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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(6): 1315-1324, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are often considered a single ethnic group, they represent a heterogenous mixture of ancestries who can self-identify as any race defined by the U.S. Census. They have higher ESKD incidence compared with non-Hispanics, but little is known about the CKD incidence in this population. METHODS: We examined rates and risk factors of new-onset CKD using data from 8774 adults in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Incident CKD was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with eGFR decline ≥1 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, or urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Rates and incidence rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance while accounting for the study's complex design. RESULTS: Mean age was 40.3 years at baseline and 51.6% were women. In 5.9 years of follow-up, 648 participants developed CKD (10.6 per 1000 person-years). The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates ranged from 6.6 (other Hispanic/mixed background) to 15.0 (Puerto Ricans) per 1000 person-years. Compared with Mexican background, Puerto Rican background was associated with 79% increased risk for incident CKD (incidence rate ratios, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 2.40), which was accounted for by differences in sociodemographics, acculturation, and clinical characteristics. In multivariable regression analysis, predictors of incident CKD included BP >140/90 mm Hg, higher glycated hemoglobin, lower baseline eGFR, and higher baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio. CONCLUSIONS: CKD incidence varies by Hispanic/Latino heritage and this disparity may be in part attributed to differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Culturally tailored public heath interventions focusing on the prevention and control of risk factors might ameliorate the CKD burden in this population.

2.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(5): 846-853, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residual kidney function (RKF) is thought to exert beneficial effects through clearance of uremic toxins. However, the level of native kidney function where clearance becomes negligible is not known. METHODS: We aimed to assess whether levels of nonurea solutes differed among patients with 'clinically negligible' RKF compared with those with no RKF. The hemodialysis study excluded patients with urinary urea clearance >1.5 mL/min, below which RKF was considered to be 'clinically negligible'. We measured eight nonurea solutes from 1280 patients participating in this study and calculated the relative difference in solute levels among patients with and without RKF based on measured urinary urea clearance. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 57 years and 57% were female. At baseline, 34% of the included participants had clinically negligible RKF (mean 0.7 ± 0.4 mL/min) and 66% had no RKF. Seven of the eight nonurea solute levels measured were significantly lower in patients with RKF than in those without RKF, ranging from -24% [95% confidence interval (CI) -31 to -16] for hippurate, -7% (-14 to -1) for trimethylamine-N-oxide and -4% (-6 to -1) for asymmetric dimethylarginine. The effect of RKF on plasma levels was comparable or more pronounced than that achieved with a 31% higher dialysis dose (spKt/Vurea 1.7 versus 1.3). Preserved RKF at 1-year follow-up was associated with a lower risk of cardiac death and first cardiovascular event. CONCLUSIONS: Even at very low levels, RKF is not 'negligible', as it continues to provide nonurea solute clearance. Management of patients with RKF should consider these differences.

4.
BMC Nephrol ; 18(1): 216, 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. CASE PRESENTATION: From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. CONCLUSIONS: An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.


Assuntos
Hemodiálise no Domicílio/métodos , Rim/fisiologia , Soluções para Diálise/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Semin Dial ; 30(3): 241-245, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264139

RESUMO

The association of residual kidney function (RKF) with improved outcomes in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients is now widely recognized. RKF provides substantial volume and solute clearance even after dialysis initiation. In particular, RKF provides clearance of nonurea solutes, many of which are potential uremic toxins and not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis. The presence of RKF provides a distinct advantage to incident dialysis patients and is an opportunity for nephrologists to individualize dialysis treatments tailored to their patients' unique solute, volume, and quality of life needs. The benefits of RKF present the opportunity to personalize the management of uremia.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Diálise Renal , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico
7.
Clin Transplant ; 30(9): 1090-6, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327448

RESUMO

Mineral and bone disorders that precede kidney transplantation are exacerbated in the post-transplant setting by tertiary hyperparathyroidism and immunosuppressive regimens. Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases following transplantation, leading to increased fracture risk. The effect of bisphosphonates on fracture is unknown. The aim of this study was to update estimates of change in BMD and fracture rates in bisphosphonate-treated kidney transplant recipients through meta-analysis. Studies comparing bisphosphonate therapy to standard of care were included if follow-up duration was more than 6 months. We performed random-effects meta-analysis to determine the effect of bisphosphonates on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and fracture rates. Bisphosphonates improved femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD compared with controls (0.055 g/cm(2) , 95% CI 0.012-0.099 and 0.053 g/cm(2) , 95% CI 0.032-0.074, respectively) without adversely affecting serum creatinine or calcium. This corresponded to an unweighted improvement in BMD of 6.0% and 7.4%, respectively. There was no difference in fracture incidence in the two groups. Bisphosphonate therapy in kidney transplant recipients is associated with a statistically significant improvement in BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. There was no difference in fracture incidence. Bisphosphonates did not adversely affect allograft dysfunction or serum calcium levels.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplantados , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos
8.
World J Nephrol ; 5(2): 166-71, 2016 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26981441

RESUMO

The use of cooled dialysate temperatures first came about in the early 1980s as a way to curb the incidence of intradialytic hypotension (IDH). IDH was then, and it remains today, the most common complication affecting chronic hemodialysis patients. It decreases quality of life on dialysis and is an independent risk factor for mortality. Cooling dialysate was first employed as a technique to incite peripheral vasoconstriction on dialysis and in turn reduce the incidence of intradialytic hypotension. Although it has become a common practice amongst in-center hemodialysis units, cooled dialysate results in up to 70% of patients feeling cold while on dialysis and some even experience shivering. Over the years, various studies have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cooled dialysate in comparison to a standard, more thermoneutral dialysate temperature of 37 °C. Although these studies are limited by small sample size, they are promising in many aspects. They demonstrated that cooled dialysis is safe and equally efficacious as thermoneutral dialysis. Although patients report feeling cold on dialysis, they also report increased energy and an improvement in their overall health following cooled dialysis. They established that cooling dialysate temperatures improves hemodynamic tolerability during and after hemodialysis, even in patients prone to IDH, and does so without adversely affecting dialysis adequacy. Cooled dialysis also reduces the incidence of IDH and has a protective effect over major organs including the heart and brain. Finally, it is an inexpensive measure that decreases economic burden by reducing necessary nursing intervention for issues that arise on hemodialysis such as IDH. Before cooled dialysate becomes standard of care for patients on chronic hemodialysis, larger studies with longer follow-up periods will need to take place to confirm the encouraging outcomes mentioned here.

9.
Case Rep Nephrol ; 2014: 128145, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25215251

RESUMO

Acute ethylene glycol ingestion classically presents with high anion gap acidosis, elevated osmolar gap, altered mental status, and acute renal failure. However, chronic ingestion of ethylene glycol is a challenging diagnosis that can present as acute kidney injury with subtle physical findings and without the classic metabolic derangements. We present a case of chronic ethylene glycol ingestion in a patient who presented with acute kidney injury and repeated denials of an exposure history. Kidney biopsy was critical to the elucidation of the cause of his worsening renal function.

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