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J Refract Surg ; 37(9): 582-589, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506240


PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of oral codeine plus acetaminophen versus oxycodone plus acetaminophen for severe pain control following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: This single-center trial randomized 200 patients to receive codeine 30 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg (codeine group) or oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg (oxycodone group)every 4 hours as needed for severe pain for 4 days following PRK. Patients recorded postoperative pain, tablet consumption, and tetracaine use. Patients were monitored at postoperative 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months for visual acuity and follow-up. Study outcomes were mean postoperative pain, treatment and tetracaine use, and visual acuity. RESULTS: Analysis of 197 patients who completed the trial (97 codeine group and 100 oxycodone group) showed mean pain scores were lower in the codeine group throughout the intervention period. Mean pain scores were higher in the oxycodone group than the codeine group on postoperative days 2 and 4 (P = .017 and P = .034, respectively). The oxycodone group consumed more tablets than the codeine group, with a difference on postoperative day 2 (P = .019), and used a greater number of tetracaine drops (P = .015). Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant improvement in visual acuity in both groups with no difference in visual outcomes (P = .81). CONCLUSIONS: Codeine/acetaminophen is as effective and safe as oxycodone/acetaminophen for pain control following PRK, with no clinical difference in overall pain control and long-term visual outcomes. This implies that treating postoperative pain after PRK with a Schedule III opioid (codeine) is effective and potentially decreases the risk of misuse by a higher regulated Schedule II opioid (oxycodone), lowering the potential for abuse and dependence. [J Refract Surg. 2021;37(9):582-589.].

Oxicodona , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa , Codeína , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 33(2): 111-114, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28140772


PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the concentrations of Flarex® and Lotemax® when shaken and not shaken. Many patients fail to shake or inappropriately shake suspensions of corticosteroids before instillation as directed. This study was designed to help determine what concentration of corticosteroid these patients are receiving. In addition, independent confirmation of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel dose uniformity was determined and compared as a possible alternative. METHODS: Drug concentrations of shaken versus unshaken Flarex and Lotemax were determined over a 20-day simulated tapered course in our institutional laboratory. Collected samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection at 240 nm. RESULTS: Flarex had a mean concentration of 93.7% of the declared concentration when shaken and 7.25% when not shaken. The difference between these groups was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Lotemax had a mean concentration of 96.74% of the declared concentration when shaken and a mean concentration of 98.97% when not shaken. The difference between these groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.194). CONCLUSIONS: Flarex maintains dose uniformity when shaken. When not shaken, it has poor dose uniformity. Lotemax was consistent whether shaken or not in our study and can be considered to eliminate the variability of poor patient compliance with shaking. The manufacturers of both drugs recommend shaking before application.

Acetatos/análise , Antialérgicos/análise , Fluormetolona/análise , Etabonato de Loteprednol/análise , Soluções Oftálmicas/análise , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Fluormetolona/administração & dosagem , Géis/administração & dosagem , Géis/análise , Humanos , Etabonato de Loteprednol/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem
J Refract Surg ; 31(5): 328-32, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25974972


PURPOSE: To compare the agreement of intraoperative central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements of the Wavelight EX500 (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX) that uses optical low coherence reflectometry to the Corneo-Gage Plus ultrasound pachymetry device (Sonogage, Cleveland, OH). METHODS: In this retrospective study, 50 eyes of 26 patients undergoing LASIK were evaluated. Following LASIK flap creation, each eye was measured by both optical low coherence reflectometry and ultrasound pachymetry immediately prior to flap lifting and then again after flap lifting. RESULTS: The mean CCT value before lifting the flap was 556.9 and 557.78 µm as measured by ultrasound pachymetry and optical low coherence reflectometry, respectively. After lifting the flap, the mean ultrasound pachymetry value was 440.96 µm and the mean optical low coherence reflectometry value was 441.7 µm. A two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrated that the ultrasound pachymetry and the optical low coherence reflectometry distribution of measurements were the same. A Shapiro-Wilk test of normality could not be rejected. Bland-Altman plots showed strong agreement. The correlation between the two tests was 0.98 before flap lifting and 0.97 after flap lifting, both with a 95% confidence interval. CONCLUSIONS: The pachymetry measurements by the optical low coherence reflectometry correlated with those of the ultrasound pachymetry device. The Wavelight EX500 optical low coherence reflectometry may be used in place of the ultrasound pachymetry device for measuring CCT.

Córnea/patologia , Paquimetria Corneana/instrumentação , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adulto Jovem