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J Phys Chem B ; 116(13): 4024-33, 2012 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22404310


Site-directed spin labeling, wherein a nitroxide side chain is introduced into a protein at a selected mutant site, is increasingly employed to investigate biological systems by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. An understanding of the packing and dynamics of the spin label is needed to extract the biologically relevant information about the macromolecule from ESR measurements. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on the spin-labeled restriction endonuclease, EcoRI in complex with DNA. Mutants of this homodimeric enzyme were previously constructed, and distance measurements were performed using the double electron electron resonance experiment. These correlated distance constraints have been leveraged with MD simulations to learn about side chain packing and preferred conformers of the spin label on sites in an α-helix and a ß-strand. We found three dihedral angles of the spin label side chain to be most sensitive to the secondary structure where the spin label was located. Conformers sampled by the spin label differed between secondary structures as well. C(α)-C(α) distance distributions were constructed and used to extract details about the protein backbone mobility at the two spin labeled sites. These simulation studies enhance our understanding of the behavior of spin labels in proteins and thus expand the ability of ESR spectroscopy to contribute to knowledge of protein structure and dynamics.

DNA/química , Desoxirribonuclease EcoRI/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Marcadores de Spin , Desoxirribonuclease EcoRI/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Modelos Moleculares
Lab Chip ; 10(12): 1543-9, 2010 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20358051


We demonstrate the use of a microfluidic stagnation point flow to trap and extend single molecules of double-stranded (ds) genomic DNA for detection of target sequences along the DNA backbone. Mutant EcoRI-based fluorescent markers are bound sequence-specifically to fluorescently labeled ds lambda-DNA. The marker-DNA complexes are introduced into a microfluidic cross slot consisting of flow channels that intersect at ninety degrees. Buffered solution containing the marker-DNA complexes flows in one channel of the cross slot, pure buffer flows in the opposing channel at the same flow rate, and fluid exits the two channels at ninety degrees from the inlet channels. This creates a stagnation point at the center of a planar extensional flow, where marker-DNA complexes may be trapped and elongated along the outflow axis. The degree of elongation can be controlled using the flow strength (i.e., a non-dimensional flow rate) in the device. Both the DNA backbone and the markers bound along the stretched DNA are observed directly using fluorescence microscopy, and the location of the markers along the DNA backbone is measured. We find that our method permits detection of each of the five expected target site positions to within 1.5 kb with standard deviations of <1.5 kb. We compare the method's precision and accuracy at molecular extensions of 68% and 88% of the contour length to binding distributions from similar data obtained via molecular combing. We also provide evidence that increased mixing of the sample during binding of the marker to the DNA improves binding to internal target sequences of dsDNA, presumably by extending the DNA and making the internal binding sites more accessible.

Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/instrumentação , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Desoxirribonuclease EcoRI/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Genômica , Distribuição Normal
Anal Chem ; 81(24): 10049-54, 2009 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19908852


We have created a fluorescent marker using a mutant EcoRI restriction endonuclease (K249C) that enables prolonged, direct visualization of specific sequences on genomic lengths of double-stranded (ds) DNA. The marker consists of a biotinylated enzyme, attached through the biotin-avidin interaction to a fluorescent nanosphere. Control over biotin position with respect to the enzyme's binding pocket is achieved by biotinylating the mutant EcoRI at the mutation site. Biotinylated enzyme is incubated with dsDNA and NeutrAvidin-coated, fluorescent nanospheres under conditions that allow enzyme binding but prevent cleavage. Marker-laden DNA is then fluorescently stained and stretched on polylysine-coated glass slides so that the positions of the bound markers along individual DNA molecules can be measured. We demonstrate the marker's ability to bind specifically to its target sequence using both bulk gel-shift assays and single-molecule methods.

DNA/análise , DNA/genética , Nanoestruturas/química , DNA Metiltransferases Sítio Específica (Adenina-Específica)/química , DNA Metiltransferases Sítio Específica (Adenina-Específica)/metabolismo , Avidina/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Biotina/metabolismo , Biotinilação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fluorescência , Modelos Moleculares , DNA Metiltransferases Sítio Específica (Adenina-Específica)/genética , Especificidade por Substrato