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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009042, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592065

RESUMO

The BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a ubiquitous human virus that persists in the renourinary epithelium. Immunosuppression can lead to BKPyV reactivation in the first year post-transplantation in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. In KTRs, persistent DNAemia has been correlated to the occurrence of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) that can lead to graft loss if not properly controlled. Based on recent observations that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) specifically infiltrate PVAN lesions, we hypothesized that those cells could play a role in BKPyV infection. We first demonstrated that monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), an in vitro model for mDCs, captured BKPyV particles through an unconventional GRAF-1 endocytic pathway. Neither BKPyV particles nor BKPyV-infected cells were shown to activate MDDCs. Endocytosed virions were efficiently transmitted to permissive cells and protected from the antibody-mediated neutralization. Finally, we demonstrated that freshly isolated CD1c+ mDCs from the blood and kidney parenchyma behaved similarly to MDDCs thus extending our results to cells of clinical relevance. This study sheds light on a potential unprecedented CD1c+ mDC involvement in the BKPyV infection as a promoter of viral spreading.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms that can be used for their lytic activity against tumor cells as well as inducing or reactivating antitumor immune responses are a relevant part of the available immunotherapy strategies. Viruses, bacteria and even protozoa have been largely explored with success as effective human antitumor agents. To date, only one oncolytic virus-T-VEC-has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in biological cancer therapy in clinical trials. The goal of our study is to evaluate the potential of a livestock pathogen, the protozoan Neospora caninum, non-pathogenic in humans, as an effective and safe antitumorous agent. METHODS/RESULTS: We demonstrated that the treatment of murine thymoma EG7 by subcutaneous injection of N. caninum tachyzoites either in or remotely from the tumor strongly inhibits tumor development, and often causes their complete eradication. Analysis of immune responses showed that N. caninum had the ability to 1) lyze infected cancer cells, 2) reactivate the immunosuppressed immune cells and 3) activate the systemic immune system by generating a protective antitumor response dependent on natural killer cells, CD8-T cells and associated with a strong interferon (IFN)-γ secretion in the tumor microenvironment. Most importantly, we observed a total clearance of the injected agent in the treated animals: N. caninum exhibited strong anticancer effects without persisting in the organism of treated mice. We also established in vitro and an in vivo non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model that N. caninum infected and induced a strong regression of human Merkel cell carcinoma. Finally, we engineered a N. caninum strain to secrete human interleukin (IL)-15, associated with the alpha-subunit of the IL-15 receptor thus strengthening the immuno-stimulatory properties of N. caninum. Indeed, this NC1-IL15hRec strain induced both proliferation of and IFN-γ secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as improved efficacy in vivo in the EG7 tumor model. CONCLUSION: These results highlight N. caninum as a potential, extremely effective and non-toxic anticancer agent, capable of being engineered to either express at its surface or to secrete biodrugs. Our work has identified the broad clinical possibilities of using N. caninum as an oncolytic protozoan in human medicine.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 584251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193227

RESUMO

A better understanding of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response is necessary to finely evaluate commercial serological assays but also to predict protection against reinfection and to help the development of vaccines. For this reason, we monitored the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in infected patients. In order to assess the time of seroconversion, we used 151 samples from 30 COVID-19 inpatients and monitored the detection kinetics of anti-S1, anti-S2, anti-RBD and anti-N antibodies with in-house ELISAs. We observed that specific antibodies were detectable in all inpatients 2 weeks post-symptom onset and that the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid and RBD was more sensitive than the detection of the S1 or S2 subunits. Using retroviral particles pseudotyped with the spike of the SARS-CoV-2, we also monitored the presence of neutralizing antibodies in these samples as well as 25 samples from asymptomatic individuals that were shown SARS-CoV-2 seropositive using commercial serological tests. Neutralizing antibodies reached a plateau 2 weeks post-symptom onset and then declined in the majority of inpatients but they were undetectable in 56% of asymptomatic patients. Our results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 does not induce a prolonged neutralizing antibody response. They also suggest that induction of neutralizing antibodies is not the only strategy to adopt for the development of a vaccine. Finally, they imply that anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies should be titrated to optimize convalescent plasma therapy.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708246

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer frequently caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). It is still under discussion, in which cells viral integration and MCC development occurs. Recently, we demonstrated that a virus-positive MCC derived from a trichoblastoma, an epithelial neoplasia bearing Merkel cell (MC) differentiation potential. Accordingly, we hypothesized that MC progenitors may represent an origin of MCPyV-positive MCC. To sustain this hypothesis, phenotypic comparison of trichoblastomas and physiologic human MC progenitors was conducted revealing GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1), Keratin 17 (KRT 17), and SRY-box transcription factor 9 (SOX9) expressions in both subsets. Furthermore, GLI1 expression in keratinocytes induced transcription of the MC marker SOX2 supporting a role of GLI1 in human MC differentiation. To assess a possible contribution of the MCPyV T antigens (TA) to the development of an MC-like phenotype, human keratinocytes were transduced with TA. While this led only to induction of KRT8, an early MC marker, combined GLI1 and TA expression gave rise to a more advanced MC phenotype with SOX2, KRT8, and KRT20 expression. Finally, we demonstrated MCPyV-large T antigens' capacity to inhibit the degradation of the MC master regulator Atonal bHLH transcription factor 1 (ATOH1). In conclusion, our report suggests that MCPyV TA contribute to the acquisition of an MC-like phenotype in epithelial cells.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer associated with high risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is becoming the one of the most common female cancer in many sub-Saharan African countries. First-generation immigrant African women living in Europe are at-risk for cervical cancer, in a context of social vulnerability, with frequent lack of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to address immunologically the issue of catch-up prophylactic HPV vaccination in first-generation African immigrant women living in France. METHODS: IgG immune responses and cross-reactivities to α7 (HPV-18, -45 and -68) and α9 (HPV-16, -31, -33, -35, -52 and -58) HPV types, including 7 HR-HPV targeted by the Gardasil-9® prophylactic vaccine, were evaluated in paired serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) by HPV L1-virus-like particles-based ELISA. Genital HPV were detected by multiplex real time PCR (Seegene, Seoul, South Korea). RESULTS: Fifty-one immigrant women (mean age, 41.7 years; 72.5% HIV-infected) were prospectively included. More than two-third (68.6%) of them carried genital HPV (group I) while 31.4% were negative (group II). The majority (90.2%) exhibited serum IgG to at least one α7/α9 HR-HPV. Serum HPV-specific IgG were more frequently detected in group I than group II (100% versus 68.7%; P = 0.002). The distribution of serum and genital HPV-specific IgG was similar, but mean number of IgG reactivities to α7/α9 HR-HPV was higher in serum than CVS (5.6 IgG per woman in serum versus 3.2 in CVS; P<0.001). Rates of IgG cross-reactivities against HPV different from detected cervicovaginal HPV were higher in serum and CVS in group I than group II. Finally, the majority of groups I and II women (68.6% and 68.7%, respectively) exhibited serum or cervicovaginal IgG to Gardasil-9® HR-HPV, with higher mean rates in group I than group II (6.1 Gardasil-9® HR-HPV per woman versus 1.4; P<0.01). One-third (31.2%) of group II women did not show any serum and genital HPV-specific IgG. CONCLUSIONS: Around two-third of first-generation African immigrant women living in France showed frequent ongoing genital HPV infection and high rates of circulating and genital IgG to α7/α9 HPV, generally cross-reacting, avoiding the possibility of catch-up vaccination. Nevertheless, about one-third of women had no evidence of previous HPV infection, or showed only low levels of genital and circulating HR-HPV-specific IgG and could therefore be eligible for catch-up vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Colo do Útero/imunologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França/etnologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Vagina/imunologia
6.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 18(6): 579-607, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242472

RESUMO

Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) are the causative agent of mucosal neoplasia. Both cervical, anal and oropharyngeal cancers incidence is constantly increasing, making the HPV infection, a significant worldwide concern. Together, the CD8+ T cytotoxic cell-mediated response and the HPV-specific antibody response control most of the HPV infections before the development of cancers.Areas covered: We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and identified 228 eligible studies from 1987 to 2019 which examines both naturally acquired and vaccine induced humoral immunity against HPV infection in female and male subjects from worldwide origin. Herein, we synthesize current knowledge on the features of systemic and mucosal humoral immunity against HPV. We discuss the issues of the balance between the viral clearance or the escape to the host immune response, the differences between natural and vaccine-induced HPV-specific antibodies and their neutralizing capability. We also discuss the protection afforded after natural infection or following prophylactic vaccination.Expert opinion: Understanding the antibody response induced by HPV infection has led to the design of first-generation prophylactic vaccines. Now, prophylactic vaccination induces protective and long-lasting antibody response which would also strengthened the natural moderate humoral response in people previously exposed to the virus.

8.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 32(2): 114-121, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972727

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer, which is associated in 80% of cases with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Advanced stages respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors in 50% of cases. Major issues remain unanswered regarding its oncogenesis and optimal treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: MCPyV-negative and MCPyV-positive MCCs have been hypothesized to derive from distinct cells, although the cell of origin remains a matter of debate. The crucial role the MCPyV small T oncoprotein was recently confirmed by its ability to inactivate p53, together with its contribution to the metastatic progression. In advanced cases, tumoral microenvironment may adequately predict responses to immunotherapies, and several mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance have been investigated. SUMMARY: Identifying the mechanisms of oncogenesis allow experimentation of new therapeutic targets, which remain mandatory even at the era of immunotherapies. Although new insights in the mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance pave the way for development of further immunotherapy strategies, neoadjuvant strategies may challenge our whole approach of the disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Animais , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/genética , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/patologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
9.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(5): 976-985, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759946

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, is to date the only human cancer known to be frequently caused by a polyomavirus. However, it is a matter of debate which cells are targeted by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) to give rise to the phenotypically multifaceted MCC cells. To assess the lineage of origin of MCPyV-positive MCC, genetic analysis of a very rare tumor combining benign trichoblastoma and MCPyV-positive MCC was conducted by massive parallel sequencing. Although MCPyV was found to be integrated only in the MCC part, six somatic mutations were shared by both tumor components. The mutational overlap between the trichoblastoma and MCPyV-positive MCC parts of the combined tumor implies that MCPyV integration occurred in an epithelial tumor cell before MCC development. Therefore, our report demonstrates that MCPyV-positive MCC can derive from the epithelial lineage.

10.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615131

RESUMO

The immunosuppression required for graft tolerance in kidney transplant patients can trigger latent BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) reactivation, and the infection can progress to nephropathy and graft rejection. It has been suggested that pre-transplantation BKPyV serostatus in donors and recipients is a predictive marker for post-transplantation BKPyV replication. The fact that research laboratories have used many different assay techniques to determine BKPyV serostatus complicates these data analysis. Even studies based on the same technique differed in their standard controls choice, the antigenic structure type used for detection, and the cut-off for seropositivity. Here, we review the different BKPyV VP1 antigens types used for detection and consider the various BKPyV serostatus assay techniques' advantages and disadvantages. Lastly, we highlight the obstacles in the implementation of a consensual BKPyV serologic assay in clinics (e.g., the guidelines absence in this field).


Assuntos
Vírus BK/isolamento & purificação , Transplante de Rim , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/diagnóstico , Viremia/prevenção & controle , Vírus BK/imunologia , DNA Viral , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Rejeição de Enxerto/virologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Transplantados , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/prevenção & controle
11.
Cell Immunol ; 344: 103961, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472938

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous cancer, which is immunogenic, regardless of the presence of MCPyV (80% of cases). The identification of MCC-specific epitopes recognized by CD8 T cells is crucial to expand the arsenal of immunotherapeutic treatments. Until now, most efforts focused on the identification of virus-specific epitopes, whereas immune responses directed against shared cellular tumor-specific antigens have not been evidenced. In this study, we measured T-cell responses against viral (n = 3) and tumor antigens (n = 47) from TILs derived from 21 MCC tumors. Virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses dominated MCC-specific immune responses, and we identified two new HLA-peptide complexes derived from the LT antigen, located in a region encompassing 3 previously identified epitopes. Finally, we show that MAGE-A3 antigen, frequently expressed by MCC tumors, was recognized by CD8 TILs from a virus-negative MCC tumor and thus could be a target for immunotherapy in this setting.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Células COS , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia
12.
Front Oncol ; 9: 451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245285

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. This neoplasia features aggressive behavior, resulting in a 5-year overall survival rate of 40%. In 2008, Feng et al. identified Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integration into the host genome as the main event leading to MCC oncogenesis. However, despite identification of this crucial viral oncogenic trigger, the nature of the cell in which MCC oncogenesis occurs is actually unknown. In fact, several hypotheses have been proposed. Despite the large similarity in phenotype features between MCC tumor cells and physiological Merkel cells (MCs), a specialized subpopulation of the epidermis acting as mechanoreceptor of the skin, several points argue against the hypothesis that MCC derives directly from MCs. Alternatively, MCPyV integration could occur in another cell type and induce acquisition of an MC-like phenotype. Accordingly, an epithelial as well as a fibroblastic or B-cell origin of MCC has been proposed mainly based on phenotype similarities shared by MCC and these potential ancestries. The aim of this present review is to provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge of the histogenesis of MCC.

13.
Mod Pathol ; 32(11): 1605-1616, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201352

RESUMO

In 2008, Feng et al. identified Merkel cell polyomavirus integration as the primary oncogenic event in ~80% of Merkel cell carcinoma cases. The remaining virus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma cases associated with a high mutational load are most likely caused by UV radiation. The current study aimed to compare the morphological and immunohistochemical features of 80 virus-positive and 21 virus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma cases. Microscopic evaluation revealed that elongated nuclei-similar to the spindle-shape variant of small cell lung cancer-were less frequent in Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive Merkel cell carcinoma compared to the virus-negative subset (p = 0.005). Moreover, virus-negative cases more frequently displayed a "large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma" phenotype with larger cell size (p = 0.0026), abundant cytoplasm (p = 4×10-7) and prominent nucleoli (p = 0.002). Analysis of immunohistochemical data revealed frequent positivity for thyroid transcription factor 1 and cytokeratin 7, either absence or overexpression of p53, as well as frequent lack of neurofilament expression in virus-negative cases. By contrast, cytokeratin 8, 18 and 20 and a CD99 with a dot pattern as well as high EMA expression were identified as characteristic features of virus-positive Merkel cell carcinoma. In particular, the CD99 dot-like expression pattern was strongly associated with presence of the Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma (sensitivity = 81%, specificity = 90%, positive likelihood ratio = 8.08). To conclude, virus-positive and -negative Merkel cell carcinoma are characterized by distinct morphological and immunohistochemical features, which implies a significant difference in tumor biology and behavior. Importantly, we identified the CD99 staining pattern as a marker indicating the virus status of this skin cancer.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/patologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel , Infecções por Polyomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/patologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
15.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(4): 3170-3179, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362540

RESUMO

Recent data indicate that the Simian virus 40 (SV40) infection appears to be transmitted in humans independently from early SV40-contaminated antipolio vaccines. Serum antibodies against SV40 large T antigen (Tag) were analyzed in children/adolescents and young adults. To investigate antibodies reacting to SV40 Tag antigens, serum samples ( n = 812) from children and young adults were analyzed by indirect ELISAs using specific SV40 Tag mimotopes. Mimotopes were synthetic peptides corresponding to SV40 Tag epitopes. In sera ( n = 412) from healthy children up to 17 years old, IgG antibodies against SV40 Tag mimotopes reached an overall prevalence of 15%. IgM antibodies against SV40 Tag were detected in sera of children 6-8 months old confirming and extending the knowledge that SV40 seroconversion occurs early in life. In children/adolescents affected by different diseases ( n = 180) SV40 Tag had a prevalence of 18%, being the difference no significant compared to healthy subjects ( n = 220; 16%) of the same age. Our immunological data indicate that SV40 circulates in children and young adults, both in healthy conditions and affected by distinct diseases. The IgM detection in sera from healthy children suggests that the SV40 infection/seroconversion occurs early in life (>6 months). Our immunological data support the hypothesis that SV40, or a closely related still unknown polyomavirus, infects humans. The SV40 seroprevalence is lower than common polyomaviruses, such as BKPyV and JCPyV, and other new human polyomaviruses. In addition, our immunological surveillance indicates a lack of association between different diseases, considered herein, and SV40.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/sangue , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/imunologia , Epitopos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico , Soroconversão , Vírus 40 dos Símios/imunologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Polyomavirus/sangue , Infecções por Polyomavirus/imunologia
16.
Mod Pathol ; 32(4): 499-510, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349028

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin mostly induced by Merkel cell polyomavirus integration. Cytokeratin 20 (CK20) positivity is currently used to distinguish Merkel cell carcinomas from other neuroendocrine carcinomas. However, this distinction may be challenging in CK20-negative cases and in cases without a primary skin tumor. The objectives of this study were first to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of previously described markers for the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma and second to validate these markers in the setting of difficult-to-diagnose Merkel cell carcinoma variants. In a preliminary set (n = 30), we assessed optimal immunohistochemical patterns (CK20, thyroid transcription factor 1 [TTF-1], atonal homolog 1 [ATOH1], neurofilament [NF], special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 [SATB2], paired box protein 5, terminal desoxynucleotidyl transferase, CD99, mucin 1, and Merkel cell polyomavirus-large T antigen) and Merkel cell polyomavirus load thresholds (real-time PCR). The diagnostic accuracy of each marker was then assessed in a validation set of 103 Merkel cell carcinomas (9 CK20-negative cases and 15 cases without a primary skin tumor) and 70 extracutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma cases. The most discriminant markers for a diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma were SATB2, NF expression, and Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA detection (positive likelihood ratios: 36.6, 44.4, and 28.2, respectively). Regarding Merkel cell carcinoma variants, cases without a primary skin tumor retained a similar immunohistochemical  profile and CK20-negative tumors displayed a different profile (decrease frequency of NF and SATB2 expression), but Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA remained detected (78% of cases by qPCR). Moreover, 8/9 (89%) CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma cases but only 3/61 (5%) CK20-negative extracutaneous neuroendocrine cases were positive for at least one of these markers. In conclusion, detection of SATB2 and NF expression and Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA helps distinguish between Merkel cell carcinoma classical and variant cases and extracutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(8): 1209-1219, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808366

RESUMO

The recent success of checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) confirms that MCC tumors can be immunogenic. However, no treatment directly targeting the tumor is available for use in combination with these checkpoint inhibitors to enhance their efficacity. This study was carried out to characterize MCC line sensitivity to cellular lysis and to identify cell surface antigens that could be used for direct targeting of this tumor. For five representative MCC lines, the absence or low expression of MICA, MICB, HLA-I, and ICAM-1 was associated with low level of recognition by NK cells and T lymphocytes. However, expression of HLA-I and ICAM-1 and sensitivity to cellular lysis could be restored or increased after exposure to INFγ. We tested 41 antibodies specific for 41 different antigens using a novel antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) screening system for target antigens. Anti-CD326 (EpCAM) was the only antibody capable of inducing ADCC on the five MCC lines tested. Because MCC tumors are often directly accessible, local pharmacologic manipulation to restore HLA class-I and ICAM-1 cell surface expression (and thus sensitivity to cell lysis) can potentially benefit immune therapeutic intervention. In line with this, our observation that ADCC against EpCAM can induce lysis of MCC lines and suggests that therapeutic targeting of this antigen deserves to be explored further.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
18.
Virchows Arch ; 472(5): 825-837, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594354

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. The main etiological agent is Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), detected in 80% of cases. About 5% of cases, called combined MCC, feature an admixture of neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumor cells. Reports of the presence or absence of MCPyV in combined MCC are conflicting, most favoring the absence, which suggests that combined MCC might have independent etiological factors and pathogenesis. These discrepancies might occur with the use of different virus identification assays, with different sensitivities. In this study, we aimed to determine the viral status of combined MCC by a multimodal approach. We histologically reviewed 128 cases of MCC and sub-classified them as "combined" or "conventional." Both groups were compared by clinical data (age, sex, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stage, immunosuppression, risk of recurrence, and death during follow-up) and immunochemical features (cytokeratin 20 and 7, thyroid transcription factor 1 [TTF1], p53, large T antigen [CM2B4], CD8 infiltrates). After a first calibration step with 12 conventional MCCs and 12 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas as controls, all eight cases of combined MCC were investigated for MCPyV viral status by combining two independent molecular procedures. Furthermore, on multiplex genotyping assay, the samples were examined for the presence of other polyoma- and papillomaviruses. Combined MCC differed from conventional MCC in earlier AJCC stage, increased risk of recurrence and death, decreased CD8 infiltrates, more frequent TTF1 positivity (5/8), abnormal p53 expression (8/8), and frequent lack of large T antigen expression (7/8). With the molecular procedure, half of the combined MCC cases were positive for MCPyV in the neuroendocrine component. Beta papillomaviruses were detected in 5/8 combined MCC cases and 9/12 conventional MCC cases. In conclusion, the detection of MCPyV DNA in half of the combined MCC cases suggests similar routes of carcinogenesis for combined and conventional MCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/patologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 7(1): 22, 2018 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511157

RESUMO

The presence of specific antibodies against human polyomavirus 12, Saint Louis polyomavirus and New Jersey polyomavirus was investigated by using virus-like particle-based ELISAs with serum samples from 706 Italians aged 1- to 100-years-old. The findings indicate that these polyomaviruses circulate widely in humans, with peak seroprevalence, observed at adulthood, of 97.3%, 93.3%, 57.5%, for human polyomavirus 12, Saint Louis polyomavirus and New Jersey polyomavirus, respectively.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Polyomavirus/sangue , Polyomavirus/imunologia , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polyomavirus/classificação , Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 56(4)2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305551

RESUMO

The family of polyomaviruses, which cause severe disease in immunocompromised hosts, has expanded substantially in recent years. To accommodate measurement of IgG seroresponses against all currently known human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), including the Lyon IARC polyomavirus (LIPyV), we extended our custom multiplex bead-based HPyV immunoassay and evaluated the performance of this pan-HPyV immunoassay. The VP1 proteins of 15 HPyVs belonging to 13 Polyomavirus species were expressed as recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and coupled to fluorescent Luminex beads. Sera from healthy blood donors and immunocompromised kidney transplant recipients were used to analyze seroreactivity against the different HPyVs. For BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), the GST-VP1 fusion protein-directed seroresponses were compared to those obtained against BKPyV VP1 virus-like particles (VLP). Seroreactivity against most HPyVs was common and generally high in both test populations. Low seroreactivity against HPyV9, HPyV12, New Jersey PyV, and LIPyV was observed. The assay was reproducible (Pearson's r2 > 0.84, P < 0.001) and specific. Weak but consistent cross-reactivity between the related viruses HPyV6 and HPyV7 was observed. The seroresponses measured by the GST-VP1-based immunoassay and a VP1 VLP-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were highly correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.823, P < 0.001). The bead-based pan-HPyV multiplex immunoassay is a reliable tool to determine HPyV-specific seroresponses with high reproducibility and specificity and is suitable for use in seroepidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico , Polyomavirus/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Proteínas do Capsídeo/sangue , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Fluorescência , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Imunoensaio/métodos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Testes Imunológicos/instrumentação , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia
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