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1.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 40(3): 386-393, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525813

RESUMO

Placement of a chest tube drains intrapleural fluid and air. The tube should be attached to a drainage system, such as one-, two-, or three-compartment devices, a one-way (Heimlich) valve for ambulatory drainage, a digital system, or a vacuum bottle. The frequently employed three-compartment systems, currently integrated disposable units, allow adjustment of negative pressure or no suction (water seal), and include an air leak meter on the water seal chamber to be used for demonstrating and quantifying air leak. These readings are subjective and prone to interobserver variability. Digital pleural drainage systems offer the benefits of quantification of any air leak and pleural pressure. Indwelling pleural catheters, typically utilized for malignant pleural effusion, can be drained using vacuum bottles. Knowledge of the design and functionality of each device in the setting of an individual patient's specific pleural process facilitates the selection of practical and financially prudent chest tube drainage strategies.

2.
Lung ; 197(5): 627-633, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Air leaks are common after lobectomy, segmentectomy, and lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). This can increase post-operative morbidity, cost, and hospital length of stay. The management of post-pulmonary resection air leaks remains challenging. Minimally invasive effective interventions are necessary. The Spiration Valve System (SVS, Olympus/Spiration Inc., Redmond, WA, US) is approved by the FDA under humanitarian use exemption for management of prolonged air leaks. METHODS: This is a prospective multicenter registry of 39 patients with air leaks after lobectomy, segmentectomy, and LVRS managed with an intention to use bronchoscopic SVS to resolve air leaks. RESULTS: Bronchoscopic SVS placement was feasible in 82.1% of patients (32/39 patients) and 90 valves were placed with a median of 2 valves per patient (mean of 2.7 ± 1.5 valves, range of 1 to 7 valves). Positive response to SVS placement was documented in 76.9% of all patients (30/39 patients) and in 93.8% of patients when SVS placement was feasible (30/32 patients). Air leaks ultimately resolved when SVS placement was feasible in 87.5% of patients (28/32 patients), after a median of 2.5 days (mean ± SD of 8.9 ± 12.4 days). Considering all patients with an intention to treat analysis, bronchoscopic SVS procedure likely contributed to resolution of air leaks in 71.8% of patients (28/39 patients). The post-procedure median hospital stay was 4 days (mean 6.0 ± 6.1 days). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective registry adds to the growing body of literature supporting feasible and effective management of air leaks utilizing one-way valves.

3.
Comput Biol Med ; 112: 103361, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362107

RESUMO

The staging of the central-chest lymph nodes is a major lung-cancer management procedure. To perform a staging procedure, the physician first uses a patient's 3D X-ray computed-tomography (CT) chest scan to interactively plan airway routes leading to selected target lymph nodes. Next, using an integrated EBUS bronchoscope (EBUS = endobronchial ultrasound), the physician uses videobronchoscopy to navigate through the airways toward a target node's general vicinity and then invokes EBUS to localize the node for biopsy. Unfortunately, during the procedure, the physician has difficulty in translating the preplanned airway routes into safe, effective biopsy sites. We propose an automatic route-planning method for EBUS bronchoscopy that gives optimal localization of safe, effective nodal biopsy sites. To run the method, a 3D chest model is first computed from a patient's chest CT scan. Next, an optimization method derives feasible airway routes that enables maximal tissue sampling of target lymph nodes while safely avoiding major blood vessels. In a lung-cancer patient study entailing 31 nodes (long axis range: [9.0 mm, 44.5 mm]), 25/31 nodes yielded safe airway routes having an optimal tissue sample size = 8.4 mm (range: [1.0 mm, 18.6 mm]) and sample adequacy = 0.42 (range: [0.05, 0.93]). Quantitative results indicate that the method potentially enables successful biopsies in essentially 100% of selected lymph nodes versus the 70-94% success rate of other approaches. The method also potentially facilitates adequate tissue biopsies for nearly 100% of selected nodes, as opposed to the 55-77% tissue adequacy rates of standard methods. The remaining nodes did not yield a safe route within the preset safety-margin constraints, with 3 nodes never yielding a route even under the most lenient safety-margin conditions. Thus, the method not only helps determine effective airway routes and expected sample quality for nodal biopsy, but it also helps point out situations where biopsy may not be advisable. We also demonstrate the methodology in an image-guided EBUS bronchoscopy system, used successfully in live lung-cancer patient studies. During a live procedure, the method provides dynamic real-time sample size visualization in an enhanced virtual bronchoscopy viewer. In this way, the physician vividly sees the most promising biopsy sites along the airway walls as the bronchoscope moves through the airways.

4.
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs ; 36(6): 402-412, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046569

RESUMO

Due to the complexity of cancer late effects, the education required to provide anticipatory guidance and support to the caregivers of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood brain tumors can be difficult. Therefore, identifying challenges to family management (FM) could be helpful in anticipating complications with the integration of tumor and treatment late effects into family life. Building on previous research that described FM for children with chronic conditions, children who survived cancer, and the Family Management Styles Framework, the purpose of this study was to identify FM challenges for caregivers of AYA survivors of childhood brain tumors to guide clinical practice and research. Directed content analysis was used to identify FM challenges in data from semistructured interviews with 45 maternal caregivers for AYA survivors of childhood brain tumors living with them. Caregivers were largely White (89%) with an average age of 52 years, educated beyond the high school level (67%), and were partnered or married (53%). On average, caregivers had been caring for the AYA for 21 years since diagnosis, and 56% of their survivors had moderate functional restrictions. A primary and a secondary analyst were assigned to the data for each interview and completed a single summary matrix. A list of challenges was created by the research team based on Family Management Styles Framework, the literature, and clinical expertise. Seven core challenges to FM were identified: ensuring survivor well-being, supporting survivor independence, encouraging sibling well-being, planning family activities, sustaining parents as caregivers, attending to survivor late effects, and providing support and advocacy.

5.
Respirology ; 24(5): 453-458, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous lung biopsy for diagnostic sampling of peripheral lung nodules has been widely performed by interventional radiologists under computed tomography (CT) guidance. New technology allows pulmonologists to perform percutaneous lung biopsies using electromagnetic (EM) guided technology. With the adoption of this new technique, the safety, feasibility and diagnostic yield need to be explored. The goal of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility and diagnostic yield of EM-guided percutaneous lung biopsy performed by pulmonologists. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicentre study of 129 EM-guided percutaneous lung biopsies that occurred between November 2013 and March 2017. The study consisted of seven academic and three community medical centres. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 65.6 years, BMI was 26.3 and 50.4% were females. The majority of lesions were in the right upper lobe (37.2%) and left upper lobe (31.8%). The mean size of the lesions was 27.31 mm and the average distance from the pleura was 13.2 mm. Practitioners averaged two fine-needle aspirates and five core biopsies per procedure. There were 23 (17.8%) pneumothoraces, of which 16 (12.4%) received small-bore chest tube placement. The diagnostic yield of percutaneous lung biopsy was 73.7%. When EM-guided bronchoscopic sampling was also performed during the same procedural encounter, the overall diagnostic yield increased to 81.1%. CONCLUSION: In this large multicentred series, the use of EM guidance for percutaneous lung biopsies was safe and feasible, with acceptable diagnostic yield in the hands of pulmonologists. A prospective multicentre trial to validate these findings is currently underway (NCT03338049).

6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 103, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis and COPD are systemic inflammatory diseases that share common risk factors including cigarette smoking. A high level of nicotine dependence is emerging as a recently identified risk factor for pulmonary impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tobacco-related cancers. We hypothesized that nicotine dependence is associated with the risk of atherosclerosis in long-term cigarette smokers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial- American College of Radiology Imaging Network. Cases were defined as having a new diagnosis of any type of atherosclerosis. Controls were matched on a 2:1 basis by age, sex, race, study center, smoking status, years of smoking, and frequency of smoking. Dependence was measured by the time to first cigarette after awakening (TTFC). RESULTS: The study included 166 cases and 286 controls. Compared to participants who smoked within 5 min after waking, the risk of atherosclerosis for participants who smoked an hour or more after waking was borderline non-significant (odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.23, 1.00). Findings were similar for men and women. For aortic atherosclerosis, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.24 (95% CI 0.08, 0.69). Hypertension was associated with an increased risk and body mass index was associated with a decreased risk of aortic atherosclerosis. The TTFC was unrelated to coronary atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to smoking immediately after waking, delaying an hour or more reduces the risk of aortic atherosclerosis even among long-term heavy smokers. Possible mechanisms that explain this association are intensity of smoking, inflammation and oxidative stress, and elevated lipid levels.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Fam Psychol ; 32(3): 321-332, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698006

RESUMO

Little is known about how families systemically incorporate the work of caring for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood brain tumors who often remain dependent on their families well into adulthood. The primary aim of this study was to develop a typology of family management (FM) patterns for AYA survivors. The secondary aims were to compare them with FM patterns previously described for children with chronic health conditions and to validate the patterns using quantitative and qualitative data. Guided by the Family Management Styles Framework, a sequential, mixed-methods design was used to gather quantitative data from 186 mothers (primary caregivers) and 134 AYA survivors. FM patterns (family focused; somewhat family focused; somewhat condition focused; and condition focused) were identified using cluster analysis of data from the Family Management Measure. FM patterns were found to be similar to those for children with chronic health physical conditions and were significantly related to maternal quality of life, survivor quality of life (health-related quality of life [self- and mother proxy report]), cancer-related variables (treatment intensity, medical late effects), and family functioning in theoretically meaningfully ways. Significant demographic characteristics included private insurance and AYA survivors' engagement in school or employment. Qualitative analysis of data from 45 interviews with mothers from the larger sample provided additional support for and elaborated descriptions of FM patterns. Identification of FM patterns moves the science of family caregiving forward by aggregating data into a conceptually based typology, thereby taking into account the complex intersection of the condition, the family, and condition management. (PsycINFO Database Record

8.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 63(7): 1426-39, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26529748

RESUMO

Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is now commonly used for cancer-staging bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, EBUS is challenging to use and interpreting EBUS video sequences is difficult. Other ultrasound imaging domains, hampered by related difficulties, have benefited from computer-based image-segmentation methods. Yet, so far, no such methods have been proposed for EBUS. We propose image-segmentation methods for 2-D EBUS frames and 3-D EBUS sequences. Our 2-D method adapts the fast-marching level-set process, anisotropic diffusion, and region growing to the problem of segmenting 2-D EBUS frames. Our 3-D method builds upon the 2-D method while also incorporating the geodesic level-set process for segmenting EBUS sequences. Tests with lung-cancer patient data showed that the methods ran fully automatically for nearly 80% of test cases. For the remaining cases, the only user-interaction required was the selection of a seed point. When compared to ground-truth segmentations, the 2-D method achieved an overall Dice index = 90.0% ±4.9%, while the 3-D method achieved an overall Dice index = 83.9 ± 6.0%. In addition, the computation time (2-D, 0.070 s/frame; 3-D, 0.088 s/frame) was two orders of magnitude faster than interactive contour definition. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of the methods for EBUS localization in a multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy system.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 193(1): 68-77, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367186

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Advanced bronchoscopy techniques such as electromagnetic navigation (EMN) have been studied in clinical trials, but there are no randomized studies comparing EMN with standard bronchoscopy. OBJECTIVES: To measure and identify the determinants of diagnostic yield for bronchoscopy in patients with peripheral lung lesions. Secondary outcomes included diagnostic yield of different sampling techniques, complications, and practice pattern variations. METHODS: We used the AQuIRE (ACCP Quality Improvement Registry, Evaluation, and Education) registry to conduct a multicenter study of consecutive patients who underwent transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) for evaluation of peripheral lesions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen centers with 22 physicians enrolled 581 patients. Of the 581 patients, 312 (53.7%) had a diagnostic bronchoscopy. Unadjusted for other factors, the diagnostic yield was 63.7% when no radial endobronchial ultrasound (r-EBUS) and no EMN were used, 57.0% with r-EBUS alone, 38.5% with EMN alone, and 47.1% with EMN combined with r-EBUS. In multivariate analysis, peripheral transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), larger lesion size, nonupper lobe location, and tobacco use were associated with increased diagnostic yield, whereas EMN was associated with lower diagnostic yield. Peripheral TBNA was used in 16.4% of cases. TBNA was diagnostic, whereas TBBx was nondiagnostic in 9.5% of cases in which both were performed. Complications occurred in 13 (2.2%) patients, and pneumothorax occurred in 10 (1.7%) patients. There were significant differences between centers and physicians in terms of case selection, sampling methods, and anesthesia. Medical center diagnostic yields ranged from 33 to 73% (P = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral TBNA improved diagnostic yield for peripheral lesions but was underused. The diagnostic yields of EMN and r-EBUS were lower than expected, even after adjustment.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/estatística & dados numéricos , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 100(4): 1181-6, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26219689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged air leaks may result in increased morbidity and mortality. Endobronchial valves have been used as a nonoperative treatment. We evaluated the efficacy of endobronchial valves at achieving chest tube removal and hospital discharge for air leaks resulting from varied etiologies. METHODS: All consecutive patients undergoing endobronchial valve placement for persistent air leak were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team at a single institution. Those receiving valves underwent bronchoscopy with balloon occlusion to identify airways contributing to the leak. After airway sizing, unidirectional endobronchial valves were deployed. RESULTS: During an 18-month period, 21 patients underwent 24 valve placement procedures; 88 valves were placed (median, 3; mean, 3.6; range, 1 to 12). Patient age range was 16 months to 70 years. The underlying cause of persistent air leak was postoperative (n = 8), pneumothorax (n = 11), cavitary lung infection (n = 3), and postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula (n = 2). There were no valve-related complications during placement, dwell time, or removal. Three patients died as a result of their underlying disease, unrelated to valves. Of those with chest tubes who survived and were discharged, all had successful removal of their chest tubes. Median duration to chest tube removal after initial valve placement was 15 days (mean, 21 days; range, 0 to 86 days). Median length of stay after final valve placement was 5 days (mean, 15 days; range, 0 to 196 days). CONCLUSIONS: Challenging air leaks often occur in medically compromised patients. They may persist despite multiple interventions. Endobronchial valves offer minimally invasive management. Time to chest tube removal and length of stay are variable, frequently because of clinical status and underlying disease.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Próteses e Implantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Broncoscopia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Implantação de Prótese , Fístula do Sistema Respiratório/terapia , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Proteomics ; 15(18): 3267-77, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26058877

RESUMO

Biomarkers to identify subjects at high-risk for developing lung cancer will revolutionize the disease outlook. Most biomarker studies have focused on patients already diagnosed with lung cancer and in most cases the disease is often advanced and incurable. The objective of this study was to use proteomics to identify a plasma biomarker for early detection of lung lesions that may subsequently be the harbinger for cancer. Plasma samples were obtained from subjects without lung cancer grouped as never, current, or ex-smokers. An iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was performed on these pooled plasma samples. We identified 31 proteins differentially abundant in current smokers or ex-smokers relative to never smokers. Western blot and ELISA analyses confirmed the iTRAQ results that demonstrated an increase of apolipoprotein E (APOE) in current smokers as compared to both never and ex-smokers. There was a strong and significant correlation of the plasma APOE levels with development of premalignant squamous metaplasia. Additionally, we also showed that higher tissue levels of APOE are seen with squamous metaplasia, supporting a direct relationship. Our analysis reveals that elevated plasma APOE is associated with smoking, and APOE is a novel predictive protein biomarker for early morphological changes of squamous metaplasia in the lung.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Pulmão/patologia , Metaplasia/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Masculino , Metaplasia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica/métodos , Curva ROC , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Surg ; 15: 42, 2015 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25881169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous drainage of infected intraabdominal fluid collections is preferred over surgical drainage due to lower morbidity and costs. However, it can be a challenging procedure and catheter insertion carries the potential to contaminate the pleural space from the abdomen. This retrospective analysis demonstrates the clinical and radiographic correlation between percutaneous drainage of infected intraabdominal collections and the development of iatrogenic pleural space infections. METHODS: A retrospective single institution analysis of 550 consecutive percutaneous drainage procedures for intraabdominal fluid collections was performed over 24 months. Patient charts and imaging were reviewed with regard to pleural space infections that were attributed to percutaneous drain placements. Institutional review board approval was obtained for conduct of the study. RESULTS: 6/550 (1.1%) patients developed iatrogenic pleural space infections after percutaneous drainage of intraabdominal fluid collections. All 6 patients presented with respiratory symptoms and required pleural space drainage (either by needle aspiration or chest tube placement), 2 received intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy and 1 patient had to undergo surgical drainage. Pleural effusion cultures revealed same bacteria in both intraabdominal and pleural fluid in 3 (50%) cases. A video with a dynamic radiographic sequence demonstrating the contamination of the pleural space from percutaneous drainage of an infected intraabdominal collection is included. CONCLUSIONS: Iatrogenic pleural space infections after percutaneous drainage of intraabdominal fluid collections occur at a low incidence, but the pleural empyema can be progressive requiring prompt chest tube drainage, intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy or even surgery. Expertise in intraabdominal drain placements, awareness and early recognition of this complication is critical to minimize incidence, morbidity and mortality in these patients.


Assuntos
Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Empiema Pleural/microbiologia , Empiema Pleural/terapia , Derrame Pleural/microbiologia , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 91(4): 765-73, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25752390

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with N2 involvement. We investigated the relationship between nodal stage and local-regional recurrence (LR), distant recurrence (DR) and overall survival (OS) for patients having an R0 resection. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A multi-institutional database of consecutive patients undergoing R0 resection for stage I-IIIA NSCLC from 1995 to 2008 was used. Patients receiving any radiation therapy before relapse were excluded. A total of 1241, 202, and 125 patients were identified with N0, N1, and N2 involvement, respectively; 161 patients received chemotherapy. Cumulative incidence rates were calculated for LR and DR as first sites of failure, and Kaplan-Meier estimates were made for OS. Competing risk analysis and proportional hazards models were used to examine LR, DR, and OS. Independent variables included age, sex, surgical procedure, extent of lymph node sampling, histology, lymphatic or vascular invasion, tumor size, tumor grade, chemotherapy, nodal stage, and visceral pleural invasion. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 28.7 months. Patients with N1 or N2 nodal stage had rates of LR similar to those of patients with N0 disease, but were at significantly increased risk for both DR (N1, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-2.59; P=.001; N2, HR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.55-3.48; P<.001) and death (N1, HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81; P<.001; N2, HR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.78-3.04; P<.001). LR was associated with squamous histology, visceral pleural involvement, tumor size, age, wedge resection, and segmentectomy. The most frequent site of LR was the mediastinum. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation demonstrated that nodal stage is directly associated with DR and OS but not with LR. Thus, even some patients with, N0-N1 disease are at relatively high risk of local recurrence. Prospective identification of risk factors for local recurrence may aid in selecting an appropriate population for further study of postoperative radiation therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Linfonodos/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Chest ; 148(2): 450-471, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25741903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are significant variations in how therapeutic bronchoscopy for malignant airway obstruction is performed. Relatively few studies have compared how these approaches affect the incidence of complications. METHODS: We used the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Quality Improvement Registry, Evaluation, and Education (AQuIRE) program registry to conduct a multicenter study of patients undergoing therapeutic bronchoscopy for malignant central airway obstruction. The primary outcome was the incidence of complications. Secondary outcomes were incidence of bleeding, hypoxemia, respiratory failure, adverse events, escalation in level of care, and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Fifteen centers performed 1,115 procedures on 947 patients. There were significant differences among centers in the type of anesthesia (moderate vs deep or general anesthesia, P < .001), use of rigid bronchoscopy (P < .001), type of ventilation (jet vs volume cycled, P < .001), and frequency of stent use (P < .001). The overall complication rate was 3.9%, but significant variation was found among centers (range, 0.9%-11.7%; P = .002). Risk factors for complications were urgent and emergent procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score > 3, redo therapeutic bronchoscopy, and moderate sedation. The 30-day mortality was 14.8%; mortality varied among centers (range, 7.7%-20.2%, P = .02). Risk factors for 30-day mortality included Zubrod score > 1, ASA score > 3, intrinsic or mixed obstruction, and stent placement. CONCLUSIONS: Use of moderate sedation and stents varies significantly among centers. These factors are associated with increased complications and 30-day mortality, respectively.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Anestesia Geral , Broncoscopia/métodos , Sedação Consciente , Sedação Profunda , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Stents
16.
J Pediatr Surg ; 50(1): 82-5, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25598099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In children, persistent air leaks can result from pulmonary infection or barotrauma. Management strategies include surgery, prolonged pleural drainage, ventilator manipulation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We report the use of endobronchial valve placement as an effective minimally invasive intervention for persistent air leaks in children. METHODS: Children with refractory prolonged air leaks were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team (pediatric surgery, interventional pulmonology, pediatric intensive care, and thoracic surgery) for endobronchial valve placement. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed, and air leak location was isolated with balloon occlusion. Retrievable one-way endobronchial valves were placed. RESULTS: Four children (16 months to 16 years) had prolonged air leaks following necrotizing pneumonia (2), lobectomy (1), and pneumatocele (1). Patients had 1-4 valves placed. Average time to air leak resolution was 12 days (range 0-39). Average duration to chest tube removal was 25 days (range 7-39). All four children had complete resolution of air leaks. All were discharged from the hospital. None required additional surgical interventions. CONCLUSION: Endobronchial valve placement for prolonged air leaks owing to a variety of etiologies was effective in these children for treating air leaks, and their use may result in resolution of fistulae and avoidance of the morbidity of pulmonary surgery.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/terapia , Doenças Pleurais/terapia , Fístula do Sistema Respiratório/terapia , Adolescente , Broncoscopia/métodos , Tubos Torácicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Respiração Artificial
17.
Chest ; 147(5): 1282-1298, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25358019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is significant variation between physicians in terms of how they perform therapeutic bronchoscopy, but there are few data on whether these differences impact effectiveness. METHODS: This was a multicenter registry study of patients undergoing therapeutic bronchoscopy for malignant central airway obstruction. The primary outcome was technical success, defined as reopening the airway lumen to > 50% of normal. Secondary outcomes were dyspnea as measured by the Borg score and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as measured by the SF-6D. RESULTS: Fifteen centers performed 1,115 procedures on 947 patients. Technical success was achieved in 93% of procedures. Center success rates ranged from 90% to 98% (P = .02). Endobronchial obstruction and stent placement were associated with success, whereas American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score > 3, renal failure, primary lung cancer, left mainstem disease, and tracheoesophageal fistula were associated with failure. Clinically significant improvements in dyspnea occurred in 90 of 187 patients measured (48%). Greater baseline dyspnea was associated with greater improvements in dyspnea, whereas smoking, having multiple cancers, and lobar obstruction were associated with smaller improvements. Clinically significant improvements in HRQOL occurred in 76 of 183 patients measured (42%). Greater baseline dyspnea was associated with greater improvements in HRQOL, and lobar obstruction was associated with smaller improvements. CONCLUSIONS: Technical success rates were high overall, with the highest success rates associated with stent placement and endobronchial obstruction. Therapeutic bronchoscopy should not be withheld from patients based solely on an assessment of risk, since patients with the most dyspnea and lowest functional status benefitted the most.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Broncoscopia , Dispneia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/complicações , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão
18.
Respir Care ; 60(3): e46-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25336533

RESUMO

The development of a persistent air leak after pneumothorax can be encountered in patients with underlying structural lung disease. In those with advanced malignancy or other comorbidities, the ability to tolerate general anesthesia and thoracoscopic procedures may limit definitive management. We describe the case of a 68-y-old male with refractory acute myelogenous leukemia presenting with recurrent secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and persistent air leak related to an underlying fungal pneumonia. Endobronchial valve placement allowed for timely chest tube removal and discharge from the hospital, as well as avoidance of a thoracoscopic procedure and pleurodesis.


Assuntos
Brônquios/cirurgia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Próteses e Implantes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Recidiva , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Front Oncol ; 4: 37, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24639950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated that screening for lung cancer improved overall survival (OS) and reduced lung cancer mortality in the 55- to 74-year-old age group by increasing the proportion of cancers detected at an early stage. Because of the increasing life expectancy of the American population, we investigated whether screening for lung cancer might benefit men and women aged 75-84 years. MATERIALS/METHODS: Rates of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from 2000 to 2009 were calculated in both younger and older age groups using the surveillance epidemiology and end reporting database. OS and lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) in patients with Stage I NSCLC diagnosed from 2004 to 2009 were analyzed to determine the effects of age and treatment. RESULTS: The per capita incidence of NSCLC decreased in the 55-74 cohort, but increased in the 75-84 cohort over the study period. Crude lung cancer death rates in the two age groups who had no specific treatment were 39.5 and 44.9%, respectively. These rates fell in both age groups when increasingly aggressive treatment was used. Rates of OS and LCSS improved significantly with increasingly aggressive treatment in the 75-84 age group. The survival benefits of increasingly aggressive treatment in 75- to 84-year-old females did not differ from their counterparts in the younger cohort. CONCLUSION: Screening for lung cancer might be of benefit to individuals at increased risk of lung cancer in the 75-84 age group. The survival benefits of aggressive therapy are similar in females between 55-74 and 75-84 years old.

20.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 49(8): 807-15, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24039186

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy and mediastinal masses in the pediatric population often presents a diagnostic challenge. With limited minimally invasive methodologies to obtain a diagnosis, invasive sampling via mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy is often pursued. Endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive, outpatient procedure that has demonstrated significant success in the adult population in the evaluation of such abnormalities. Within the pediatric literature there is limited data regarding the use of EBUS-TBNA. We report the first multicenter review of a pediatric population undergoing EBUS-TBNA procedures identifying the feasibility, safety, utility, and outcomes of this procedure. METHODS: All patients of 18 years of age or younger undergoing EBUS-TBNA at six major academic medical centers from the years 2007 through 2013 were reviewed. Data regarding procedural performance, outcomes, and complications were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were identified in six centers. The mean age of the cohort was 13.7 (±4.1) years. EBUS-TBNA provided adequate sampling in 20/21 (95%) of the cases with diagnostic material obtained in 10 (48%) cases. Eight patients (38%) underwent additional surgical procedures to confirm or obtain diagnostic tissue. Within our cohort, 13 patients (62%) were able to avoid invasive surgical biopsy procedures. No procedural or anesthesia related complications were identified. CONCLUSION: We report the first multicenter study to date confirming the feasibility and utility of EBUS-TBNA in the pediatric population. Due to the low overall procedural risk of EBUS-TBNA, it should be considered as a potential first line diagnostic option for children presenting with mediastinal or hilar abnormalities but further prospective studies are needed.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/métodos , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Pneumopatias/patologia , Doenças Linfáticas/patologia , Doenças do Mediastino/patologia , Adolescente , Broncoscopia/instrumentação , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/instrumentação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfoma/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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