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1.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225033

RESUMO

The sex-specific effect of lipid-related biomarkers on 10-year first fatal/non fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence was evaluated. ATTICA study was conducted during 2001-2012. n = 1514 men and n = 1528 women (>18 years) from greater Athens area, Greece were recruited. Follow-up (2011-2012) was achieved in n = 2020 participants. Baseline lipid profile was measured. Overall CVD event was 15.5% (n = 317) (19.7% in men and 11.7% in women, p < 0.001). High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TAG) were independently associated with CVD in women; per 10 mg/dL HDL-C increase, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) (0.53, 1.00); and per 10 mg/dL TAG increase, HR = 1.10, 95% CI (1.00, 1.21). Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) (per 10 mg/dL increase, HR = 0.90, 95% CI (0.81, 0.99)) was inversely associated with CVD in women, while a positive association with apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) was observed only in men (per 10 mg/dL increase, HR = 1.10, 95% CI (1.00, 1.21)). Non-HDL-C was associated with CVD in the total sample (HR = 1.10, 95% CI (1.00, 1.21)) and in women (HR = 1.10, 95% CI (1.00, 1.21)); a steep increase in HR was observed for values >185 mg/dL in the total sample and in men, while in women, a raise in CVD risk was observed from lower values (>145 mg/dL). As for non-HDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios, similar trends were observed. Beyond the common cholesterol-adjusted risk scores, reclassifying total CVD risk according to other lipid markers may contribute to early CVD prevention. Biomarkers such as HDL-C, non-HDL-C, and TAG should be more closely monitored in women.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a condition defined by hyperglycaemia, but also often presents with dyslipidaemia and suppressed HDL cholesterol. Mendelian randomization studies have suggested a causal link between low HDL cholesterol and T2DM. However, influences of gender, polymorphisms and lifestyle, all known to influence HDL cholesterol, have not been fully explored in a prospective cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2001-2002, a random sample of 1514 males (18-87 years old) and 1528 females (18-89 years old) were recruited in the ATTICA study. The 10-year follow-up (2011-2012) included 1485 participants. Lipids and lipoproteins levels, glucose and insulin levels were measured together with apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) 75 G/A genotype, which is known to influence HDL-cholesterol. In total, 12.9% of the study sample developed T2DM within the 10-year follow-up period. In multivariable models, for each mg/dL increase in apoA1 levels in males, 10-year T2DM risk decreased 1.02%; while every unit increase in apoB/LDL-cholesterol ratio increased risk 4-fold. Finally, for every unit increase in triglycerides/apoA1 ratio, the risk increased 85%. HOMA-IR independently predicted T2DM 10-year incidence only for carriers of GG polymorphism (all, p < 0.05), but not in carriers of the GA polymorphism (all, p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: ApoA1 was associated with decreased T2DM risk and TG/ApoA1 and apoB/LDL were associated with increased risk of T2DM, only in males. ApoA1 polymorphism, which is associated with lower HDL cholesterol, influenced the predictive effects of HOMA-IR on T2DM incidence, which appeared to be moderated by physical activity, suggesting potential scope for more targeted preventative strategies.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 41(6): 735-736, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031226
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 161: 108031, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004695

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the association between dietary anti-inflammatory index (D-AII) and metabolic syndrome (MetS)prevalence, 10-year (2002-2012) diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia incidence and 10-year transition from healthy (absence of all MetS traits, excluding waist circumference) to unhealthy metabolic status. METHODS: In 2001-2002, n = 1514 men and n = 1528 women (>18 years old) in Athens, Greece, free of cardiovascular disease were recruited. MetS was defined according to the revised NCEP ATP III (2005) or the IDF criteria or the harmonized criteria. The validated D-AII was calculated using a standardized procedure (range 10-77). RESULTS: Inverse associations were observed between D-AII and transition from healthy to unhealthy metabolic status (Odds Ratio (OR)3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.88 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI)(0.73, 0.98)) and diabetes (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.55, 95%CI(0.29, 0.77)). In women, D-AII was inversely associated with transition from healthy to unhealthy metabolic status (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.55, 95%CI(0.26, 0.90), diabetes (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.41, 95%CI(0.18, 0.64) and hypertension (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.75, 95%CI(0.20, 0.95), yet only with diabetes incidence in men (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.62, 95%CI(0.38, 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Diet with high anti-inflammatory load seems an effective preventive measure to retain a metabolically benign status, principally in terms of glycemic control.

7.
Blood Press Monit ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106147

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize different patterns of variability of three repeated within-visit blood pressure (BP) readings and to determine the prevalence of specific variation trends in systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and pulse pressure (PP). METHODS: Data from 53 737 subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. In each subject, three consecutive BP measurements were performed with a minimum time-interval of at least 30 s. We propose three patterns of within-visit BP variability (separately for SBP, DBP and PP): (1) increasing trend (BP3 > BP2 > BP1); (2) decreasing trend (BP1 > BP2 > BP3) and (3) no trend (BP3 ≈ BP2 ≈ BP1). A threshold of minimum change (ΔP > 3 mmHg) between BP1-BP2 and BP2-BP3 was also applied as a prerequisite for the definition of these trends. RESULTS: An increasing trend was observed among three consecutive measurements of SBP, DBP and PP in 7.4, 10.4 and 10.2%, respectively. When a minimum threshold of 3 mmHg was set the respective increasing trends were observed in 1.8, 2.9 and 4.4%, respectively. There was a higher prevalence of decreasing trend within three consecutive SBP, DBP and PP readings: 17, 13.1 and 16.2%, respectively, whereas using a threshold of ΔP >3 mmHg the respective prevalence was 6.3, 4.1 and 7.7%. A maximum absolute difference >10 mmHg within triplicate of SBP/DBP/PP readings was observed in 12.9, 13 and 29.4%, respectively. In the era of personalized medicine, these patterns are well worth further investigation concerning their pathophysiologic and clinical relevance.

8.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 25(1): e12701, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several noninvasive risk factors (NIRFs) have been proposed for sudden cardiac death risk stratification in post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). However, it remains unclear if these factors change over time. METHODS: We evaluated seven electrocardiographic NIRFs as they were described in the PRESERVE-EF trial in 80 post-MI patients with EF ≥ 40%, at least 40 days after revascularization and 1 year later. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 56 ± 10 years, and 88% were men. Mean EF was 50 ± 5%. The prevalence of (a) positive late potentials (27.5% vs. 28.8%, p = .860), (b) >30 premature ventricular complexes/hour (8.8% vs. 11.3%, p = .598), (c) nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (8.8% vs. 5%, p = .349), (d) standard deviation of normal RR intervals <75 ms (3.8% vs. 3.8%, p = 1.000), (e) QTc derived from 24-hr electrocardiography >440 ms (men) or >450 ms (women) (17.5% vs. 17.5%, p = 1.000), (f) deceleration capacity ≤4.5 ms and heart rate turbulence onset ≥0% and slope ≤2.5 ms (2.5% vs. 3.8%. p = 1.000), and (g) ambulatory T-wave alternans ≥65 µV in two Holter channels (6.3% vs. 6.3%, p = 1.000) were similar between the two measurements. However, five patients (6.3%) without any NIRFs during the first assessment had at least one positive NIRF at the second assessment and six patients (7.5%) with at least one NIRF at baseline had no positive NIRFs at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of the examined electrocardiographic NIRFs between the two examinations was similar on a population basis, some patients without NIRFs at baseline developed NIRFs at 1 year and vice versa, highlighting the need for risk factor reassessment during follow-up.

9.
Heart Vessels ; 35(2): 259-267, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446461

RESUMO

Heterozygous familiar hypercholesterolemia (hFH) is an autosomal dominant inherited dyslipidemia, associated with premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aim of the study was to define prognostic factors for cardiovascular events (CVE) in asymptomatic individuals with hFH. All participants with recent diagnosis of hFH were recruited from the outpatient lipid clinic from 1987 to 2016, without any previous clinical evidence of CVD. A detailed clinical evaluation and laboratory investigation was obtained. Exercise tolerance test (ETT) was performed until maximum exercise capacity was achieved, without evidence of ischemia. Primary endpoint of the study was the first CVE. Four hundred fifty one participants were followed up for 10 ± 8 years, with 68 recorded cases of CVD (15%). Cumulative incidence of CVD was 15%, 24% and 32% for the 3 decades, respectively. In univariate analysis, male gender (p = 0.016), progression of age (p < 0.001), menopause (p = 0.030), waist-hip ratio (p = 0.043) and increased levels of Lp(α) (p = 0.014) were significantly associated with increased CVD incidence; whereas, exercise capacity (p = 0.025), low variation of heart rate (HR) during all stages of ETT compared to resting state (p = 0.020), maximum systolic (p = 0.014) and diastolic (p < 0.001) blood pressure were inversely associated with CVD. In multi-adjusted analysis, male gender (p < 0.001), duration of ETT (p = 0.023), estimated HR (p = 0.029), variation of HR during ETT compared to resting state (p < 0.05) and maximum diastolic pressure (p = 0.044) were significantly associated with CVD. Parameters of ETT in asymptomatic individuals with hFH, without any evidence of ischemia, may predict CVD in these high-risk patients after decades of observation.

10.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(1): 26-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic health and the ageing process. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relation between SMM and 10 year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, among CVD-free adults 45+ years old. METHODS: ATTICA is a prospective, population-based study that recruited 3042 adults without pre-existing CVD from the Greek general population (Caucasians; age ≥18 years; 1514 men). The 10 year study follow-up (2011-2012) captured the fatal/non-fatal CVD incidence in 2020 participants (50% men). The working sample consisted of 1019 participants, 45+ years old (men: n=534; women: n=485). A skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was created to reflect SMM, using appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) standardised by body mass index (BMI). ASM and SMI were calculated with specific indirect population formulas. RESULTS: The 10 year CVD incidence increased significantly across the baseline SMI tertiles (p<0.001). Baseline SMM showed a significant inverse association with the 10 year CVD incidence (HR 0.06, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.78), even after adjusting for various confounders. Additionally, participants in the highest SMM tertile had 81% (95% CI 0.04 to 0.85) lower risk for a CVD event as compared with those in the lowest SMM tertile. CONCLUSIONS: The presented findings support the importance of SMM evaluation in the prediction of long-term CVD risk among adults 45+ years old without pre-existing CVD. Preservation of SMM may contribute to CVD health.

13.
Hellenic J Cardiol ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809790

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) led to the foundation of the subspecialty of structural heart interventions and created an emerging area of clinical and technical issues. Soon after TAVI introduction into clinical practice, boundaries were expanded with utilization of valve-in-valve (V-i-V) techniques. V-i-V comprised a diverse subset of patients including TAVI within TAVI, TAVI within a degenerated surgically implanted bioprosthesis, or even TAVI-in-TAVI-in-surgical bioprosthesis. In the present review, we summarize the available literature and present initial experience on the field in Greece.

14.
Hellenic J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The sex-specific effect of depressive symptomatology on 10-year first and recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events was evaluated. METHODS: The Greek samples from ATTICA (2002-2012, n = 845 free-of-CVD subjects) and GREECS (2004-2014, n = 2,172 subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)) prospective epidemiological studies with baseline psychological assessments were used for the first and the recurrent event, respectively. Depressive symptomatology was assessed at baseline, through Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale in the ATTICA study, and through the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale in the GREECS study. RESULTS: ACS as well as free-of-CVD women scored significantly higher for depressive symptomatology. Men scored higher than women against first (19.7% vs. 11.7%) and subsequent CVD events (38.8% vs. 32.9%). In participants with depressive symptoms man-to-woman first and recurrent CVD event rate ratio was below 1, confirming that depressive women were more likely to have a CVD event than depressive men. Multiadjusted analysis revealed that depressive symptomatology had an independent aggravating effect on the first (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.50, 9.12) and recurrent (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01, 1.69) CVD events only in women. Mediation analysis in women revealed that 35% (23%, 44%) of excess first-CVD-event risk of depressive symptoms was attributed to conventional risk factors. The respective number for recurrent CVD events was 46% (23%, 53%); different patterns of ranking regarding the mediating effect corresponding to each adjustment factor were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The present work augments prior evidence that psychological stressors possess important drivers of CVD onset and progression mainly in women, while it gives rise to research toward unidentified paths behind this claim.

15.
Hellenic J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740362

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a crucial role for vaccines in cardiovascular disease, mediated not only by disease prevention but also by immunomodulatory effects. This review attempts to briefly present the effects of pathogens and vaccines on the cardiovascular system and potential mechanisms for the development of vaccines against cardiovascular diseases per se. Current epidemiological evidence regarding vaccine effectiveness in different categories of heart disease is discussed, as well as current international guidelines' recommendations. In summary, cardiologists should strive to promote vaccination against specific pathogens with proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases.

18.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; : 954411919888321, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746271

RESUMO

Non-invasive monitoring of cardiac output is a technological and clinical challenge, especially for critically ill, surgically operated, or intensive care unit patients. A brachial cuff-based, automated, oscillometric device used for blood pressure and arterial stiffness ambulatory monitoring (Mobil-O-Graph) provides a non-invasive estimation of cardiac output values simultaneously with regular blood pressure measurement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of this apparatus to estimate cardiac output in intensive care unit patients and to compare the non-invasive estimated cardiac output values with the respective gold standard method of thermodilution during pulmonary artery catheterization. Repeated sequential measurements of cardiac output were performed, in random order, by thermodilution (reference) and Mobil-O-Graph (test), in 24 patients hospitalized at intensive care unit. Reproducibility and accuracy of the test device were evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis, intraclass correlation coefficient, and percentage error. Mobil-O-Graph underestimated significantly the cardiac output by -1.12 ± 1.38 L/min (p < 0.01) compared to thermodilution. However, intraclass correlation coefficient was >0.7 indicating a fair agreement between the test and the reference methods, while percentage error was approximately 39% which is considered to be within the acceptable limits. Cardiac output measurements were reproducible by both Mobil-O-Graph (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.73 and percentage error = 27.9%) and thermodilution (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91 and percentage error = 26.7%). We showed for the first time that cardiac output estimation in intensive care unit patients using a non-invasive, automated, oscillometric, cuff-based apparatus is reproducible (by analyzing two repeated cardiac output measurements), exhibiting similar precision to thermodilution. However, the accuracy of Mobil-O-Graph (error compared to thermodilution) could be considered fairly acceptable. Future studies remain to further examine the reliability of this technology in monitoring cardiac output or stroke volume acute changes which is a more clinically relevant objective.

19.
Hellenic J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In randomized clinical trials, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) effectively reduce low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) with a favorable tolerability and safety profile. Our purpose is to provide real-world data regarding the indications, efficacy and safety of PCSK9i. METHODS: The cohort comprised 141 patients who attended the lipid clinic of 3 hospitals in Greece and started using PCSK9i. Patients were requested to attend the lipid clinic at 3 months and at 1 year. RESULTS: Ninety percent of patients had heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (heFH) and 75% had cardiovascular disease (CVD). A PCSK9i [evolocumab 140 mg/2 weeks (n = 82), alirocumab 75 mg/2 weeks (n = 46) and alirocumab 150 mg/2 weeks (n = 13)] was prescribed due to failure to achieve LDL-C targets despite maximum lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) in 75% of patients, while in the remaining cases, the indication was statin intolerance. The mean reduction of LDL-C at 3 months was 56.2% and remained constant at 12 months (55.8% reduction from baseline). LDL-C target was achieved by 68.1% of patients at 3 months. "Totally" intolerant to statins patients (unable to tolerate any statin dose, n = 23) showed the lowest LDL-C reduction (47.7%). Side effects attributed to treatment were reported by 14 patients (10%). The total number of patients who stopped PCSK9i at 1 year was 14 (10%) but only 2 (1.4%) discontinued treatment because of side effects (myalgias). CONCLUSIONS: Our real-world results of PCSK9i showed comparable efficacy and tolerability to those reported in clinical trials and highlighted the value of treatment with PCSK9i heFH patients not achieving LDL-C targets despite maximum LLT and high or very high risk statin intolerant patients.

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