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1.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101460, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide. We analysed active and latent TB infections (LTBI) from the Spanish Network for the Study of Imported Infectious Diseases by Travellers and Immigrants (+REDIVI). METHODS: Observational, retrospective, multicentre study of TB and LTBI registered in the +REDIVI network from October 2009 to December 2016. RESULTS: Of 1008 cases of LTBI, 884 (87.7%) were immigrants; 93 (4.5%), immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFR); 2 (0.9%), VFR-travellers; and 29 (1.1%), travellers. Absolute (N = 157 vs. N = 75) and relative (12.5% vs. 5.9%) frequency decreased over the study period (p = 0.003). Median time to diagnosis was 24.6 months (females 50.3 vs males 11.9; p < 0.001). Of 448 TB cases, 405 (90.4%) were in immigrants; 30 (6.7%), VFR-immigrants; 6 (1.3%), VFR-travellers; and 7 (1.6%), travellers. Median time to diagnosis was 62.5 months (females 86.6 vs males 70.1; p = 0.0075). There were 8 multidrug resistant TB cases and 1 extensively drug resistant case of TB, all in immigrants. CONCLUSION: TB was frequently diagnosed more than 5 years after arrival in Spain. Screening programmes for TB and LTBI in immigrants should be considered beyond this time point. Women showed a higher diagnostic delay for both latent and active TB.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007399, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported strongyloidiasis is increasingly being diagnosed in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with imported strongyloidiasis in Spain. METHODOLOGY: This is an observational retrospective study that included all patients diagnosed of strongyloidiasis registered in the +REDIVI Collaborative Network from 2009 to 2017. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical information was collected from the +REDIVI database, and extra information regarding microbiological techniques, treatment and follow-up was requested to participant centers. FINDINGS: Overall, 1245 cases were included. Most of them were immigrants (66.9%), and South America was the most frequent area of origin. Detection of larvae in stool samples was observed in 21.9% of the patients, and serological tests allowed making the diagnosis in the rest of the cases. Eosinophilia was present in 82.2% of cases. Treatment with ivermectin (compared with albendazole) was the most strongly associated factor to achieve the cure (OR 2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Given the long latency of the infection and the risk of developing a severe presentation, screening of S. stercoralis infection should be mandatory in patients coming from or had traveling to endemic areas, especially in those with immunosuppressant conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , América do Sul , Espanha/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloides stercoralis/fisiologia , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 29: 51-57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous growth of mobile populations has influenced the global epidemiology of infectious diseases, including chronic and acute viral hepatitis. METHOD: A prospective observational multicentre study was performed in a Spanish network of imported infections. Viral hepatitis cases from January 2009 to September 2017 were included. RESULTS: Of 14,546 records, 723 (4.97%) had imported viral hepatitis, including 48 (6.64%) acute cases and 675 (93.36%) chronic cases. Of the 48 acute cases, 31 were travellers and immigrants returning from visiting friends or relatives (VFR), while 19 (61%) were acute Hepatitis A or Hepatitis B. Only 18.2% of VFR immigrants and 35% of travellers received pre-travel advice. Acute hepatitis was more frequent in VFR immigrants (AOR 2.59, CI95% 1.20-5.60) and travellers (AOR 2.83, CI95% 1.46-5.50) than immigrants. Of the 675 Chronic cases, 570 were immigrants, and 439 (77%) had chronic Hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis was more frequent in immigrants (AOR 20.22, CI95% 11.64-35.13) and VFR immigrants (AOR 11.12, CI95% 6.20-19.94) than travellers. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic viral hepatitis was typical of immigrants, acute viral hepatitis was common among travellers, and VFR immigrants had mixed risk. Improving pre-travel consultation and screening of immigrants may contribute to preventing new cases of viral hepatitis and avoiding community transmission.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressão/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(10): 617-623, dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169560

RESUMO

Algunas enfermedades infecciosas han adquirido más relevancia por el aumento de los movimientos poblacionales. La eosinofilia es un hallazgo frecuente en inmigrantes y en viajeros. Una de las causas más frecuentes de eosinofilia es la infección por helmintos y algunos protozoos intestinales. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las características epidemiológicas de los casos con eosinofilia y su asociación con la presencia de parásitos en la red de datos REDIVI. Se trata de un estudio observacional multicéntrico prospectivo, donde se incluyen los casos diagnosticados de eosinofilia registrados en la Red cooperativa para el estudio de las infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes (+REDIVI) desde enero de 2009 hasta diciembre de 2012. Se registraron en la red un total de 5.255 episodios durante el periodo de estudio, y la eosinofilia fue un hallazgo en el 8,1 al 31,3% de los casos (dependiendo del tipo migratorio). Fueron hombres el 60,2%, con una mediana de 31,0años, inmigrantes el 72,4% y asintomáticos el 81,2%. Los parásitos más frecuentemente identificados fueron S.stercoralis(34,4%), Schistosoma sp. (11,0%) y uncinarias (8,6%). Existía asociación entre eosinofilia y presencia de parásitos para todos los helmintos (excepto para larva migrans cutánea). La sintomatología y la duración del viaje no determinaron significativamente la presencia de eosinofilia. Ante una eosinofilia en una persona que ha vivido en zonas endémicas de helmintiasis es aconsejable realizar estudios dirigidos para su diagnóstico, independientemente del tipo migratorio, la duración de la estancia o la presencia de sintomatología (AU)


The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travelers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicenter prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travelers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Viajante , Fatores de Risco , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Protocolos Clínicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Eosinofilia/microbiologia , Medicina de Viagem/normas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia
5.
Malar J ; 16(1): 407, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is a frequent diagnosis in travellers and migrants. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with imported malaria within a Spanish collaborative network registering imported diseases (+REDIVI). In addition, the possible association between malaria and type of case, gender, age or area of exposure was explored. METHODS: Cases of imported malaria were identified among all cases registered in the +REDIVI database during the period October 2009-October 2016. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics were analysed. RESULTS: In total, 11,816 cases of imported infectious diseases were registered in +REDIVI's database between October 2009 and October 2016. Immigrants seen for the first time after migration accounted for 60.2% of cases, 21.0% of patients were travellers, and 18.8% were travellers/immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). There were 850 cases of malaria (850/11,816, 7.2%). Malaria was significantly more frequent in men than in women (56.8% vs 43.2%) and in VFR-immigrants (52.6%) as compared to travellers (21.3%), immigrants (20.7%) and VFR-travellers (5.4%) (p < 0.001). Although this data was not available for most patients with malaria, only a minority (29/217, 13.4%) mentioned correct anti-malarial prophylaxis. Sub-Saharan Africa was found to be the most common region of acquisition of malaria. Most common reason for consultation after travel was a febrile syndrome although an important proportion of immigrants were asymptomatic and presented only for health screening (27.3%). Around 5% of travellers presented with severe malaria. The most prevalent species of Plasmodium diagnosed was Plasmodium falciparum (81.5%). Malaria due to Plasmodium ovale/Plasmodium vivax was frequent among travellers (17%) and nearly 5% of all malaria cases in immigrants were caused by Plasmodium malariae. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria was among the five most frequent diagnoses registered in +REDIVI's database. Some significant differences were found in the distribution of malaria according to gender, type of case, species. Among all malaria cases, the most frequent diagnosis was P. falciparum infection in VFR-immigrant men.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Viagem
6.
J Travel Med ; 24(5)2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931128

RESUMO

Background: Understanding and detecting imported diseases is a priority in the prevention and management of prevalent and emergent infectious diseases acquired abroad. The +Redivi network measures the burden of imported infections in Spain and is essential for closing the gap in travel medicine. Methods: Demographic characteristics, travel information, syndromes and confirmed travel-related diagnoses were registered in a standardised online database. Results: A total of 10 767 cases of imported infectious diseases were registered between October 2009 and December 2015. Of these, 60.8% of cases were immigrants seen for the first time after arrival, 20.6% were travellers, and 18.4% were individuals visiting friends and relatives (VFR [immigrants and travellers]). The median time between arrival and medical consultation was 5.5 years for immigrants, 2.0 weeks for travellers, 3.1 weeks for VFR-travellers and 11.4 for VFR-immigrants. The most prevalent diagnoses were Chagas disease in immigrants and nonspecific acute diarrhoea in travellers. Malaria by P. falciparum was one of the most prevalent diagnoses among VFR. More than half the travellers saw a physician before travelling, although one-third of those for whom antimalarial medication was indicated did not take their medication correctly. As for VFR, only 10.4% of VFR-immigrants and 32.5% of VFR-travellers sought pre-travel advice. Only 23 and 21%, respectively, of those for whom antimalarial prophylaxis was indicated took the medication properly. Conclusions : +Redivi provides a clear picture of the prevalence of imported infectious diseases among travellers and immigrants in Spain. The data collected could be used to improve everyday health care provided to travellers and immigrants after travel, to guide pre-travel consultations and to monitor the potential occurrence of tropical or exotic infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/etiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 30(4): 257-263, ago. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-164841

RESUMO

Background. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality among inpatients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a stewardship program on clinical and antimicrobial therapy-related outcomes in patients with bacteraemia. Methods. Single-centre, before-and-after quasi-experimental study in adult inpatients. Over 1 January 2013 to 31 June 2013 all patients aged 18 years or older with a bacteraemia (interven-tion group, N=200) were compared to a historical cohort (1 Janu-ary 2012 to 31 December 2012) (control group, N=200). Results. Following blood culture results and adjusting for potential confounders, the stewardship program was associated with more changes to antibiotic regimens (adjusted odds ratio [ORa]: 4.6, 95% CI 2.9, 7.4), more adjustments to antimicrobial therapy (ORa: 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.8), and better source control in the first five days (ORa 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7). In the subgroup that initially received inappropriate empiric treatment (n=138), the intervention was associated with more antibiotic changes (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.8, 8.5) and a better choice of definitive antimicrobial therapy (OR 2.3 95% CI: 1.2, 4.6). There were also more antibiotic changes in the subgroups with both Gram-negative (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.6, 4.9; n=217) and Gram-positive (OR: 4.6, 95% CI: 1.8, 9.9; n=135) bacteraemia among those receiving the intervention, while the Gram-positive subgroup also received more appropriate definitive antimicrobial therapy (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.8, 8.8). Conclusion. The stewardship program improved treatment of patients with bacteraemia and appropriateness of therapy (AU)


Introducción. Las bacteriemias están asociadas con una elevada morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el impacto de un programa de intervención clínica y de terapia antimicrobiana en pacientes con bacteriemia. Material. Estudio en un centro tipo cuasi-experimental pre y post-intervención en pacientes adultos hospitalizados. Desde 1 enero 2013 a 31 junio 2013, todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años en los que se identificaba una bacteriemia (grupo de intervención) se compararon con una cohorte histórica de bacteriemia (1 enero 2012 a 31 diciembre 2012) (grupo control). Resultados. Se incluyeron 200 pacientes en cada grupo. Después de ajustar por los posibles factores de confusión y tras conocer el resultado de los hemocultivos, el grupo de intervención tuvo más cambios de antibióticos (Odds ratio ajustada [ORa]: 4,6, intervalo de confianza [IC] 95%: 2,9-7,4), mayor adecuación del tratamiento antibiótico (ORa: 2,4, IC 95%: 1,5-3,8) y mayor control de la infección en los primeros cinco días (ORa 1,6, IC 95%: 1,0-2,7). En el subgrupo de pacientes que seguían un tratamiento inadecuado cuando se identificó el microorganismo en el hemocultivo (n =138), la intervención se asoció con un mayor cambio de antibiótico (OR: 3,9, IC 95%: 1,8-8,5) y una mejor elección final del antibiótico (OR: 2.3; IC 95%: 1.2-4.6). En el subgrupo de bacteriemia por gramnegativos (n=217), el programa de intervención en bacteriemia se asoció con un mayor cambio de antibiótico (OR: 2,8; IC 95%: 1,6-4,9) y en el subgrupo de bacteriemia por microorganismos grampositivos (n=135), el programa de intervención indujo un mayor cambio en el uso de antibióticos (OR: 4,6, IC 95%: 1,8-9,9) y una mejor elección final del tratamiento (OR: 3,9; 95% CI: 1,8-8,8). Conclusión. El programa de intervención en bacteriemia mejoró el tratamiento de los pacientes con bacteriemia y la adecuación del mismo (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas/métodos , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Razão de Chances , Bactérias Aeróbias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 47(8): 591-599, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is complex, and differences between HIV-infected patients and general population cannot be completely explained by the higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to analyse the association between inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV patients with low Framingham risk score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case-control study. SETTING: Outpatient Infectious Diseases clinic in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: HIV-1-infected patients aged > 35 years receiving antiretroviral treatment with viral load < 50 copies/mL and Framingham risk score < 10%. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: inflammatory diseases; dyslipidaemia requiring statins; smoking > 5 cigarettes/day; diabetes; hypertension; vascular diseases. MAIN OUTCOME: subclinical atherosclerosis determined by ultrasonography: common carotid intima-media thickness greater than 0·8 mm or carotid plaque presence. Explanatory variables: ribosomal bacterial DNA (rDNA), sCD14, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-α. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients were included, 75% male, mean age 42 years and mean CD4+ cells 657 ± 215/mm3 . Median Framingham risk score was 1% at 10 years (percentile 25-75: 0·5-4%). Eighteen patients (21%) had subclinical atherosclerosis; the associated factors were older age (P = 0·001), waist-hip ratio (P = 0·01), time from HIV diagnosis (P = 0·02), rDNA (P = 0·04) and IL-6 (P = 0·01). In multivariate analysis, OR for subclinical atherosclerosis was 7 (95% CI, 1.3-40, P = 0.02) and 9 (95% CI, 1.0-85, P = 0.04) for patients older than 44 years and IL-6 > 6·6 pg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Well-controlled HIV patients with low Framingham risk score have a high prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, and the main risk factors are age and inflammation. These patients are not receiving primary prophylaxis for cardiovascular events according to current guidelines.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/virologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral
9.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 35(10): 617-623, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032297

RESUMO

The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travellers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicentre prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travellers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Viagem , África/etnologia , Américas/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Helmintíase/sangue , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Protozoários/sangue , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 35(4): 392-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common cause of consultation about children traveling to or coming from developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal syndrome in children who travel. METHODS: A prospective observational analytical and multicenter study was performed within +Redivi, a Spanish Tropical Medicine network on imported infections, from January 2009 to December 2013. All participants aged 16 years and younger were included in the analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from all the participating centers. RESULTS: A total of 606 children ≤16 years of age were registered in the +Redivi database during the study period. Median age was 8.7 years (interquartile range, 4.4-12.4 years), 65.8% (399/606) were immigrants, 90% were >2 years old and 54% were male. Median travel duration, excluding immigrants, was 50 days (interquartile range, 30-150 days). Children with gastrointestinal symptoms represented 13.5% (82/606) of total consultations. A significant association was found in bivariate analysis between gastrointestinal disorder and age <2 years (P < 0.01) and travel duration (P = 0.046). Immigrants had less gastrointestinal disorders than tourists (P < 0.05). The most prevalent infection was protozoan in 23.4% (142/606), and Giardia intestinalis was the most common pathogen in 10.1% (61/606) of total children. Independent risk factors for gastrointestinal symptoms were tourist and traveler child visiting friends and relatives (P = 0.03), travel duration <90 days (P = 0.008) and bacterial cause (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Traveling children who developed a gastrointestinal syndrome represented 13.5% of the total pediatric consultations in +Redivi. Independent risk factors were tourist or traveler visiting friends and relatives, travel duration <90 days and bacterial infection. G. intestinalis was the most common infectious agent causing a gastrointestinal disorder in the traveler children.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Viagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 108-113, feb. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-148624

RESUMO

Introduction: The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. Results: A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV− (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV− travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P = .001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P < .001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P = .078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV− travelers the main diagnoses were “healthy” (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). Conclusions: The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening (AU)


Introducción: La mejoría en el pronóstico de la infección por el VIH, sumada al incremento de los viajes y la inmigración, han aumentado la frecuencia del binomio viajero-VIH+. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la epidemiología y hallazgos clínicos de los viajeros VIH+ en comparación con los VIH-. Métodos: Estudio observacional y prospectivo, de los viajeros e inmigrantes viajeros que se desplazan para visitar familiares y amigos (VFR) incluidos en la red +REDIVI (enero-2009; octubre-2014). +REDIVI es una red nacional que recopila información sobre infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes en 21 centros mediante un protocolo estandarizado de recogida de datos. Resultados: Se identificaron 3.464 viajeros: 72 VIH+ (2,1%) y 3.392 VIH− (98%). Los VIH+ en contraste con los VIH−, eran mayores (40 vs. 34 años; p = 0,001), predominantemente VFR (79,7% vs 44,4%. p < 0,001), y solicitan menos consejo pre-viaje (27% vs 37%. p = 0,078). Los destinos predominantes para ambos grupos fueron África Subsahariana y Latinoamérica. Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes al retorno del viaje fueron la fiebre, solicitar un examen de salud, molestias gastrointestinales, y anomalías en los resultados de laboratorio (principalmente eosinofilia y anemia) los cuales variaron según el grupo. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes en los VIH+ fueron la malaria (38,8%), nuevo diagnóstico de VIH (25%) y parasitosis intestinales (19,4%), mientras que en los sujetos VIH− los principales diagnósticos fueron “sano” (17,9%), parásitos intestinales (17,3%) y malaria (14%). Conclusiones: El perfil más común del viajero VIH+ atendido en +Redivi es el de un inmigrante VFR que no solicita consejo pre-viaje y hace viajes de alto riesgo. Esto puede suponer un mayor riesgo de adquisición de infecciones relacionadas con el viaje, las cuales en un viajero VIH+ pueden tener un efecto deletéreo adicional. La consulta tras el viaje es una buena oportunidad para el cribado de la infección por VIH (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Saúde do Viajante , Estudos Prospectivos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
12.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34(2): 108-13, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26021187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. METHODS: An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. RESULTS: A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV- (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV- travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P=.001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P<.001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P=.078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV- travelers the main diagnoses were "healthy" (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco
13.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(8): 539-542, oct. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-143287

RESUMO

Introducción: Conocer las enfermedades infecciosas (EI) que motivaron el ingreso en la población extranjera > 14 años. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de los pacientes extranjeros ingresados en el hospital (2000-2012). Resultados: Hubo 3.087 ingresos de extranjeros por EI. De ellos, el 73,6% pacientes originarios de países con recursos bajos y el 26,4% de ciudadanos nacidos en países con recursos altos. La mayoría de los ingresos (86,9%) fueron por EI comunes, el 11,8% por EI transmisibles y el 1,6% por EI tropicales. Las EI tropicales y EI transmisibles fueron más frecuentes en los pacientes de países con recursos bajos (14,7%) que en los de países con recursos altos (9,7%; p < 0,001). La principal EI tropical fue la malaria (74%). Las principales EI transmisibles fueron la tuberculosis (40,3%), hepatitis (27,7%) y la infección por el VIH/sida (27,5%). Conclusión: Las infecciones comunes fueron el principal motivo de ingreso por patología infecciosa en población extranjera (AU)


Introduction: To determine the infectious diseases (ID) that led to hospital admission of the foreign population > 14 years. Material and methods: A retrospective study of foreign patients admitted to hospital (2000-2012). Results: A total of 3,087 foreigners were admitted with infectious diseases. Of these, 73.6% were from low income countries, and 26.4% from high income countries. Most of them (86.9%) were admitted with common ID, 11.8% with transmissible ID, and 1.6% with tropical ID. Tropical ID and transmissible ID were higher in patients from low income countries (14.7%) than from high income countries (9.7%, p < 0.001). The main tropical ID was malaria (74%). The main transmissible ID were tuberculosis (40.3%), hepatitis (27.8%), and HIV/AIDS (27.5%). Conclusion: Common ID were the main reason for admission in foreign population (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatísticas Hospitalares , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Hepatite Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
14.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 33 Suppl 2: 40-6, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26320995

RESUMO

Current diagnosis of malaria is based on the combined and sequential use of rapid antigen detection tests (RDT) of Plasmodium and subsequent visualization of the parasite stained with Giemsa solution in a thin and thick blood smears. If an expert microscopist is not available, should always be a sensitive RDT to rule out infection by Plasmodium falciparum, output the result immediately and prepare thick smears (air dried) and thin extensions (fixed with methanol) for subsequent staining and review by an expert microscopist. The RDT should be used as an initial screening test, but should not replace microscopy techniques, which should be done in parallel. The diagnosis of malaria should be performed immediately after clinical suspicion. The delay in laboratory diagnosis (greater than 3 hours) should not prevent the initiation of empirical antimalarial treatment if the probability of malaria is high. If the first microscopic examination and RDT are negative, they must be repeated daily in patients with high suspicion. If suspicion remains after three negative results must be sought the opinion of an tropical diseases expert. Genomic amplification methods (PCR) are useful as confirmation of microscopic diagnosis, to characterize mixed infections undetectable by other methods, and to diagnose asymptomatic infections with submicroscopic parasitaemia.


Assuntos
Malária/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Reações Falso-Negativas , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Plasmodium/imunologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Viagem
15.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(supl.2): 40-46, jul. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-140504

RESUMO

El diagnóstico actual de la malaria se basa en el uso combinado y secuencial de los tests rápidos de detección de antígenos de Plasmodium y la visualización posterior del parásito teñido con solución de Giemsa en un frotis y una gota gruesa en muestras de sangre total capilar o venosa. Si no se dispone de un microscopista experto debe realizarse siempre un test rápido de detección de antígenos muy sensible para descartar la infección por Plasmodium falciparum, emitir inmediatamente el resultado y preparar gotas gruesas (secadas al aire) y extensiones finas (fijadas con metanol) para su posterior tinción y revisión por un microscopista experto del propio laboratorio o de un laboratorio de referencia. Los tests rápidos de detección de antígenos deben utilizarse como prueba inicial de cribado, pero no deben sustituir a las técnicas de microscopia, las cuales deben hacerse en paralelo. El diagnóstico de la malaria debe ser realizado inmediatamente tras la sospecha clínica. El retraso en el diagnóstico de laboratorio (demora mayor de 3 h) no debe impedir el inicio de tratamiento antimalárico empírico si la probabilidad de malaria es alta. Si el primer examen microscópico y el test rápido de detección de antígenos son negativos, estos deben repetirse diariamente en pacientes con alta sospecha. Si esta sospecha permanece tras 3 resultados negativos debe solicitarse la opinión de un experto en enfermedades tropicales. Los métodos de amplificación genómica (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa) son útiles como confirmación del diagnóstico microscópico, para caracterizar infecciones mixtas no detectables por otros métodos y para caracterizar infecciones asintomáticas por debajo del nivel de detección microscópica (AU)


Current diagnosis of malaria is based on the combined and sequential use of rapid antigen detection tests (RDT) of Plasmodium and subsequent visualization of the parasite stained with Giemsa solution in a thin and thick blood smears. If an expert microscopist is not available, should always be a sensitive RDT to rule out infection by Plasmodium falciparum, output the result immediately and prepare thick smears (air dried) and thin extensions (fixed with methanol) for subsequent staining and review by an expert microscopist. The RDT should be used as an initial screening test, but should not replace microscopy techniques, which should be done in parallel. The diagnosis of malaria should be performed immediately after clinical suspicion. The delay in laboratory diagnosis (greater than 3 hours) should not prevent the initiation of empirical antimalarial treatment if the probability of malaria is high. If the first microscopic examination and RDT are negative, they must be repeated daily in patients with high suspicion. If suspicion remains after three negative results must be sought the opinion of an tropical diseases expert. Genomic amplification methods (PCR) are useful as confirmation of microscopic diagnosis, to characterize mixed infections undetectable by other methods, and to diagnose asymptomatic infections with submicroscopic parasitaemia (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/microbiologia , Análise Microbiológica/métodos , Análise Microbiológica/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Microbiológicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/tendências , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/instrumentação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/microbiologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Cromatografia de Afinidade
16.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 109(7): 447-53, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26065661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to perform a serological screening for T. cruzi, Strongyloides stercoralis, HIV, human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) and syphilis in Latin American immigrants admitted to hospital in Spain. METHODS: We have carried out a cross-sectional study of Latin American immigrants admitted to the Hospital General Universitario Alicante (Spain) from June 2012 to May 2014, where screening of Chagas disease, strongyloidiasis, HTLV, HIV and syphilis was performed by serology. RESULTS: A total 180 patients were included in the study. Patients' median age was 38 years old, 123 (68.3%; 123/180) were female and 57 (31.7%; 57/180) male. Five of the 180 (2.5%) patients were positive for Chagas disease; associated with knowledge about Chagas disease (p=0.005), previous contact with patients with Chagas disease (p=0.04) and being Bolivian (p<0.001). Forty-two of the 157 (26.8%) patients were positive for Strongyloides serology; associated positively with being male (p<0.001), eosinophilia (p=0.001), hyper-IgE (p<0.001) and being Ecuadorian (p=0.001), and negatively associated with being Colombian (p=0.03). Positive serology of latent syphilis was found in 1.8% (3/171) of patients. Serology of HTLV was negative in all cases. No new cases of HIV infection were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Latin American immigrant patients admitted to hospital in Spain be screened for strongyloidiasis, Chagas disease and syphilis by serology.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doença de Chagas/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/etnologia , Humanos , América Latina/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/etnologia , Sífilis/etnologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(6): e1-e13, jun.-jul. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-142124

RESUMO

La malaria es una de las enfermedades tropicales importadas que con más frecuencia se diagnostican en nuestro país. La mortalidad en viajeros que adquieren la enfermedad oscila alrededor del 2-3%, siendo el principal factor asociado al mal pronóstico el retraso diagnóstico y del inicio del tratamiento antiparasitario. Los casos de malaria importada suelen presentarse con fiebre, cefalea y artromialgias, aunque pueden aparecer otros síntomas. El diagnóstico se debe realizar de forma urgente, a través de gota gruesa o pruebas de diagnóstico rápido, y extensión sanguínea. El tratamiento debe ser instaurado lo antes posible. En los casos de malaria grave, el uso de artemisininas intravenosas ha demostrado ser superior al uso de quinina intravenosa. En este documento se detallan las recomendaciones del grupo de expertos de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Tropical y Salud Internacional (SEMTSI) para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la malaria importada (AU)


Malaria is a common parasitic disease diagnosed in the returned traveler. Mortality in travelers with imported malaria is around 2-3%, and one of the main factors associated with poor prognosis is the delay in the diagnosis and treatment. Imported malaria cases usually present with fever, headache and myalgia, but other symptoms may appear. The diagnosis should be performed as soon as possible, using thick smear or rapid diagnostic tests, and a blood smear. Treatment should be initiated urgently. In cases of severe malaria, the use of intravenous artemisinins has proved to be superior to intravenous quinine. This document reviews the recommendations of the expert group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI) for the diagnosis and treatment of imported malaria in Spain (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/mortalidade , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Quinina/uso terapêutico , Parasitemia/microbiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Quinina/administração & dosagem , Complicações na Gravidez , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Malária Vivax , Malária Cerebral , Plasmodium ovale , Plasmodium knowlesi , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 33(8): 539-42, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25541012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To determine the infectious diseases (ID) that led to hospital admission of the foreign population>14 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of foreign patients admitted to hospital (2000-2012). RESULTS: A total of 3,087 foreigners were admitted with infectious diseases. Of these, 73.6% were from low income countries, and 26.4% from high income countries. Most of them (86.9%) were admitted with common ID, 11.8% with transmissible ID, and 1.6% with tropical ID. Tropical ID and transmissible ID were higher in patients from low income countries (14.7%) than from high income countries (9.7%, p<0.001). The main tropical ID was malaria (74%). The main transmissible ID were tuberculosis (40.3%), hepatitis (27.8%), and HIV/AIDS (27.5%). CONCLUSION: Common ID were the main reason for admission in foreign population.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/etnologia , Humanos , América Latina/etnologia , Malária/etnologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/etnologia , Infecções Urinárias/etnologia
19.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 33(6): e1-e13, 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24656967

RESUMO

Malaria is a common parasitic disease diagnosed in the returned traveler. Mortality in travelers with imported malaria is around 2-3%, and one of the main factors associated with poor prognosis is the delay in the diagnosis and treatment. Imported malaria cases usually present with fever, headache and myalgia, but other symptoms may appear. The diagnosis should be performed as soon as possible, using thick smear or rapid diagnostic tests, and a blood smear. Treatment should be initiated urgently. In cases of severe malaria, the use of intravenous artemisinins has proved to be superior to intravenous quinine. This document reviews the recommendations of the expert group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI) for the diagnosis and treatment of imported malaria in Spain.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/terapia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Parasitologia/métodos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha/epidemiologia , Viagem , Medicina Tropical
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