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1.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372532

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study prospectively investigates behavioural and social antecedents of different patterns of adolescent cannabis use, specifically, early adolescent onset cannabis use and late onset occasional use. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sample comprised 852 adolescents (53% female) drawn from the Australian arm of the International Youth Development Study. Data were collected via self-report surveys. Risk and protective factors from a modified version of the Communities That Care youth survey were measured in fifth grade (mean [M] = 10.9 years, SD = 0.4). Frequency of cannabis use was measured at six time-points throughout adolescence (ages 12-19 years). RESULTS: Early adolescent onset cannabis use (10.7% of the sample [n = 91]) was predicted by childhood family-related factors including poor family management, family history of antisocial behaviour and attachment to parents. Cigarette use and drinking until drunk were the strongest predictors of early adolescent onset cannabis use. Cumulative risks associated with community, family, peer/individual environments and early substance use (cigarettes, alcohol) in childhood were predictive of early adolescent onset cannabis use (e.g. relative risk ratio = 2.64; 95% confidence interval 1.40-4.97 for early substance use). Family and early substance use-related cumulative risks were predictive of late adolescent onset occasional cannabis use (n = 231; 27%). Cumulative early substance use risk was the strongest independent predictor of both early adolescent onset and late adolescent onset occasional cannabis use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Primary prevention efforts should focus on reducing exposure and access to licit substances during late childhood and delaying the onset of use. Prevention and intervention targeted toward the family environment also appears likely to be important in the prevention of early adolescent onset cannabis use.

2.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(2): 106-110, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Injury is the major cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents and young adults. This study examined the use of injury self-reports and various causes of injury among adolescents. METHODS: A cohort recruited in 2002 as a representative sample of students from the State of Victoria in south-east Australia was followed and resurveyed in young adulthood in 2010 (mean age 21.0) and 2012 (mean age 23.1) with 75% of the target sample retained (N=2,154, 55.8% female). RESULTS: Prior injuries were reported by 55.5% in 2010 and 54.6% in 2012, leaving 18% with continuing disability. Reported causes of injury in 2012 were sports (55.1%) and alcohol use (9.7%). Logistic regression revealed that injury in 2012 was predicted by rural school attendance in 2002 (Adjusted Odds Ratio [OR] 1.4 CI 1.1-1.7) and in 2010 by male gender (OR 2.2, CI 1.8-2.6), reported self-harm (OR 1.6 CI 1.1-2.2), and unemployment (OR 0.7, CI 0.5-1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported injury among young adults is reliably reported, and suggests the need to further examine gender, rural communities and self-harm, and indicates modifiable contributors to injury. Implications for public health: Modifiable contributors to injury prevention are revealed as work environment, sports participation and alcohol use.

3.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519897341, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904302

RESUMO

There is a dearth of research investigating whether public inquiries such as Royal Commissions trigger community behavior change or awareness about targeted health and social issues within the general community. This study examined trends in the reporting of intimate partner violence (IPV) and help-seeking behavior before and during the Victorian Royal Commission into Family Violence. Six hundred seventy-seven women across Australia, including 172 migrant and 505 nonmigrant women, completed surveys on their experience of IPV and help-seeking behavior over a 4-year period. Prevalence estimates were weighted to the Australian Census data to reflect the Australian population breakdown for age and migrant status. Results showed levels of IPV reported by participants significantly increased during the Victorian Royal Commission into Family Violence in 2015. Similarly, the perceived need to seek help for abuse significantly increased from the start of the Royal Commission; this was, however, evident for nonmigrant, but not migrant women. The findings are discussed considering the influence of the Royal Commission into Family Violence, its public profile, and the pervasiveness of the information about family violence during this time that could have led to an increasing trend in knowledge about family violence and the perception of requiring assistance in the general community. It is recommended that future Royal Commissions prepare for predictable changes in community behavior and institutions organize their resources to address the potential increased disclosure of the problems addressed.

4.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 1524838019899486, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960757

RESUMO

Millions of children are exposed to family violence around the world; however, the effects on adolescent academic achievement are poorly understood. Using a systematic search and review methodology, we synthesized studies that quantitatively examined the effects of exposure to family violence on academic achievement among adolescents. We searched for peer-reviewed, English-language articles in nine online databases. Thirteen studies that examined adolescents were included, where family violence exposure was the independent variable and academic achievement was the dependent variable. Of those, nine studies identified significant, direct, and negative effects of family violence exposure on adolescent academic achievement, and a further two identified significant, indirect, and negative effects. We found reasonable evidence showing that adolescents' academic achievement is negatively affected by exposure to family violence. Our review findings indicate the importance of implementing prevention strategies to reduce children's exposure to family violence, and intervention for those who have been exposed to it. Future research should further examine the moderating and mediating mechanisms by which family violence exposure affects academic achievement.

5.
Prev Sci ; 21(4): 557-567, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965426

RESUMO

Homelessness is associated with a range of negative health and behavioral outcomes, yet life-course pathways to homelessness from adolescence to early adulthood are not well-documented. This study asks to what extent do early-mid adolescent risk and protective factors predict young adult homelessness, and whether the predictive nature of these factors is similar in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State in the USA. As part of the International Youth Development Study, adolescents were recruited as state representative secondary school samples at grade 7 (age 13, 2002) and longitudinally compared at average age 25. Higher rates of past year homelessness were reported by Washington State (5.24%), compared to Victorian young adults (3.25%). Although some cross-state differences in levels of adolescent demographic, individual, family, peer group, school, and community predictors were found, cross-state comparisons showed these factors were equally predictive of young adult homelessness in both states. In univariate analyses, most adolescent risk and protective factors were significant predictors. Unique multivariate adolescent predictors associated with young adult homelessness included school suspension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.76) and academic failure (AOR = 1.94). No significant unique protective effects were found. Prevention and intervention efforts that support adolescents' academic engagement may help in addressing young adult homelessness. The similar cross-state profile of adolescent predictors suggests that programs seeking to support academic engagement may influence risk for homelessness into young adulthood in both states. The similarity in life-course pathways to homelessness suggests that the USA and Australia can profitably translate prevention and intervention efforts to reduce homelessness while continuing to identify modifiable predictors.

6.
J Res Adolesc ; 30 Suppl 1: 143-157, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260070

RESUMO

There is a dearth of research on delinquency, school context, and risk factors across developed and developing nations. Using representative samples and matched surveys, we examined delinquency among cohorts in Mumbai, India (N = 3,717); Victoria, Australia (N = 1,842); and Washington State (WA), United States (N = 1,828). We used multivariate Poisson hierarchical linear modeling. Risk factor and delinquency levels varied across sites. Delinquency clustered within certain schools, particularly in Mumbai. Community disorganization exhibited an association with delinquency as a school-level context effect in Mumbai and Victoria. Peer delinquency, sensation seeking, and poor family management exhibited cross-nationally consistent associations with delinquency. Programs that target schools, the clustering of problem behaviors, and cross-nationally consistent risk factors should be considered internationally.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 463-472, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify depression trajectories across childhood and to model a range of child and family predictors of whether a child may be on an increasing trajectory towards depressive disorder in adolescence. METHODS: Multi-group growth mixture modelling (MGMM) was used on a sample of 4983 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australia Children (LSAC). Depressive symptoms of these children were assessed over 10-years with six time-points, administered every second year commencing at 4 years via the parent report version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Predictors of class membership were also examined. RESULTS: Four trajectories were found to be the best fitting model characterising low-stable (75%); decreasing (11%); increasing (9%); high and rising (6%) groups. Females were more likely to be in a trajectory of increasing depressive symptoms between 4 and 14 years of age than males. Reactive temperament and maternal depression at four and six years of age were consistent predictors of increasing and high trajectories while persistent temperament acts as a protective factor for females. LIMITATIONS: The findings should be interpreted in the light of limitations due to common-method variance and the absence of diagnostic indicators of depressive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there are gender differences in patterns of depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence and meaningful predictors of these early developmental trajectories. Preventative interventions in childhood targeting parents with depression and children with temperamental difficulties may be indicated.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 821, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780972

RESUMO

Introduction: Harmful alcohol and cannabis use are social concerns associated with a range of negative outcomes. Prior research has identified links between disrupted parent-child attachment and child-adolescent substance use. Materials and Methods: This study used cross-national data from the International Youth Development Study (IYDS; Victoria, Australia and Washington State, USA) to investigate the relationship between early adolescent family environment characteristics, mid-adolescent attachment to parents, and young adult harmful alcohol and cannabis use. The moderating role of state on these relationships was also tested. State-representative samples of students in Grade 7 (age 13, 2002) were recruited and followed longitudinally at ages 14, 15, and 25 (n = 1,945, 53% female, 50% in Victoria). Results: Cross-state differences were evident in levels of family management, parent attitudes favorable to drug use, sibling alcohol and cannabis use, attachment to parents, and past year alcohol and cannabis use. Significantly higher rates of problematic alcohol use were reported by young adults in Victoria (25% vs. 14% in Washington State). Young adults in Washington State reported significantly higher rates of problematic cannabis use (14% vs. 10% in Victoria). Path modeling showed that characteristics of positive family environments (e.g., low conflict) in early adolescence were associated with higher attachment to parents and lower alcohol and cannabis use in mid-adolescence. Sibling substance use and more favorable parent attitudes to drug use were associated with past year alcohol and cannabis use in mid-adolescence. Results showed higher attachment to parents in mid-adolescence did not uniquely predict lower problematic alcohol or cannabis use in young adulthood. No significant cross-state differences in this pattern of associations were found. Discussion: The implications of the current findings suggest that prevention and intervention strategies targeted at reducing problematic substance use into young adulthood may benefit from considering the influence of behavioral norms and attitudes in family relationships.

9.
J Adolesc Health ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescent alcohol use carries risks for problem behaviors, such as injury and school dropout, as well as increases the risk of alcohol dependence later on, making public health approaches that curb youth alcohol use a key concern. The present study uses a two-state comparison of alcohol-related policies in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, U.S. (harm minimization in Australia and zero tolerance in the U.S.) to examine whether youth alcohol use in each state is related to alcohol-related problems in young adulthood. METHODS: Data were drawn from the International Youth Development Study (N = 1,965) that followed youth in Victoria and Washington states from age 13 years, with follow-up at ages 14 and 15 years, and then again at age 25 years. Multiple-group structural equation modeling was used to test whether early alcohol use was equally related to alcohol problems (measured by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) at age 25 years and whether the relationship was moderated by family and school environments that were tolerant of youth drinking and by gender. RESULTS: Youth in Victoria reported greater rates of alcohol use compared with youth in Washington, as well as more permissive family and school environments. Early alcohol use was equally associated with Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test problems at age 25 years in the two nations, and none of the moderators significantly changed the association. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that harm minimization policies adopted in Victoria are less effective at reducing alcohol problems during young adulthood compared with the stricter zero-tolerance approaches adopted in Washington State.

10.
Inj Prev ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injuries are one of the three leading causes of morbidity and mortality for young people internationally. Although community risk factors are modifiable causes of youth injury, there has been limited evaluation of community interventions. Communities That Care (CTC) offers a coalition training process to increase evidence-based practices that reduce youth injury risk factors. METHOD: Using a non-experimental design, this study made use of population-based hospital admissions data to evaluate the impact on injuries for 15 communities that implemented CTC between 2001 and 2017 in Victoria, Australia. Negative binomial regression models evaluated trends in injury admissions (all, unintentional and transport), comparing CTC and non-CTC communities across different age groups. RESULTS: Statistically significant relative reductions in all hospital injury admissions in 0-4 year olds were associated with communities completing the CTC process and in 0-19 year olds when communities began their second cycle of CTC. When analysed by subgroup, a similar pattern was observed with unintentional injuries but not with transport injuries. CONCLUSION: The findings support CTC coalition training as an intervention strategy for preventing youth hospital injury admissions. However, future studies should consider stronger research designs, confirm findings in different community contexts, use other data sources and evaluate intervention mechanisms.

11.
J Crim Justice ; 62: 74-86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371840

RESUMO

Purpose: Reciprocal prospective associations between adolescent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined. Methods: Seventh grade students (average age 13 years; N=2,314/2,348) were surveyed (T1), and then followed-up 12 (T2) and 24 months (T3) later, using the same methods in Washington State and Victoria, Australia. Results: Negative binomial regressions showed antisocial behavior (T1, T2) did not prospectively predict depressive symptoms (T2, T3). T1 multivariate predictors for T2 depressive symptoms included female gender (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.70), prior depressive symptoms (IRR = 1.06), alcohol use (IRR = 1.13), family conflict (IRR = 1.13), antisocial peers (IRR = 1.08) and bullying victimization (IRR = 1.06). Depressive symptoms (T1, T2) did not predict antisocial behavior (T2, T3). T1 multivariate predictors for T2 antisocial behavior included female gender (IRR = .96), age (IRR = .97), prior antisocial behavior (IRR = 1.32), alcohol use (IRR = 1.04), antisocial peers (IRR = 1.11) and academic failure (IRR = 1.03). Conclusions: Depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors showed considerable predictive stability in early adolescence but were not reciprocally related. Prevention and intervention strategies in adolescence may benefit by targeting common predictors such as alcohol, peer interactions and early symptoms for depression and antisocial behavior.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 790, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has consistently shown that early onset of drinking (EOD) is associated with alcohol-related problems in adulthood. However, recent reviews have identified several limitations in the early onset literature, including the use of retrospective reports, insufficient control for potential confounders, ambiguous definitions of the concept, and an assumption that early onset is independent of cultural norms and national alcohol policies. This study addresses these limitations by examining whether EOD, independent of early onset of excessive drinking (EOE), prospectively predicts hazardous drinking in late adolescence/young adulthood in Norway and Australia, two countries with different drinking cultures. METHODS: Data were drawn from two population-based longitudinal studies; the Norwegian Tracking Opportunities and Problems Study (n = 329) and the Australian International Youth Development Study (n = 786). Data were collected prospectively from mid adolescence (14-16 years) to late adolescence/young adulthood (18-25 years) and a modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Adolescent self-reports included measures of EOD and EOE. Young adults completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The results were adjusted for adolescent factors; age, gender, impulsivity, hyperactivity, conduct problems, smoking, early sexual intercourse and friends' substance use, and family factors; alcohol and drug use in the family, maternal education, family management and monitoring. RESULTS: Hazardous drinking was identified in 46.8 and 38.9% of young adults in Norway and Australia, respectively. Both EOD and EOE in adolescence were significantly related to an increased risk of alcohol-related problems in late adolescence/young adulthood in both studies, even when adjusting for possible confounders. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that adolescent drinking behaviour is an indicator of alcohol-related problems in late adolescence/young adulthood, even when controlling for a variety of covariates. This finding is in contrast to previous research on older adults, where no association between adolescent drinking and later alcohol-related problems were found when controlling for covariates. The divergence in findings may suggest that the impact of EOD/EOE is limited to the late adolescent and young adult period. Preventing drinking in early adolescence may thus have some impact on the drinking patterns in late adolescence/young adulthood.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Health Psychol ; 38(6): 536-544, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A major challenge for health psychologists is to ensure the implementation of evidence-based interventions to improve population health. To reduce high rates of adolescent alcohol use and related health problems, trials of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention process were implemented in Australia beginning in 2001. The process assists communities to strategically plan and monitor implementation of evidence-based preventative interventions. This article reports an evaluation of the effects in the first four Australian communities that completed the process. METHOD: Trends were examined based on self-report surveys completed by 41,328 adolescents (average age 13.5 years, 51.7% female) across 109 municipal localities between 1999 and 2015. Multilevel modeling compared the 5 localities where the 4 coalitions completed the CTC process with the remaining 104 localities for trends in adolescent reports of lifetime alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use and past year antisocial behavior. RESULTS: Relative to Australian trends, adolescents in CTC localities reported significantly steeper annual reductions in any lifetime alcohol (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.94, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = [0.93, 0.95]), tobacco (AOR = 0.97, CI [0.96, 0.99]), cannabis use (AOR = 0.96, CI [0.93, 0.98]) and antisocial behavior (unstandardized regression coefficient [B] = -0.001, CI [-0.002, 0.000]). CONCLUSION: Implementation of the CTC process in Australia was associated with more rapid community reductions in adolescent health behavior problems. Supporting community coalitions to adopt evidence-based interventions appears a feasible means for health psychologists to improve the health of large adolescent populations and prevent related chronic health problems in later life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Adolescente , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Aggress Behav ; 45(4): 427-436, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887542

RESUMO

While the association between heavy alcohol consumption and aggression has been well documented, the causal direction of this association, particularly at a population level, is disputed. A number of causal sequences have been proposed. First, that aggression leads to heavy alcohol use. Second, that heavy alcohol use leads to aggression. Third, that the association between alcohol use and aggression is due to confounding by (a) sociodemographic variables or (b) delinquency. We report here data from four Australasian prospective longitudinal studies of adolescents, to assess the temporal sequence of heavy drinking and aggression over the period from adolescence to young adulthood. The four cohort studies provide a total sample of 6,706 persons (Australian Temperament Project, n = 1701; Christchurch Health and Development Study, n = 931; Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, n = 2437; Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, n = 1637). We use multinomial logistic regression to determine whether early adolescent aggression predicts subsequent age of onset of heavy episodic drinking (HED), after adjustment for concurrent sociodemographic factors and delinquency. We then consider whether HED predicts subsequent aggression, after adjusting for past aggression, concurrent delinquency, and a range of confounders. There are broadly consistent findings across the four cohort studies. Early aggression strongly predicts subsequent HED. HED predicts later aggression after adjustment for prior aggression and other confounders. Policies that alter population levels of alcohol consumption are likely to impact on levels of aggression in societies where HED linked to aggression is more common.

15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(4): 237-242, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855187

RESUMO

Sexting (e.g., conveying nude electronic images) is now common among young adults. Despite leading to negative consequences for some (e.g., harassment and unwanted dissemination), findings regarding sexting behaviors and mental health variables have been mixed. We recruited a convenience sample of young adults (N = 444, M age = 20, SD = 1) to test the hypothesis that sexting might be associated with poorer mental health. Our results showed no association between receiving or sending sexts overall. However, receiving unwanted sexts, or sexting under coercion, was associated with higher depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and lower self-esteem, and these two sexting experiences were independent predictors of psychological distress. The relationship between these sexting behaviors with poor mental health was moderated by gender, with poorer outcomes for males receiving unwanted sexts. These findings indicate a possible moderating factor in sexting and mental health.


Assuntos
Coerção , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1100-1115, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805853

RESUMO

School-based mental health intervention programs have demonstrated efficacy for the prevention and reduction of depressive symptoms, though the effect tends to be variable and is often unsustained longitudinally. However, it is possible that these intervention programs may have an indirect impact on adolescent functioning via positive mediators, and that this influence may predict more durable protective benefits. This study evaluated the efficacy of the Resilient Families program for improving social-emotional skills and depressive symptoms for adolescents over a two-year period. Twenty-four secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia were randomly allocated to either Resilient Families or a control condition. 1826 students (M= 12.3, SD = .05 years at W1; 56% female) completed the curricula and subsequent surveys. Inconsistent with hypotheses, analysis with Structural Equation Modelling revealed that the program had no significant effect on social-emotional skills and these skills had no significant effects on adolescent depressive symptoms. However, family attendance at parent education events within the intervention schools was associated with longitudinal reductions in depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of increasing emphasis on family and community protective factors in adolescent social-emotional development and depression prevention programs.


Assuntos
Currículo , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Proteção , Psicologia do Adolescente , Resiliência Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 132, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organisational performance measurement is a recognised business management tool and essential for survival and success. There is a paucity of methodological studies of organisational performance measurement relating to non-acute healthcare charities and this study is the first to suggest a set of evidence-informed organisational performance measures for the sector. METHODS: This study was designed using a two-staged approach. A systematic review of peer-reviewed journal literature between 2003 and 2016 was conducted according to the twenty-seven (27) point checklist of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) complemented by a thematic analysis of eligible data using a cutting and sorting technique to generate a set of common measures of organisational performance for non-acute health charities. RESULTS: Not one study was found relating to organisational performance of non-acute healthcare charities however four records met eligibility criteria relating to non-acute or primary healthcare services with charitable fundraising capability. Three were case studies of specific organisations that related their approach to organisational performance measurement, while the fourth compared a case study organisation to a public service. Three different organisational performance frameworks and 20 organisational performance measures were used across the four studies. CONCLUSIONS: The study concluded that (1) demonstration of organisational performance is relevant to non-acute health charities; (2) organisational performance measurement is feasible in this sector; (3) an evidence-based organisational performance measurement framework for the sector has not yet been developed nor has an existing organisational performance measurement framework been adapted for the sector, although the Balanced Scorecard is likely to be an effective option and (4) five leading measures - Quality of Service; Finance; Stakeholders (Customers and Clients); People and Culture; and Governance and Business Management; could be used to determine organisational performance in these sectors. Finally, 'Mission and Purpose' could be explored as a potential measure. Further research to understand why there is such limited published organisational performance evidence for the sector could be useful. Case studies of organisational measurement strategies of successful non-acute healthcare charities and research into important factors for organisational performance implementation in the sector may contribute to greater uptake and knowledge dissemination.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade , Eficiência Organizacional , Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos
18.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(2): 247-256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use in adolescence predicts future alcohol misuse. However, the extent to which different patterns of adolescent use present risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated how adolescent trajectories of alcohol consumption during the school years predict alcohol misuse at age 19 years. METHODS: Data were drawn from 707 students from Victoria, Australia, longitudinally followed for 7 years. Five alcohol use trajectories were identified based on the frequency of alcohol use from Grade 6 (age 12 years) to Grade 11 (age 17 years). At age 19 years, participants completed measures indicating Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED), dependency - Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and social harms. RESULTS: At 19 years of age, 64% of participants reported HED, 42% high AUDIT scores (8+), and 23% social harms. Participants belonging to a steep escalator trajectory during adolescence had twice the odds at 19 years of age of high AUDIT scores and social harms, and three times greater odds of HED than participants whose alcohol use slowly increased. Stable moderate consumption was also associated with an increased risk of HED compared to slowly increasing use. Abstinence predicted a reduced likelihood of all forms of misuse at 19 years of age compared to slowly increased alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of drinking frequency during adolescence predict alcohol misuse at age 19 years. Although rapid increasing use presents the greatest risk, even slowly increasing drinking predicts increased risk compared to abstinence. The findings indicate that alcohol policies should recommend nonuse and reduced frequency of use during adolescence.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Adolesc Health ; 64(4): 516-522, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited longitudinal research has examined the adult health and behavioral outcomes associated with early adolescent sexual behavior. This paper examined whether adolescent sexual behavior predicted young adult health and social outcomes within longitudinal cohorts in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Adolescents were recruited in 2002 to be state-representative of school students in Victoria, Australia, and resurveyed in 2003 and 2004. The sample responded to a web-based survey as young adults in 2010/2011. Multivariate negative binomial regression models examined the predictive effect of sex by age 15 on young adult outcomes (average age 21) of sexual risk taking, substance use, antisocial behavior, and psychological distress (N = 2,147). RESULTS: After adjustment for other factors, sex at age 15 or younger (early sex) predicted higher rates of young adult sexual risk taking such as pregnancy, lifetime partners, and sex without using a condom. Early sex also predicted higher rates of young adult substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and/or illicit substance use) and antisocial behavior, but rates of adult psychological distress were not affected. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that early adolescent sex had unique predictive effects on a range of adverse young adulthood outcomes. Public health policies should synthesize longitudinal data on the risks of early sexual behavior, while advocating evidence-based adolescent sexual health promotion interventions.

20.
J Adolesc Health ; 64(1): 63-69, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579438

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the extent to which care-oriented attitudes and behaviours in adolescence (e.g., volunteering) predict positive development (PD; e.g., life satisfaction and meaning/purpose) in young adulthood (19-28 years). METHODS: The analytic sample comprised 1,359 participants participating from a 35-year (16 wave) population-based cohort study (The Australian Temperament Project). Adolescent care-oriented attitudes and behaviours were defined in mid-adolescence (15-16 years). Young adult PD was defined by latent growth curve modelling across three waves (19-20, 23-24, and 27-28 years). RESULTS: There was considerable variation in PD at the beginning of young adulthood (19-20 years) (variance of intercept = 40.22, SE = 4.53, p < .001). Once baseline PD levels were established in young adulthood, there was evidence of increasing PD over time (mean slope = .34, SE = .04, 95%CI = [.26, .41], p < .001, ß = .65), with little variation in this rate of change between participants (variance of slope = .27, SE = .15, p = .087). After controlling for sex, parental education, and personality factors (b = 3.49, SE(b) = .67, 95%CI = [2.17, 4.80], p < .001, ß = .22) care orientations in adolescence predicted PD at age 19-20 years, establishing the starting point of PD trajectories across young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that promotion of care-oriented attitudes and behaviours in adolescence may enhance adult development by increasing PD levels at the start of the twenties. Intervening earlier in life is indicated as PD tends to remain stable throughout young adulthood once established.

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