDKN2A, CDK4, POT1 and BAP1. However, in most melanoma-prone families, the genetic etiology of cancer predisposition remains undetermined. The goal of this study was to identify rare genomic variants associated with cutaneous melanoma susceptibility in melanoma-prone families. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 2 affected individuals of 5 melanoma-prone families negative for mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4, the major cutaneous melanoma risk genes. A total of 288 rare coding variants shared by the affected relatives of each family were identified, including 7 loss-of-function variants. By performing in silico analyses of gene function, biological pathways, and variant pathogenicity prediction, we underscored the putative role of several genes for melanoma risk, including previously described genes such as MYO7A and WRN, as well as new putative candidates, such as SERPINB4, HRNR, and NOP10. In conclusion, our data revealed rare germline variants in melanoma-prone families contributing with a novel set of potential candidate genes to be further investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Melanoma/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Penetrância , /métodos
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298749

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is now considered molecularly different from female breast cancer (FBC). Evidence from studies indicates that common genetic and epigenetic features of FBC are not shared with those diagnosed in men. Genetic predisposition is likely to play a significant role in the tumorigenesis of this rare disease. Inherited germline variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for around 2% and 10% of MBC cases, respectively, and the lifetime risk of breast cancer for men harboring BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is 1.2% and 6.8%. As for FBC, pathogenic mutations in other breast cancer genes have also been recently associated with an increased risk of MBC, such as PALB2 and CHEK2 mutations. However, while multigene germline panels have been extensively performed for BC female patients, the rarity of MBC has resulted in limited data to allow the understanding of the magnitude of risk and the contribution of recently identified moderate penetrance genes of FBC for MBC predisposition. This review gathers available data about the germline genetic landscape of men affected by breast cancer, estimated risk associated with these genetic variants, and current guidelines for clinical management.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525546

RESUMO

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is an extremely rare, aggressive sarcoma affecting adolescents and young adults with male predominance. Generally, it originates from the serosal surface of the abdominal cavity. The hallmark characteristic of DSRCT is the EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion. This translocation up-regulates the expression of PDGFRα, VEGF and other proteins related to tumor and vascular cell proliferation. Current management of DSRCT includes a combination of chemotherapy, radiation and aggressive cytoreductive surgery plus intra-peritoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (HIPEC). Despite advances in multimodal therapy, outcomes remain poor since the majority of patients present disease recurrence and die within three years. The dismal survival makes DSRCT an orphan disease with an urgent need for new drugs. The treatment of advanced and recurrent disease with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as pazopanib, sunitinib, and mTOR inhibitors was evaluated by small trials. Recent studies using comprehensive molecular profiling of DSRCT identified potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we aim to describe the current studies conducted to better understand DSRCT biology and to explore the new therapeutic strategies under investigation in preclinical models and in early phase clinical trials.

11.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2324, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to contribute to the catalog of genetic mutations involved in the carcinogenic processes of uterine sarcomas (USs) and carcinosarcomas (UCSs), which may assist in the accurate diagnosis of, and selection of treatment regimens for, these conditions. METHODS: We performed gene-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 409 cancer-related genes in 15 US (7 uterine leiomyosarcoma [ULMS], 7 endometrial stromal sarcoma [ESS], 1 adenosarcoma [ADS]), 5 UCS, and 3 uterine leiomyoma (ULM) samples. Quality, frequency, and functional filters were applied to select putative somatic variants. RESULTS: Among the 23 samples evaluated in this study, 42 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations and 111 missense mutations were detected, with a total of 153 mutations. Among them, 66 mutations were observed in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. TP53 (48%), ATM (22%), and PIK3CA (17%) were the most frequently mutated genes. With respect to specific tumor subtypes, ESS showed mutations in the PDE4DIP, IGTA10, and DST genes, UCS exhibited mutations in ERBB4, and ULMS showed exclusive alterations in NOTCH2 and HER2. Mutations in the KMT2A gene were observed exclusively in ULM and ULMS. In silico pathway analyses demonstrated that many genes mutated in ULMS and ESS have functions associated with the cellular response to hypoxia and cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus. In UCS and ADS, genes with most alterations have functions associated with phosphatidylinositol kinase activity and glycerophospholipid metabolic process. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study observed pathogenic mutations in US and UCS samples. Further studies with a larger cohort and functional analyses will foster the development of a precision medicine-based approach for the treatment of US and UCS.


Assuntos
Carcinossarcoma , Sarcoma , Neoplasias Uterinas , Brasil , Carcinossarcoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética
12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3637-3645, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase III trials evaluating the role of secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) in recurrent ovarian cancer have pointed to the importance of patient selection. Two studies showed conflicting results regarding the benefit of SCS in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of SCS on recurrent ovarian cancer according to BRCA1/2 status. METHODS: All patients with ovarian carcinoma with platinum-sensitive recurrent disease and tested for BRCA1/2 germline mutations were included. Cox regression and log rank test were used to evaluate the impact of SCS on progression-free survival (PFS) and the influence of BRCA1/2 mutations on the effect of SCS. RESULTS: 127 patients were included, 45.6% were treated with SCS and chemotherapy and 54.3% treated with chemotherapy only. Patients treated with SCS were younger, presented better performance status, had lower CA125, and had a longer platinum-free interval. In multivariate analysis SCS was associated with longer PFS (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.72, p = 0.002). BRCA1/2 mutations were found in 35 patients (27.5%), and 11.8% of patients were treated with PARP inhibitors. Although not statistically significant, both BRCA1/2 wild type patients (PFS: 21.6 vs 18.4 months; p = 0.114) and BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (PFS: 23.1 vs 18.2 months, p = 0.193) appeared to derive benefit from SCS. DISCUSSION: The present study suggests a benefit of SCS irrespective of BRCA1/2 status among patients mostly not treated with PARP inhibitor. Further data on post hoc analysis from the phase III trials are warranted to confirm whether BRCA1/2 mutated patients should be selected for SCS.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia
13.
Clinics ; 76: e2324, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to contribute to the catalog of genetic mutations involved in the carcinogenic processes of uterine sarcomas (USs) and carcinosarcomas (UCSs), which may assist in the accurate diagnosis of, and selection of treatment regimens for, these conditions. METHODS: We performed gene-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 409 cancer-related genes in 15 US (7 uterine leiomyosarcoma [ULMS], 7 endometrial stromal sarcoma [ESS], 1 adenosarcoma [ADS]), 5 UCS, and 3 uterine leiomyoma (ULM) samples. Quality, frequency, and functional filters were applied to select putative somatic variants. RESULTS: Among the 23 samples evaluated in this study, 42 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations and 111 missense mutations were detected, with a total of 153 mutations. Among them, 66 mutations were observed in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. TP53 (48%), ATM (22%), and PIK3CA (17%) were the most frequently mutated genes. With respect to specific tumor subtypes, ESS showed mutations in the PDE4DIP, IGTA10, and DST genes, UCS exhibited mutations in ERBB4, and ULMS showed exclusive alterations in NOTCH2 and HER2. Mutations in the KMT2A gene were observed exclusively in ULM and ULMS. In silico pathway analyses demonstrated that many genes mutated in ULMS and ESS have functions associated with the cellular response to hypoxia and cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus. In UCS and ADS, genes with most alterations have functions associated with phosphatidylinositol kinase activity and glycerophospholipid metabolic process. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study observed pathogenic mutations in US and UCS samples. Further studies with a larger cohort and functional analyses will foster the development of a precision medicine-based approach for the treatment of US and UCS.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Carcinossarcoma/genética , Brasil , Mutação
14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 571330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134171

RESUMO

The use of gene panels introduces a new dilemma in the genetics field due to the high frequency of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). The objective of this study was to provide evidence that may help in the classification of these germline variants in terms of their clinical impact and association with the disease in question. A total of 52 unrelated women at-risk for HBOC and negative for BRCA1/BRCA2 pathogenic variants were evaluated through a gene panel comprising 14 breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. Of the 453 germline variants identified, 15 variants (classes 3, 4, and 5) in the ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2, MRE11A, MUTHY, PALB2, RAD50, and RAD51C genes were evaluated via databases, co-segregation studies and loss of heterozygosity in the tumor. The co-segregation analysis allowed the establishment of an association with the presence of variants and the risk of cancer for variant c.316C>T in the BRIP1 gene. Four variants of uncertain significance showed loss of heterozygosity in the tumor (ATM c.4709T>C; CHEK2 c.1036C>T; PALB2 c.1001A>G, and RAD50 c.281T>C), which is an indication of pathogenicity. Thus, the present study provides novel evidence that favors the association of variants in moderate-risk genes with the development of hereditary breast cancer.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659967

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is a hereditary cancer-predisposing syndrome associated most frequently with epithelial tumors, particularly colorectal (CRC) and endometrial carcinomas (EC). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sarcomas and LS by performing clinical and molecular characterization of patients presenting co-occurrence of sarcomas and tumors from the LS spectrum. We identified 27 patients diagnosed with CRC, EC, and other LS-associated tumors who had sarcomas in the same individuals or families. Germline genetic testing, mismatch repair (MMR) protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability (MSI), and other molecular analyses were performed. Five LS patients presenting personal or family history of sarcomas were identified (3 MSH2 carriers and 2 MLH1), with 2 having Muir-Torre phenotypes. For two MSH2 carriers we confirmed the etiology of the sarcomas (one liposarcoma and two osteosarcomas) as LS-related, since the tumors were MSH2/MSH6-deficient, MSI-high, or presented a truncated MSH2 transcript. Additionally, we reviewed 43 previous reports of sarcomas in patients with LS, which revealed a high frequency (58%) of MSH2 alterations. In summary, sarcomas represent a rare clinical manifestation in patients with LS, especially in MSH2 carriers, and the analysis of tumor biological characteristics can be useful for definition of tumor etiology and novel therapeutic options.

16.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714871

RESUMO

Objectives: Approximately 60% of lung adenocarcinomas (LAs) carry mutations that can guide treatment with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) and other targeted therapies. Data on activating mutations in EGFR and other tyrosine-kinase receptor (TKR) genes in highly admixed populations, such as that of Brazil, are scarce. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the actionable alteration profile of LA in Brazilian patients. Materials and Methods: EGFR driver mutation data were collected from a large Brazilian LA cohort covering an 8-year period of molecular testing in a single institution. Tests were performed using three distinct methods, and demographic and histopathological data were analyzed. For a subset of patients, driver mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF and gene fusions involving TKR genes (before TKI treatment) and EGFR T790M (after TKI treatment) were assessed. Results: EGFR mutations were detected in 25% of 1,316 LAs evaluated, with exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R TKI sensitizing mutations representing 72.5% of all mutations. Mutation rates were higher in women and non-smokers (p < 0.001). Next-generation sequencing was very sensitive, with a lower rate of inconclusive results compared with Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing. EGFR/RAS/BRAF hotspot gene panels were applied in 495 LA cases and detected oncogenic mutations in 51.3% of samples, most frequently in EGFR (22.4%) and KRAS (26.9%). In subgroups of 36 and 35 patients, gene fusions were detected in 11.1% of tumors and EGFR T790M resistance mutations were detected in 59% of plasma samples from patients previously treated with TKI, respectively. Conclusion: This report provides the first comprehensive actionable alteration portrait of LA in Brazil. The high rate of actionable alterations in EGFR and other driver genes in LA reinforces the need to incorporate TKI guided by molecular diagnostics into clinical routines for patients in both public and private healthcare systems.

17.
Fam Cancer ; 19(4): 323-336, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363481

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR): MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, are causative of Lynch syndrome (LS). However, many of the variants mapping outside the invariant splice site positions (IVS ± 1, IVS ± 2) are classified as variants of unknown significance (VUS). Three such variants (MLH1 c.588+5G>C, c.588+5G>T and c.677+5G>A) were identified in 8 unrelated LS families from Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Herein, we collected clinical information on these families and performed segregation analysis and RNA splicing studies to assess the implication of these VUS in LS etiology. Pedigrees showed a clear pattern of variant co-segregation with colorectal cancer and/or other LS-associated malignancies. Tumors presented deficient expression of MLH1-PMS2 proteins in 7/7 of the LS families, and MSI-high status in 3/3 cases. Moreover, RNA analyses revealed that c.588+5G>C and c.588+5G>T induce skipping of exon 7 whereas c.677+5G>A causes skipping of exon 8. In sum, we report that the combined clinical findings in the families and the molecular studies provided the evidences needed to demonstrate that the three MLH1 variants are causative of LS and to classify c.588+5G>C and c.677+5G>A as class 5 (pathogenic), and c.588+5G>T as class 4 (likely-pathogenic). Our findings underline the importance of performing clinical and family analyses, as well as RNA splicing assays in order to determine the clinical significance of intronic variants, and contribute to the genetic counseling and clinical management of patients and their relatives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Íntrons , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Splicing de RNA , Adulto , Argentina , Brasil , Chile , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/deficiência , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/deficiência , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Linhagem , Isoformas de Proteínas
18.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1077, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 associated-protein 1 (BAP1) tumor predisposition syndrome is associated with an increased risk for malignant mesotheliomas, uveal and cutaneous melanomas, renal cell carcinomas, and singular cutaneous lesions. The latter are referred to as BAP1-inactivated melanocytic tumors (BIMTs). When multiple BIMTs manifest, they are considered potential markers of germline BAP1 mutations. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a novel pathogenic BAP1 germline variant in a family with a history of BIMTs, cutaneous melanomas, and mesotheliomas. We also describe singular pathological aspects of the patient's BIMT lesions and their correlation with dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopy findings. CONCLUSIONS: This knowledge is crucial for the recognition of BIMTs by dermatologists and pathologists, allowing the determination of appropriate management for high-risk patients, such as genetic investigations and screening for potentially aggressive tumors.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dermoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Prognóstico
19.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216671

RESUMO

Folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, and betaine are nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle that can alter the levels of DNA methylation and influence genesis and/or tumor progression. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association of folate and vitamins involved in the 1-carbon cycle and MTHFR polymorphisms in global DNA methylation in patients with colorectal cancer gene. The study included 189 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma answering a clinical evaluation questionnaire and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) validated for patients with colon and rectal cancer. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of MTHFR gene polymorphisms in global DNA methylation in blood and in tumor. The values for serum folate were positively correlated with the equivalent total dietary folate (total DFE) (rho = 0.51, p = 0.03) and global DNA methylation (rho = 0.20, p = 0.03). Individuals aged over 61 years (p = 0.01) in clinicopathological staging III and IV (p = 0.01) and with + heterozygous mutated homozygous genotypes for the MTHFR A1298C gene had higher levels of global DNA methylation (p = 0.04). The association between dietary intake of folate, serum folate, and tumor stage were predictive of global DNA methylation in patients' blood. The levels of serum folate, the dietary folate and the status of DNA methylation can influence clinicopathological staging.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácido Fólico/análise , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/análise , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Ciclo do Carbono/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(4): 393-398, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently, two studies demonstrated that a relevant percentage of primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients had an upregulation of interferon (IFN) genes. However, 20%-28% of these patients had anti-dsDNA, a highly specific systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) autoantibody. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the type I IFN signature in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of PAPS patients without specific SLE autoantibodies and search for its clinical associations. METHODS: Fifty-three PAPS patients (Sydney's criteria) were consecutively selected and age-matched with 50 healthy controls. A third group of nonimmune-mediated thrombophilia patients was also included. The expression of 41 IFN-induced genes was analyzed using real time quantitative PCR. A principal component analysis determined which genes composed the IFN signature, and the z-score was calculated. An ROC curve defined the signature cut-off. RESULTS: Six genes remained in the IFN signature DNAJA1, IFIT5, IFI27, MX1, IFI6, and TYK2. The ROC cutoff was 3.9-fold (AUC = 0.706, S = 0.49, E = 0.86, PPV = 0.79, NPV = 0.61). The type I IFN signature was present in 49% of the patients with PAPS compared with 14.0% of the healthy controls and 17% of the nonimmune-mediated thrombophilia patients (p < .0001). The IFN signature was associated with a younger age at the first antiphospholipid syndrome event (p = .023) and with preeclampsia (p = .032). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that PAPS patients without lupus-specific antibodies have an enhanced type I IFN gene signature that is not observed in nonimmune-mediated thrombophilia. Also, this overexpression of type I IFN-regulated genes associated with an earlier onset of antiphospholipid syndrome event and preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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