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1.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671882

RESUMO

With the aim of improving understanding of M-L bonds in 3d transition metal complexes, quantitative analysis by Energy Decomposition Analysis and Natural Orbital for Chemical Valence model (EDA-NOCV) is done on octahedral spin crossover (SCO) complexes, as the transition temperature (T1/2) is sensitive to subtle changes in M-L bonding. EDA-NOCV analysis of Fe-N bonds in 5 [FeII( Lazine )2(NCBH3)2], in both low spin (LS) and paramagnetic high spin (HS) states, led to (a) development of a general, widely applicable, corrected M+L6 fragmentation, tested against a family of 5 LS [FeII( Lazine )3(BF4)2], confirming that 3 Lazine are stronger ligands (ΔEorb,σ+π ≈ -370 kcal/mol) than 2 Lazine + 2 NCBH3 (≈ -335 kcal/mol), as observed; (b) analysis of Fe-L bonding on LS → HS, reveals more ionic (ΔEelstat) and less covalent (ΔEorb) character (ΔEelstat:ΔEorb 55:45 LS → 64:36 HS), mostly due to a big drop in σ- (ΔEorb,σ ↓50%; -310 → -145 kcal/mol), and a drop in π- contributions (ΔEorb,π ↓90%; -30 → -3 kcal/mol); (c) strong correlation of observed T1/2 and ΔEorb,σ+π, for both LS and HS families (R2 =0.99 LS, R2 = 0.95 HS), but no correlation of T1/2 and ΔΔEorb,σ+π(LS-HS) (R2 =0.11). Overall, this study has established and validated a generally applicable fragmentation and computational protocol for EDA-NOCV M-L bonding analysis of any diamagnetic or paramagnetic, homoleptic or heteroleptic, octahedral transition metal complex.

2.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326057

RESUMO

A dinuclear copper(II) complex of formula [{Cu(bipy)(bzt)(OH2)}2(µ-ox)] (1) (where bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, bzt = benzoate and ox = oxalate) was synthesised and characterised by diffractometric (powder and single-crystal XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses, spectroscopic techniques (IR, Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and electronic spectroscopy), magnetic measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The analysis of the crystal structure revealed that the oxalate ligand is in bis(bidentate) coordination mode between two copper(II) centres. The other four positions of the coordination environment of the copper(II) ion are occupied by one water molecule, a bidentate bipy and a monodentate bzt ligand. An inversion centre located on the ox ligand generates the other half of the dinuclear complex. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions are responsible for the organisation of the molecules in the solid state. Molar magnetic susceptibility and field dependence magnetisation studies evidenced a weak intramolecular-ferromagnetic interaction (J = +2.9 cm-1) between the metal ions. The sign and magnitude of the calculated J value by density functional theory (DFT) are in agreement with the experimental data.

3.
Nat Mater ; 19(5): 546-551, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066930

RESUMO

Magnetic materials interfaced with superconductors may reveal new physical phenomena with potential for quantum technologies. The use of molecules as magnetic components has already shown great promise, but the diversity of properties offered by the molecular realm remains largely unexplored. Here we investigate a submonolayer of tetrairon(III) propeller-shaped single molecule magnets deposited on a superconducting lead surface. This material combination reveals a strong influence of the superconductor on the spin dynamics of the single molecule magnet. It is shown that the superconducting transition to the condensate state switches the single molecule magnet from a blocked magnetization state to a resonant quantum tunnelling regime. Our results open perspectives to control single molecule magnetism via superconductors and to use single molecule magnets as local probes of the superconducting state.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 59(3): 1763-1777, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967457

RESUMO

Chromium(II)-based extended metal atom chains have been the focus of considerable discussion regarding their symmetric versus unsymmetric structure and magnetism. We have now investigated four complexes of this class, namely, [Cr3(dpa)4X2] and [Cr5(tpda)4X2] with X = Cl- and SCN- [Hdpa = dipyridin-2-yl-amine; H2tpda = N2,N6-di(pyridin-2-yl)pyridine-2,6-diamine]. By dc/ac magnetic techniques and EPR spectroscopy, we found that all these complexes have easy-axis anisotropies of comparable magnitude in their S = 2 ground state (|D| = 1.5-1.8 cm-1) and behave as single-molecule magnets at low T. Ligand-field and DFT/CASSCF calculations were used to explain the similar magnetic properties of tri- versus pentachromium(II) strings, in spite of their different geometrical preferences and electronic structure. For both X ligands, the ground structure is unsymmetric in the pentachromium(II) species (i.e., with an alternation of long and short Cr-Cr distances) but is symmetric in their shorter congeners. Analysis of the electronic structure using quasi-restricted molecular orbitals (QROs) showed that the four unpaired electrons in Cr5 species are largely localized in four 3d-like QROs centered on the terminal, "isolated" Cr2+ ion. In Cr3 complexes, they occupy four nonbonding combinations of 3d-like orbitals centered only on the two terminal metals. In both cases, then, QRO eigenvalues closely mirror the 3d-level pattern of the terminal ions, whose coordination environment remains quite similar irrespective of chain length. We conclude that the extent of unpaired-electron delocalization has little impact on the magnetic anisotropy of these wire-like molecular species.

5.
Nanoscale ; 11(42): 20006-20014, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603165

RESUMO

Thin films of an iron(ii) complex with a photochromic diarylethene-based ligand and featuring a spin-crossover behaviour have been grown by sublimation in ultra-high vacuum on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and spectroscopically characterized through high-resolution X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission, as well as via X-ray absorption. Temperature-dependent studies demonstrated that the thermally induced spin-crossover is preserved at a sub-monolayer (0.7 ML) coverage. Although the photochromic ligand ad hoc integrated into the complex allows the photo-switching of the spin state of the complex at room temperature both in bulk and for a thick film on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, this photomagnetic effect is not observed in sub-monolayer deposits. Ab initio calculations justify this behaviour as the result of specific adsorbate-substrate interactions leading to the stabilization of the photoinactive form of the diarylethene ligand over photoactive one on the surface.

6.
Chem Sci ; 10(30): 7233-7245, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588292

RESUMO

Lanthanide ions when complexed by polyamino-polycarboxylate chelators form a class of compounds of paramount importance in several research and technological areas, particularly in the fields of magnetic resonance and molecular magnetism. Indeed, the gadolinium derivative is one of the most employed contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging while the dysprosium one belongs to a new generation of contrast agents for T2-weighted MRI. In molecular magnetism, Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs) containing lanthanide ions have become readily popular in the chemistry and physics communities since record energy barriers to the reversal of magnetization were reported. The success of lanthanide complexes lies in their large anisotropy due to the contribution of the unquenched orbital angular momentum. However, only a few efforts have been made so far to understand how the f-orbitals can be influenced by the surrounding ligands. The outcomes have been rationalized using mere electrostatic perturbation models. In the archetype compound [Na{Dy(DOTA) (H2O)}]·4H2O (Na{DyDOTA}·4H2O) an unexpected easy axis of magnetization perpendicular to the pseudo-tetragonal axis of the molecule was found. Interestingly, a dependency of the orientation of the principal magnetization axis on the simple rotation of the coordinating apical water molecule (AWM) - highly relevant for MRI contrast - around the Dy-OAWM bond was predicted by ab initio calculations, too. However, such a behaviour has been contested in a subsequent paper justifying their conclusions on pure electrostatic assumptions. In this paper, we want to shed some light on the nature of the subtle effects induced by the water molecule on the magnetic properties of the DyDOTA archetype complex. Therefore, we have critically reviewed the structural models already published in the literature along with new ones, showing how the easy axis orientation can dangerously depend on the chosen model. The different computed behaviors of the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization have been rationalized as a function of the energy gap between the ground and the first excited doublet. Magneto-structural correlations together with a mapping of the electrostatic potential generated by the ligands around the Dy(iii) ion through a multipolar expansion have also been used to evidence and quantify the covalent contribution of the AWM orbitals.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 58(19): 13090-13101, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536344

RESUMO

Coordination compounds containing three different spin carriers (2p, 3d, and 4f), with the general formula [MIIDyIII(LH)(hfac)5] (M = Co, Ni, Mn, Zn), have been obtained using Mannich ligands decorated with a nitronyl-nitroxide fragment. The synthetic approach is general and leads to binuclear 3d-4f complexes, the two metal ions being bridged by one aminoxyl group and by one oxygen atom arising from a hfac- ligand. Triangular spin topology affords significant 2p-3d, 3d-4f, and 2p-4f exchange interactions. For the [CoIIDyIIIRad] derivative obtained using a nitronyl-nitroxide chiral ligand, a high energy barrier (∼200 cm-1) and a slow relaxation behavior below 30 K were found and rationalized by ab initio calculations. The improvement of magnetic properties comes from the synergy of optimal single ions properties and exchange couplings contributions where the CoII-Rad interaction becomes the leading one. The role played by this interaction is clearly proved by the investigation of the magnetic properties of the [ZnIIDyIIIRad] derivative, with a much lower energy barrier (12.7 cm-1) and by the lack of SMM behavior of the previously reported [CoIIDyIIIRad] compound ( Chem. Commun . 2017 , 53 , 6504 ), with a linear topology of spin carriers and a negligible CoII-Rad interaction.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 58(3): 1976-1987, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644737

RESUMO

Four new heterospin compounds with molecular formula {[Cu2(hfac)3(TlTrzNIT)2][Ln(hfac)4]} n·C7H16 (LnIII = Gd (1), Tb (2), or Dy (3)) and [Co(hfac)(TlTrzNIT)2][Dy(hfac)4] (4), where hfac is hexafluoroacetylacetonato and TlTrzNIT is the nitronylnitroxide radical 1-( m-tolyl)-1 H-1,2,3-triazole-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), were obtained. All structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In compounds 1-3, the TlTrzNIT radical is bridge-coordinated to copper(II) ions, leading to positively charged copper(II)-radical chains containing [Ln(hfac)4]- as counterions. In compound 4, the cobalt(II) ion is coordinated to two TlTrzNIT radicals and one hfac ligand in bidentate mode leading to a mononuclear cationic complex that contains [Dy(hfac)4]- as counterion. Magnetic measurements of all complexes were performed. Magnetic data were fit considering the contributions of the copper(II)-radical chain and a paramagnetic gadolinium(III) ion for 1. The sign and magnitude of the magnetic coupling constants extracted from the fit were confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The obtained spin topology shows an alternated ferro-antiferromagnetic chain. Field-induced single molecule magnet behavior was observed for the Dy derivatives 3 and 4, in agreement with CASSCF calculations performed for the latter system.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 58(1): 52-56, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550268

RESUMO

The design of a coordination complex that involves a ligand combining both a tetrathiafulvalene core and a helicene fragment was achieved thanks to the reaction between the new 2-{1-[2-methyl[6]helicene]-4,5-[4,5-bis(propylthio)tetrathiafulvalenyl]-1 H-benzimidazol-2-yl}pyridine ligand (L) and the Dy(hfac)3·2H2O metalloprecursor. Magnetic investigations showed field-induced single-molecule-magnet (SMM) behavior under an applied magnetic field of 1000 Oe for [Dy(hfac)3(L)]·0.5CH2Cl2, while experimentally oriented single-crystal magnetic measurements allowed for determination of the magnetic anisotropy orientation. The magnetic behavior was rationalized through ab initio CASSCF/SI-SO calculations. This redox-active chiral-field-induced SMM paves the way for the design of switchable-multiproperty SMMs.

10.
Nano Lett ; 18(12): 7955-7961, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452271

RESUMO

Atomic-scale magnetic moments in contact with superconductors host rich physics based on the emergence of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) magnetic bound states within the superconducting condensate. Here, we focus on a magnetic bound state induced into Pb nanoislands by individual vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) molecules deposited on the Pb surface. The VOPc molecule is characterized by a spin magnitude of 1/2 arising from a well-isolated singly occupied d xy-orbital and is a promising candidate for a molecular spin qubit with long coherence times. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements show that the molecular spin remains unperturbed even for molecules directly deposited on the Pb surface. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations identify two adsorption geometries for this "asymmetric" molecule (i.e., absence of a horizontal symmetry plane): (a) oxygen pointing toward the vacuum with the Pc laying on the Pb, showing negligible spin-superconductor interaction, and (b) oxygen pointing toward the Pb, presenting an efficient interaction with the Pb and promoting a Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound state. Additionally, we find that in the first case a YSR state can be induced smoothly by exerting mechanical force on the molecules with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip. This allows the interaction strength to be tuned continuously from an isolated molecular spin case, through the quantum critical point (where the bound state energy is zero) and beyond. DFT indicates that a gradual bending of the VO bond relative to the Pc ligand plane promoted by the STM tip can modify the interaction in a continuously tunable manner. The ability to induce a tunable YSR state in the superconductor suggests the possibility of introducing coupled spins on superconductors with switchable interaction.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(52): 17089-17093, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411438

RESUMO

Molecular materials that possess a toroidal moment associated to a non-magnetic ground state are known as single-molecule toroics (SMTs) and are usually planar molecules. Herein, we report a Dy4 cubane, namely [Dy4 (Bppd)4 (µ3 -OH)4 (Pa)4 (H2 O)4 ]⋅0.333 H2 O (where BppdH=1,3-Bis(pyridin-4-yl)propane-1,3-dione and PaH=2-Picolinic acid) for which magnetometry measurements and state-of-art ab initio calculations highlight SMT behavior in a tridimensional structure (3D-SMT). The in-depth theoretical analysis on the resulting low-lying energy states, along with their variation in function of the magnetic exchange pathways, allows further light to be shed on the description of single-molecule toroics and identify the coupling scheme that better reproduces the observed data.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 480, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396458

RESUMO

The use of single molecule magnets (SMMs) as cornerstone elements in spintronics and quantum computing applications demands that magnetic bistability is retained when molecules are interfaced with solid conducting surfaces. Here, we employ synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy to investigate a monolayer of a tetrairon(III) (Fe4) SMM chemically grafted on a gold substrate. At low temperature and zero magnetic field, we observe the magnetic pattern of the Fe4 molecule, indicating slow spin fluctuations compared to the Mössbauer timescale. Significant structural deformations of the magnetic core, induced by the interaction with the substrate, as predicted by ab initio molecular dynamics, are also observed. However, the effects of the modifications occurring at the individual iron sites partially compensate each other, so that slow magnetic relaxation is retained on the surface. Interestingly, these deformations escaped detection by conventional synchrotron-based techniques, like X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, thus highlighting the power of synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy for the investigation of hybrid interfaces.

13.
Chemistry ; 24(27): 6983-6991, 2018 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436739

RESUMO

We report the study of a Dy-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with unprecedented magnetic properties. The compound is made of nine-coordinated DyIII magnetic building blocks (MBBs) with poor intrinsic single-molecule magnet behavior. However, the MOF architecture constrains the MBBs in a one-dimensional structure that induces a ferromagnetic coupling between them. Overall, the material shows a magnetic slow relaxation in absence of external static field and a hysteretic behavior at 0.5 K. Low-temperature magnetic studies, diamagnetic doping, and ab initio calculations highlight the crucial role played by the Dy-Dy ferromagnetic interaction. Overall, we report an original magnetic object at the frontier between single-chain magnets and single-molecule magnets that host intrachain couplings that cancel quantum tunneling between the MBBs. This compound is evidence that a bottom-up approach through MOF design can induce spontaneous organization of MBBs able to produce remarkable molecular magnetic materials.

14.
Nanoscale ; 10(8): 4096-4104, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431791

RESUMO

Here we present a computational study of a full- and a half-monolayer of a Fe4 single molecule magnet ([Fe4(L)2(dpm)6], where H3L = 2-hydroxymethyl-2-phenylpropane-1,3-diol and Hdpm = dipivaloylmethane, Fe4Ph) on an unreconstructed surface of Au(111). This has been possible through the application of an integrated approach, which allows the explicit inclusion of the packing effects in the classical dynamics to be used in a second step in periodic and non-periodic high level DFT calculations. In this way we can obtain access to mesoscale geometrical data and verify how they can influence the magnetic properties of interest of the single Fe4 molecule. The proposed approach allows to overcome the ab initio state-of-the-art approaches used to study Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs), which are based on the study of one single adsorbed molecule and cannot represent effects on the scale of a monolayer. Indeed, we show here that it is possible to go beyond the computational limitations inherent to the use, for such complex systems, of accurate calculation techniques (e.g. ab initio molecular dynamics) without losing the level of accuracy necessary to gain new detailed insights, hardly reachable at the experimental level. Indeed, long-range and edge effects on the Fe4 structures and their easy axis of magnetization orientations have been evidenced as their different contributions to the overall macroscopic behavior.

15.
Dalton Trans ; 47(2): 585-595, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239437

RESUMO

The structure of pentachromium(ii) extended metal atom chain [Cr5(tpda)4Cl2] (2), which behaves as a single molecule magnet at low temperature, was investigated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and spectroscopic studies without the constraints of a crystal lattice (H2tpda = N2,N6-bis(pyridin-2-yl)pyridine-2,6-diamine). DFT studies both in the gas phase and including CH2Cl2 solvent effects indicate that an unsymmetric structure (C4 point group), with pairs of formally quadruply-bonded metal ions and one terminal metal center, is slightly more stable (2.9 and 3.9 kcal mol-1) than a symmetric structure (D4 point group). Isotopically-labelled samples (2-d8 and 2-d16) have then been prepared to aid in molecular symmetry determination by combined 1H and 2H NMR studies in dichloromethane solution. The spectra are strongly suggestive of a symmetric (D4) framework, indicating fast shuttling between the two unsymmetric forms over the timescale of NMR experiments. Procedures for a high-yield Pd-free synthesis of H2tpda and for site-selective post-synthetic H/D exchange of aromatic H2tpda hydrogens are also reported.

16.
Chem Sci ; 8(9): 6051-6059, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989635

RESUMO

We perform a systematic investigation of the spin-phonon coupling leading to spin relaxation in the prototypical mononuclear single molecule magnet [(tpaPh)Fe]-. In particular we analyze in detail the nature of the most relevant vibrational modes giving rise to the relaxation. Our fully ab initio calculations, where the phonon modes are evaluated at the level of density functional theory and the spin-phonon coupling by mapping post-Hartree-Fock electronic structures onto an effective spin Hamiltonian, reveal that acoustic phonons are not active in the spin-phonon relaxation process of dilute SMMs crystals. Furthermore, we find that intra-molecular vibrational modes produce anisotropy tensor modulations orders of magnitude higher than those associated to rotations. In light of these results we are able to suggest new designing rules for spin-long-living SMMs which go beyond the tailoring of static molecular features but fully take into account dynamical features of the vibrational thermal bath evidencing those internal molecular distortions more relevant to the spin dynamics.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(48): 6504-6507, 2017 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28569320

RESUMO

End-off bicompartmental ligands bearing a nitronyl-nitroxide arm have been designed for synthesizing various heterospin molecular systems. These ligands can selectively interact with 3d and 4f metal ions, leading to 2p-4f, 2p-3d, and 2p-3d-4f complexes. The magnetic properties of the 2p-4f and 2p-3d-4f complexes have been investigated and rationalized by theoretical calculations.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14620, 2017 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28262663

RESUMO

The use of single molecule magnets in mainstream electronics requires their magnetic moment to be stable over long times. One can achieve such a goal by designing compounds with spin-reversal barriers exceeding room temperature, namely with large uniaxial anisotropies. Such strategy, however, has been defeated by several recent experiments demonstrating under-barrier relaxation at high temperature, a behaviour today unexplained. Here we propose spin-phonon coupling to be responsible for such anomaly. With a combination of electronic structure theory and master equations we show that, in the presence of phonon dissipation, the relevant energy scale for the spin relaxation is given by the lower-lying phonon modes interacting with the local spins. These open a channel for spin reversal at energies lower than that set by the magnetic anisotropy, producing fast under-barrier spin relaxation. Our findings rationalize a significant body of experimental work and suggest a possible strategy for engineering room temperature single molecule magnets.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 55(22): 11676-11684, 2016 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809490

RESUMO

Binuclear complexes with general formula [Ln2(hfac)6(H2O)2(dppnTEMPO)] (LnIII = Gd, Tb, and Dy) have been obtained using the paramagnetic ligand 1-piperidinyl-4-[(diphenylphosphinyl)amino]-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl (dppnTEMPO) as a bridge. One of the lanthanide ions is ferromagnetically coupled with the TEMPO moiety. Two of the complexes (Dy and Tb) show slow relaxation of the magnetization, and the non-magneto-equivalence of the two LnIII ions was clearly observed. The ab initio CASSCF calculations were employed to confirm this behavior, as well as to rationalize the Ln-Rad interaction. The simulations of the magnetic properties were allowed by the insights given by the calculations. The inequivalence of the TbIII ions was also proved by emission spectroscopy.

20.
Chemistry ; 22(43): 15222-15226, 2016 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27595499

RESUMO

A spiropyran-based switchable ligand isomerizes upon reaction with lanthanide(III) precursors to generate complexes with an unusual N3 O5 coordination sphere. The air-stable dysprosium(III) complex shows a hysteresis loop at 2 K and a very strong axial magnetic anisotropy generated by the merocyanine phenolate donor.

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