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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590504

RESUMO

Background: An ongoing longitudinal study in six European sites includes a 3-monthly assessment of forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), peak cough flow (PCF), and Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP). The aim of this interim analysis was to assess the potential for SNIP to be a surrogate for aerosol generating procedures given COVID-19 related restrictions. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Patients attending six study sites with King's Stage 2 or 3 ALS completed baseline FVC/SVC/SNIP/PCF and repeated assessments 3 monthly. Data were collected from March 2018 to March 2020, after which a COVID-19 related study suspension was imposed. Correlations between the measures were calculated. A Bayesian multiple outcomes random-effects model was constructed to investigate rates of decline across measures. Results: In total, 270 cases and 828 assessments were included (Mean age 65.2 ± 15.4 years; 32.6% Female; 60% Kings stage 2; 81.1% spinal onset). FVC and SVC were the most closely correlated outcomes (0.95). SNIP showed the least correlation with other metrics 0.53 (FVC), 0.54 (SVC), 0.60 (PCF). All four measures significantly declined over time. SNIP in the bulbar onset group showed the fastest rate of decline. Discussion: SNIP was not well correlated with FVC and SVC, probably because it examines a different aspect of respiratory function. Respiratory measures declined over time, but differentially according to the site of onset. SNIP is not a surrogate for FVC and SVC, but is a complementary measure, declining linearly and differentiating spinal and bulbar onset patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348536

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis parameters (blood carbon dioxide, pCO2; oxygen, pO2; carbonate, HCO3-; standard base excess, SBE) in monitoring respiratory function and ventilation compliance after noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) adaptation, predicting survival in ALS patients. Methods: We selected the first ABG performed after NIV start in ALS patients followed from 2000 to 2015 in Turin ALS Center. Correlations between ABG parameters and survival were calculated. Risk for death/tracheostomy was computed at modifying ABG parameters by using Cox regression models, adjusted for the main prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were then performed and compared. Results: A total of 186 post-NIV ABGs were included. HCO3- and SBE showed a significant correlation with survival after NIV (respectively, R = -0.183, p = 0.018 and R = -0.200, p = 0.010). Risk for death/tracheostomy after NIV was significantly higher at increasing HCO3- and SBE blood levels, especially when HCO3- was >29 mmol/L and SBE >4 mmol/L (respectively, HR 1.466, 95% CI 1.068-2.011, p = 0.018 and HR = 1.411, 95% CI 1.030-1.32, p = 0.032). Survival in NIV was higher in patients with HCO3- < 29.0 mmol/L and SBE < 4.0 mmol/L. Conclusions: HCO3- and SBE blood levels are markers of ventilation compliance, tolerance and efficacy, being able to predict survival after NIV start in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Gasometria , Carbonatos , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355622

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate how Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients' mortality rates change, based on different levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) and disease duration, providing a scheme of mortality rates of a real population of ALS patients to improve the design of future RCTs. Methods: One random spirometry for each ALS patient was selected during four time intervals from disease onset: (1) ≤12 months; (2) ≤18 months; (3) ≤24 months; (4) ≤36 months. Date of spirometry corresponded to date of trial entry, while time interval onset-spirometry to disease duration at enrollment. Mortality rates from inclusion were computed at different time intervals. Based on progression rates, patients were stratified in slow, intermediate and fast progressors. Survival from recruitment was calculated depending on FVC, disease duration and progression rate. Results: We included 659 patients in group 1, 888 in group 2, 1019 in group 3 and 1102 in group 4. Mortality rates were higher in each group at reducing the FVC cutoff used for recruitment (p < 0.001). Median survival decreased when lowering FVC and disease duration cutoffs (p < 0.001); a higher median disease progression rate of included patients led to lower median survival from recruitment. The proportion of recruited fast progressors raised when shortening disease duration and lowering FVC cutoff. Conclusions: This is a simple model for setting eligibility criteria, based on mortality rates of patients depending on FVC and disease duration, to select the best population for RCTs, tailored to trials' primary endpoints and duration.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365891

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the frequency and predictors of plateaus in ALS progression as assessed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Scale. Methods: All patients attending the ALS Center of Turin, with a diagnosis between 2007 and 2014 were considered. At each visit, muscle strength was evaluated in several muscles and assessed using the MRC scale. Concomitant ALSFRSr scores were retrieved. Plateaus were calculated as a stable overall MRC or ALSFRSr score lasting at least 6, 12 or 18 months. Results: According to MRC scale scores, 122 (22.8%), 71 (13.2%) and 59 (11.0%) patients experienced a plateau lasting at least 6, 12 and 18 months. ALSFRSr scores revealed similar estimates [134, (25.0%), 89 (16.6%) and 67 (12.5%), respectively]. Plateaus were more frequent at high scores and appeared a median of 24.6 months (IQR 6.7-47.7) after the diagnosis. Only the predominant upper motor neuron phenotype (OR 4.06, 95% CI 2-06-8.10, p-value <0.001) and diagnostic delay OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-10.5, p-value = 0.005) were significantly correlated with their appearance. Discussion: Plateaus in ALS progression as assessed using either ALSFRSr or MRC scale are not infrequent and should be expected especially in less aggressive phenotypes. Similar results were found both using the MRC scale and the ALSFRSr scores, suggesting a comparable reliability of these scales in grasping the disease progression.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860702

RESUMO

Objective: To assess patients Quality of life (QoL) and the burden of their caregivers during Covid-19 pandemic and specifically the impact of two-month lockdown period. Methods: In April 2020, a total of 60 patients and 59 caregivers were administered by phone scales assessing patients' QoL (McGill QoL Questionnaire), general health status (EQ-5D-5L), and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview). The administration was repeated one month after the end of lockdown measures, with the addition of a qualitative questionnaire (COVID-QoL Questionnaire) exploring family reorganization and personal perception of lock down. Results: QoL and perceived health status did not worsen during lockdown, while caregiver burden increased (p = 0.01). Patient's QoL and caregiver burden were inversely correlated at T1 (ZBI total score mildly correlated with Mc Gill existential subscore, p = 0.02, rho = 0.30 and with Mc Gill total score, p = 0.05, rho = 0.265). No significant correlations were found at T2. According to the COVID-QoL questionnaire, caregivers perceived lower family help compared to patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Restricted measures of lockdown period during COVID-19 pandemic did not result in a significant reduction of QoL in our cohort of ALS patients, while caregiver burden significantly increased. ALS motor impairment may have played a role in the unchanged life conditions of patients. Instead, the restriction of family help for primary caregivers could be responsible of their increased burden, reflecting the importance of a wide social support in the management of this clinical condition.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924624

RESUMO

We describe the telemedicine experience of an Italian ALS tertiary Center during COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 144 visits were scheduled between 6th March and 6th April 2020. These mostly consisted of neurological or psychological visits (139, 96.5%). One hundred thirty-nine (96.5%) visits were performed as telemedicine and mostly via phone call (112, 80.6%). Three (2.1%) visits were considered as urgent and maintained as outpatient care. Additionally, patients were still able to telephone, being put through directly to their neurologists. Many requests of contact were addressed at getting information about the scheduled visits or examinations (45, 43.3%). Globally, patients and caregivers were satisfied with the telemedicine service. However, the majority (85, 65.9%) would prefer a face-to-face visit. In conclusion, telemedicine could be considered a good complement to face-to-face care, even after social restrictions have been eased.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , COVID-19 , Neurologia , Preferência do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Fonoterapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate and assess the reliability of the Italian version of self-administered ALSFRS-R, considering patients' clinical and cognitive features and caregiver's help. Methods: During the COVID-19 pandemic, by analyzing the results of 70 paired self-administered vs standard telephone-administered ALSFRS-R, we calculated overall score, single item scores, ALSFRS-R domain scores, King's and MiToS stage inter-rater agreement and reliability using different validated methods. We created the Italian version of self-administered ALSFRS-R following ENCALS recommendation. Results: Correlation between the two scales was 0.94 and no systematic directional bias was found. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was very high (>0.90) for the vast majority of the considered classification criteria, especially King's total score (0.96) and MiToS score (0.94). A higher ICC was found when the patients answered the questionnaire with the caregiver's help (0.95). Conclusions: Online self-administered ALSFRS-R scale is a valid tool to stratify ALS patients into clinical stages and to implement telemedicine monitoring.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Telemedicina/normas , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Telemedicina/métodos
8.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(4): 1181-1187, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose was to assess the prognostic role of neck muscle weakness at diagnosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with respect to survival and respiratory impairment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All ALS patients seen in the Turin ALS Centre from 2007 to 2014 were included. Muscle strength at diagnosis was evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Survival was considered as the time from diagnosis to death or tracheostomy; time to respiratory impairment was considered as the interval from diagnosis to the first event amongst an ALS Functional Rating Scale revised item 10 <4, forced vital capacity <70%, start of non-invasive ventilation or tracheostomy. Time from diagnosis to dysarthria, dysphagia and walking impairment were considered as secondary outcomes. Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for sex, age at diagnosis, diagnostic delay, onset site, genetics status and the MRC scores of other muscle groups were used to assess the prognostic role of neck muscles. RESULTS: A total of 370 patients were included in the study. Fifty-nine (15.9%) patients showed neck flexor weakness at diagnosis; MRC values were mostly in agreement for neck extensors. Neck flexors were the only muscles able to predict survival (hazard ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.86; p = 0.01). Furthermore, neck flexor normal strength decreased the risk of respiratory impairment (hazard ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.96; p = 0.04) but did not influence any secondary outcomes. DISCUSSION: Neck flexor weakness at diagnosis predicts survival and respiratory impairment in ALS. This result could be valuable for both planning of patients' interventions and clinical trials' design.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Insuficiência Respiratória , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Eur Neurol ; 83(6): 626-629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296894

RESUMO

Cervical spondylogenic myelopathy (CSM) represents a common differential diagnosis for spinal onset Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Identifying occurrence of ALS in patients with CSM may be challenging. We evaluated the accuracy of Awaji criteria in the diagnosis of ALS in a cohort of patients with CSM. We screened all patients attending Turin ALS Center during the 2006-2018 period. We selected only patients for whom cervical cord MRI showed radiological signs of CSM. All patients underwent electromyography (EMG), and Awaji criteria were used for diagnosis of clinically probable ALS. All patients were followed up clinically for at least 6 months, and ALS diagnosis was eventually confirmed according to El-Escorial revised criteria, based on disease progression. Of 2,059 patients screened, in 42 cases, MRI showed signs of CSM; CSM incidence and prevalence risks were 0.16 and 2.04%, respectively. Based on clinical progression, 72.7% of patients were diagnosed as CSM and 27.3% as CSM + ALS. At EMG 6 (18.2%) patients fulfilled the criteria for ALS, 5 of them (83.3%) during clinical follow-up were diagnosed as clinical definite ALS + CSM. Accuracy of Awaji criteria in diagnosing ALS was good (AUC = 0.757, p = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of Awaji criteria were, respectively, 55.6 and 95.8%. Positive predictive value was 83.3%, while negative predictive value was 85.2%. CSM-ALS comorbidity is a relatively common problem in clinical practice. To better choose patients who could benefit from surgery, EMG should be performed in CSM patients, due to its good accuracy in recognizing ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the metabolic changes related to the various levels of cognitive deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) imaging. METHODS: 274 ALS patients underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain 18F-FDG-PET at diagnosis. According to the criteria published in 2017, cognitive status was classified as ALS with normal cognition (ALS-Cn, n=132), ALS with behavioural impairment (ALS-Bi, n=66), ALS with cognitive impairment (ALS-Ci, n=30), ALS with cognitive and behavioural impairment (ALS-Cbi, n=26), ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD, n=20). We compared each group displaying some degree of cognitive and/or behavioural impairment to ALS-Cn patients, including age at PET, sex and ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised as covariates. RESULTS: We identified frontal lobe relative hypometabolism in cognitively impaired patients that resulted more extensive and significant across the continuum from ALS-Ci, through ALS-Cbi, to ALS-FTD. ALS-FTD patients also showed cerebellar relative hypermetabolism. ALS-Bi patients did not show any difference compared with ALS-Cn. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the concept that patients with cognitive impairment have a more widespread neurodegenerative process compared with patients with a pure motor disease: the more severe the cognitive impairment, the more diffuse the metabolic changes. Otherwise, metabolic changes related to pure behavioural impairment need further characterisation.

11.
Brain Sci ; 10(9)2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961718

RESUMO

(1) Background: Cognitive features of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have never been specifically analyzed according to the lateralization of motor impairment. In the present study we investigated the cognitive performances of ALS patients to describe the relationship between motor and cognitive dysfunction, according to site and side of disease onset. (2) Methods: Six-hundred and nine ALS patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation at diagnosis in Turin ALS Centre Tests included-mini-mental state examination (MMSE), frontal assessment battery (FAB), trail-making test A/B (TMT A-B), digit span forward and backward (digit span FW/digit span BW), letter fluency test (FAS), category fluency test (CAT), Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), Babcock story recall test (BSRT), Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (ROCFT), Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), Raven's coloured progressive matrices (CPM47). Cognitive performances of patients, grouped by side and site of onset, were statistically compared using z-scores, as appropriate. (3) Results: Bulbar patients and bilateral spinal onset patients (Sbil) were generally characterized by lower cognitive performances in most neuropsychological tests, when compared to patients with lateralized onset (right-side spinal onset, Sri and left-side spinal onset, Sle). Digit span backward and visual memory task (ROCFT) median z-scores were significantly higher, reflecting a better cognitive performance, in Sri patients when compared to bulbar/Sbil patients, while verbal memory tasks (RAVLT and BRST) resulted in significantly higher scores in Sle patients. Our results are in keeping with hemispheric functional lateralization of language and visuospatial abilities. (4) Conclusions: In ALS patients, as in other neurodegenerative diseases, we found a direct relationship between lateralized motor and cognitive features.

12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 27: 102312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the metabolic correlates of lifetime sport practice in ALS through brain 18F-FDG-PET. METHODS: 131 patients completed a questionnaire about lifetime exposures, including physical activity related to sports, hobbies and occupations, and underwent brain 18F-FDG-PET. Exposure to sports was expressed as MET (Metabolic Equivalent of Task). We considered only regular practice (at least 2 h/week, for at least three months). We compared brain metabolism between two groups: subjects who did not report regular sport practice during life (N-group) and patients who did (Y-group). The resulting significant clusters were used in each group as seed regions in an interregional correlation analysis (IRCA) to evaluate the impact of lifetime sport practice on brain networks typically involved by the neurodegenerative process of ALS. Each group was compared to healthy controls (HC, n = 40). RESULTS: We found a significant, relative cerebellar hypermetabolism in the N-group compared to the Y-group. The metabolism of such cerebellar cluster resulted correlated to more significant and widespread metabolic changes in areas known to be affected by ALS (i.e. frontotemporal regions and corticospinal tracts) in the N-group as compared to the Y-group, despite the same level of disability as expressed by the ALS FRS-R. Such findings resulted independent of age, sex, site of onset (bulbar/spinal), presence/absence of C9ORF72 expansion, cognitive status and physical activity related to hobbies and occupations. When compared to HC, the N-group showed more widespread metabolic changes than the Y-group in cortical regions known to be relatively hypometabolic in ALS patients as compared to HC. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that patients of the N-group might cope better with the neurodegenerative process, since they show more widespread metabolic changes as compared to the Y-group, despite the same level of disability. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to corroborate this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos
14.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(5): 994-999, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Phrenic nerve conduction study is a marker of hypoventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We aimed to evaluate its intra-rater reliability in healthy subjects and in a cohort of Primary Lateral Sclerosis (PLS) patients. METHODS: Eighteen healthy subjects and 16 PLS patients were included. All subjects underwent three phrenic nerve conduction evaluations (time interval: 1 week for healthy controls; 1 year for PLS patients). We analyzed intra-rater reliability for five parameters of the diaphragmatic motor response: latency; negative-peak duration, area and amplitude; peak-to-peak amplitude. RESULTS: Healthy subjects showed excellent inter-test reliability for most parameters (coefficients of variation <10%). In PLS patients coefficients of variation resulted <10% for latency and peak-to-peak amplitude, <20% for remaining parameters. Inter-test reliability was excellent for latency and peak-to-peak amplitude [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) > 0.9] and good for negative-peak amplitude and area (ICC 0.75 ≥ 0.9); duration was not reliable (ICC = 0.383). Negative peak and peak-to-peak amplitude had the least random error (respectively ±0.136 mV and ± 0.177 mV). All parameters showed homoscedasticity (R2 < 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Intra-rater reliability is high for phrenic nerve study, especially for latency, peak-to-peak and negative-peak amplitude. SIGNIFICANCE: Phrenic nerve conduction study is a reliable method to monitor respiratory function.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/normas , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/fisiopatologia , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Nervo Frênico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(3): 291-297, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lack of prognostic biomarkers in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) induced researchers to develop clinical evaluation tools for stratification and survival prediction. We assessed the correlation between patterns of functional involvement, considered as a cumulative number of body regions involved, and overall survival in a population-based series of patients with ALS (PARALS). METHODS: We derived the functional involvement of four body regions at diagnosis using ALSFRS-R subscores for bulbar, upper limbs, lower limbs and respiratory/thoracic regions. We analysed the effect of number of body regions involved (NBRI) at diagnosis on overall survival, adjusting for age at onset, sex, site of onset, diagnostic delay, forced vital capacity, body mass index, mutational status, cognition and comparing it with King's staging system. RESULTS: The NBRI was strongly related to survival, with a progressive increase of death/tracheostomy risk among groups (two body regions HR=1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.45, p=0007; three body regions HR=1.65, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.98, p<0.001; four body regions HR=2.68, 95% CI 2.11 to 3.39, p<0.001). Using ALSFRS-R score, the consistency between the number of regions involved and King's clinical stage at diagnosis was very high (81%). The evaluation of respiratory/thoracic region and cognition allowed to subdivide patients into different prognostic categories. Regional spreading of the disease is associated with survival, independently from the initial region involved. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of NBRI, with the inclusion of initial respiratory/thoracic involvement and cognition, can be useful in many research fields, improving the stratification of patients. Our findings highlight the importance of the spatial spreading of functional impairment in the prediction of ALS outcome.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Avaliação de Sintomas , Capacidade Vital
16.
J Headache Pain ; 19(1): 73, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic management of Chronic Migraine (CM), often associated with Medication Overuse Headache (MOH), is chiefly empirical, as no biomarker predicting or correlating with clinical efficacy is available to address therapeutic choices. The present study searched for neurophysiological correlates of Greater Occipital Nerve Block (GON-B) effects in CM. METHODS: We recruited 17 CM women, of whom 12 with MOH, and 19 healthy volunteers (HV). Patients had no preventive treatment since at least 3 months. After a 30-day baseline, they received a bilateral betamethasone-lidocaine GON-B of which the therapeutic effect was assessed 1 month later. Habituation of visual evoked potentials (VEP) and intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (IDAP) were recorded before and 1 week after the GON-B. RESULTS: At baseline, CM patients had a VEP habituation not different from HV, but a steeper IDAP value than HV (p = 0.01), suggestive of a lower serotonergic tone. GON-B significantly reduced the number of total headache days per month (- 34.9%; p = 0.003). Eight out 17CM patients reversed to episodic migraine and medication overuse resolved in 11 out of 12 patients. One week after the GON-B VEP habituation became lacking respect to baseline (p = 0.01) and to that of HV (p = 0.02) like in episodic migraine, while the IDAP slope significantly flattened (p < 0.0001). GON-B-induced reduction in headache days positively correlated with IDAP slope decrease (rho = 0.51, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: GON-B may be effective in the treatment of CM, with or without MOH. The pre-treatment IDAP increase is compatible with a weak central serotonergic tone, which is strengthened after GON-B, suggesting that serotonergic mechanisms may play a role in CM and its reversion to episodic migraine. Since the degree of post-treatment IDAP decrease is correlated with clinical improvement, IDAP might be potentially useful as an early predictor of GON-B efficacy.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo/métodos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Nervos Espinhais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Betametasona/administração & dosagem , Doença Crônica , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/terapia , Humanos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nervos Espinhais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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