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1.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18418, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733594

RESUMO

Mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is higher among patients with cancer. Vaccination represents a cornerstone in overcoming the disease, and vaccine safety needs to be closely assessed. This article discusses two cases of herpes zoster (HZ) following the administration of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in patients who are long-term survivors of breast disease. HZ developed 24 days and two days after the second dose of the vaccine in women aged 81 and 61, respectively. These two patients were breast cancer operated respectively nine and 16 years before; interestingly HZ developed in the same site of previous surgical resection. The patients did not show lymphocytopenia or other signs of immunosuppression and were treated with acyclovir, resulting in the complete resolution of HZ. To our knowledge, these two patients are the first described cases of HZ reactivation following COVID-19 vaccination in cancer survivors.

2.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. RESULTS AND LIMITATION: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. CONCLUSION: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579285

RESUMO

Patients with cancer are among the most vulnerable groups of the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas vaccinations can represent a cornerstone in overcoming the pandemic itself. However, cancer patients were excluded from clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccinations, and thus the data on the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in cancer patients are limited. In this systematic review, we assessed the seroconversion rate and the safety of COVID-19 vaccinations in cancer patients. We searched a bibliographic database up until 31 July 2021. Utilizing inclusion criteria, six studies were selected and analyzed for this meta-analysis. This included 621 cancer patients and 256 controls. Results show that patients with solid tumors show adequate antibody responses (>90%), though the antibody titers were significantly lower than those of healthy controls. Similarly, a significantly lower rate of seroconversion was registered in patients with hematologic malignances. The vaccines showed a good safety profile; no grade 3-4 adverse events were registered. This review demonstrates generally high immunogenicity from COVID-19 vaccines in patients with cancer, with better results for solid tumors than hematological malignances, and with a good safety profile.

4.
Case Rep Oncol ; 13(2): 544-549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547382

RESUMO

In the case of our patient, the synergic action of endocrine therapy and chemotherapy plus dual anti-HER2 combination allowed a complete disease control. Therapy should be scheduled by considering the two cancers as individual entities. The approach to breast cancer is changing from being considered a singular disease to a multiform one, according to current research focused on biological markers such as HER2, ERs, and PRs, with important implications in clinical, prognostic, and therapeutic features.

5.
Future Oncol ; 16(20): 1425-1432, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403946

RESUMO

Background: We describe cancer patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection treated at the Piacenza's general hospital (north Italy). Materials & methods: 25 cancer patients infected by COVID-19 admitted at the Piacenza's general hospital from 21 February to 18 March 2020. Outcome from the infection were compared with infected noncancer patients. Results: 20 patients (80%) were treated with antiviral therapy and hydroxychloroquine and five (20%) received hydroxychloroquine alone. Nine (36%) patients died, while 16 (64%) overcome the infection. In the control group the mortality was 16.13% and the overcome from infection was 83.87%. Conclusion: Mortality for COVID-19 was greater in cancer patients when compared with noncancer patients, worse prognosis for older age, women and patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone. However, the comparisons did not reach statistical significance in most cases. This could be due to the small sample size that is the main limitation of the study.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Cobicistat/uso terapêutico , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Itália , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 12(5): 435-439, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257200

RESUMO

Prior research has revealed that ultrasound (US) guided central venous catheterization (CVC) is associated with a reduction in the complication rate such as pneumothorax and an improved first-pass success placing CVC in the internal jugular vein. The present study investigated if US-guided CVC, in a subset of cancer patients with severe thrombocytopenia, reduced bleeding risk and avoided prophylactic platelet transfusion. The efficacy and safety of US-guided CVC placement in cancer patients with severe thrombocytopenia was retrospectively analyzed over a period of 9 years (Dec 2000-Jan 2009), 1,660 and 207 patients with cancer underwent US-guided CVC placement into internal jugular vein respectively at the Department of Onco-Haematology, Hospital of Piacenza. The first group of patients included patients in active antitumor treatment, while the second group included patients in the palliative phase. A total of 110 (5.89%) of these 1,867 patients exhibited severe thrombocytopenia defined as platelet count ≤20x109/l, and formed the basis of this study. All procedures were evaluated for bleeding complications as defined by the National Institute of Health Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE 3.0). In the subgroup of the 110 patients with severe thrombocytopenia a single needle puncture of the vein was employed in 121 of the 122 procedures (99.18%) and no attempt failures were registered. No pneumothorax, no major bleeding and no nerve and arterial puncture were reported, only one self-limiting hematoma (0.90%) at the site of CVC insertion was reported (CTCAE 3.0 grade 1). No platelet transfusions were performed in the 110 patients, pre and post CVC placement. We believe that US-guided CVC insertion procedures into the internal jugular vein makes the difference in safety, also in thrombocytopenic patients avoiding prophylactic or post procedure platelet transfusion.

7.
Future Sci OA ; 7(1): FSO645, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are considered a highly fragile group in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. MATERIAL & METHODS: In this study, patients with COVID-19 and cancer, hospitalized in Piacenza, Italy, from 4 April to 4 May 2020 were included. Risk factors for death were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-one COVID-19 cancer patients were included, of which the median age was 71.02 years (range: 51-86) and 70.59% were male. Cancer types included gastrointestinal (25.49%), genitourinary (25.49%) and lung (23.53%). Forty-five (88.24%) patients received hydroxychloroquine-based therapy. In addition, 25 of 51 patients died (49%): 12 of 51 (23.53%) owing to cancer and 13 of 51 (25.49%) owing to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The risks for death were related to later onset of treatment for COVID-19, severe/critical COVID-19, age, elevated basal CRP and elevated lactate dehydrogenase.

9.
Anticancer Drugs ; 29(7): 705-709, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846246

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the different outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with second-line axitinib or everolimus after sunitinib. Patients treated in 16 oncological centres in Italy were included, and those receiving axitinib or everolimus from January 2013 onwards were analysed for outcomes. Descriptive statistical tests were used to highlight differences between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Data on 634 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line sunitinib have been obtained. A total of 182 patients received a second-line therapy with everolimus (79 patients, 43%) or axitinib (103 patients, 57%), respectively. The median PFS was 4.6 [95% confidence (CI): 2.6-6.5] months for patients treated with everolimus and 5.5 (95% CI: 4.3-6.7) months for patients treated with axitinib (P=0.7). The median OS was 13.9 (95% CI: 10.4-17.4) months for patients treated with everolimus and 12.0 (95% CI: 7.9-16.2) months for patients treated with axitinib (P=0.3). No differences were found based on length of first-line treatment. Major limitations are the retrospective nature of the study and the lack of a prospective evaluation of the progression. This study reports no significantly differences between everolimus and axitinib in terms of both PFS and OS. Furthermore, the length of first-line treatment cannot be used as such a predictive factor and cannot suggest the use of a molecule compared with another.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Axitinibe/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Axitinibe/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sunitinibe/administração & dosagem
10.
Support Care Cancer ; 26(9): 2945-2953, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704108

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the leading cause of death from cancer worldwide, is a debilitating disease that results in a high burden of symptoms and poor quality of life; the estimated prognosis after the diagnosis has been established was less than 1 year until some years ago. At the present, the new targeted therapies and immunotherapy are changing the course of the disease. However, advanced NSCLC remains an incurable disease, with a poor prognosis for the majority of the affected patients, so that quality of life and relief from symptoms are primary objectives of treatment. Some evidences suggest that early palliative care (EPC) for these patients can improve quality of life and even survival. DESIGN: A systematic review of the studies evaluating the impact on objective and on patient-reported outcomes of the introduction of EPC in opposition to standard care (SC), for advanced lung cancer patients, was performed. Because of the small number of studies conducted in this area, retrospective studies were also considered for the review. RESULTS: Five studies were included because they matched the inclusion criteria previously defined as relevant for the study. The review found that both survival and quality of life were better for patients included in EPC groups. CONCLUSIONS: While results of the studies included in this review are not always comparable because different methods and scales have been used, there is enough evidence for clinical oncologists to implement the use of EPC in clinical practice for advanced lung cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 17(2): 151-162, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960591

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From a theoretical viewpoint, combining molecularly targeted agents endowed with antiangiogenic properties with immunotherapy makes sense in treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC); this neoplasm is highly angiogenesis-dependent, as well as potentially immunogenic. Areas covered: The authors performed a literature search looking for clinical trials aimed at evaluating efficacy and tolerability of combinations (or sequences) of molecularly targeted agents and different immunotherapeutic approaches in metastatic RCC. Expert opinion: Combinations of molecularly targeted agents with old immunotherapeutics (i.e., cytokines) seem to add little to the presently available treatment standards (mainly monotherapy with targeted agents). Newer combinations with immune checkpoint inhibitors are promising but cumulative toxicity is an important issue, although highly dependent on the different companion drugs. Combinations with vaccines are ongoing, but first available data are not encouraging. A more thorough comprehension of the complex effects of these combinations on the immune system is mandatory to develop less empiric treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/imunologia , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Previsões , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Recenti Prog Med ; 106(8): 370-9, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228864

RESUMO

The medical treatment of renal cell carcinoma has been revolutionized in recent years, thanks to translation of our increasingly accurate knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of this tumor, and of its clear cell histology in particular, into an accelerated drug development, and then into everyday's clinical practice. In this review, starting with the pathogenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma, we shall address the results of the clinical trials that led to the registration of seven targeted agents for this disease once orphan of active treatments, taking into account the different prognostic groups in which the patients suffering from it can be divided. Finally, we shall discuss the complex and controversial issue of the ideal timing to start a systemic treatment, a critical and still highly debated topic. All major international guidelines agree on the standard first line therapeutic options, which are represented by sunitinib, bevacizumab (associated with interferon-α) and pazopanib for patients with good or intermediate risk features, and temsirolimus for poor-risk patients. All these agents proved able to prolong progression-free survival within randomized phase III trials. The use of an observation period, before starting a systemic treatment, seems also reasonable, at least in the more indolent tumors and in patients with a better prognosis, even if the topic is still controversial. Finally, the individualization of therapy and the proper conduct of the same is essential for a successful outcome of the treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
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