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1.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The life expectancy of people with haemophilia is increasing due to improved medical care. This improvement is accompanied by the co-morbidities of ageing, which include musculoskeletal degeneration and the associated effect on proprioception and balance. This study aims to explore the views and everyday experiences of those living with haemophilia regarding this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine people with moderate or severe haemophilia aged 43-58 years participated in semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis was used to examine the data. RESULTS: Participants described pain and reduced movement in joints as a result of repeated bleeds, which caused problems with mobility and balance. Constant vigilance of their surroundings together with the potential consequences of bleeds caused continual worry. Participants were resourceful in their strategies to cope with the effects of haemophilia, to reduce pain and to minimise the risk of falling. However, participants felt stigmatised because of their condition. CONCLUSION: People with haemophilia have difficulties with their mobility and balance that can increase their risk of falling. Healthcare professionals need to understand and address the physical and psycho-social factors that contribute to the risk of falls. A multi-disciplinary approach to devise effective strategies to counteract and monitor the risk of falls would be useful.Implications for RehabilitationHealthcare professionals should identify movements that are fearful and work on ways to increase confidence and ability to perform these.Healthcare professionals need to identify the recovery strategies used to maintain balance and build these movements into home exercise programmes.Effective pain reduction strategies, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, need to be investigated and optimised.Footwear choice has implications for both pain reduction and balance and should be discussed in routine reviews.Optimising vision would maximise visual input to aid balance.

2.
Trials ; 22(1): 678, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials in surgery can be a challenge to design and conduct, especially when including a non-surgical comparison. As few as half of initiated surgical trials reach their recruitment target, and failure to recruit is cited as the most frequent reason for premature closure of surgical RCTs. The aim of this qualitative evidence synthesis was to identify and synthesise findings from qualitative studies exploring the challenges in the design and conduct of trials directly comparing surgical and non-surgical interventions. METHODS: A qualitative evidence synthesis using meta-ethnography was conducted. Six electronic bibliographic databases (Medline, Central, Cinahl, Embase and PsycInfo) were searched up to the end of February 2018. Studies that explored patients' and health care professionals' experiences regarding participating in RCTs with a surgical and non-surgical comparison were included. The GRADE-CERQual framework was used to assess confidence in review findings. RESULTS: In total, 3697 abstracts and 49 full texts were screened and 26 published studies reporting experiences of patients and healthcare professionals were included. The focus of the studies (24/26) was primarily related to the challenge of recruitment. Two studies explored reasons for non-compliance to treatment allocation following randomisation. Five themes related to the challenges to these types of trials were identified: (1) radical choice between treatments; (2) patients' discomfort with randomisation: I want the best treatment for me as an individual; (3) challenge of equipoise: patients' a priori preferences for treatment; (4) challenge of equipoise: clinicians' a priori preferences for treatment and (5) imbalanced presentation of interventions. CONCLUSION: The marked dichotomy between the surgical and non-surgical interventions was highlighted in this review as making recruitment to these types of trials particularly challenging. This review identified factors that increase our understanding of why patients and clinicians may find equipoise more challenging in these types of trials compared to other trial comparisons. Trialists may wish to consider exploring the balance of potential factors influencing patient and clinician preferences towards treatments before they start recruitment, to enable issues specific to a particular trial to be identified and addressed. This may enable trial teams to make more efficient considered design choices and benefit the delivery of such trials.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052598, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a home-based rehabilitation programme for people assessed as being at risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty offers superior outcomes to traditional outpatient physiotherapy. DESIGN: A prospective, single-blind, two-arm randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: 14 National Health Service physiotherapy departments in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 621 participants identified at high risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty using a bespoke screening tool. INTERVENTIONS: A multicomponent home-based rehabilitation programme delivered by rehabilitation assistants with supervision from qualified therapists versus usual care outpatient physiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the Oxford Knee Score (a disease-specific measure of function), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Quality of Life subscale, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, 5 dimension, 5 level version of Euroqol (EQ-5D-5L) and physical function assessed using the Figure of 8 Walk test, 30 s Chair Stand Test and Single Leg Stance. RESULTS: 621 participants were randomised between March 2015 and January 2018. 309 were assigned to CORKA (Community Rehabilitation after Knee Arthroplasty) home-based rehabilitation, receiving a median five treatment sessions (IQR 4-7). 312 were assigned to usual care, receiving a median 4 sessions (IQR 2-6). The primary outcome, LLFDI function total score at 12 months, was collected for 279 participants (89%) in the home-based CORKA group and 287 participants (92%) in the usual care group. No clinically or statistically significant difference was found between the groups (intention-to-treat adjusted difference=0.49 points; 95% CI -0.89 to 1.88; p=0.48). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on any of the patient-reported or physical secondary outcome measures at 6 or 12 months.There were 18 participants in the intervention group reporting a serious adverse event (5.8%), only one directly related to the intervention, all other adverse events recorded throughout the trial related to underlying chronic medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The CORKA intervention was not superior to usual care. The trial detected no significant differences, clinical or statistical, between the two groups on either primary or secondary outcomes. CORKA offers an evaluation of an intervention utilising a different service delivery model for this patient group. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13517704.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Medicina Estatal
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e040829, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences and perceptions of trial participants and healthcare professionals in the UK Frozen Shoulder Trial (UK FROST), a multicentre randomised controlled trial that compared manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA), arthroscopic capsular release (ACR) with a 12-week early structured physiotherapy programme (ESP) in people with unilateral frozen shoulder referred to secondary care. DESIGN: Nested qualitative study with semistructured interviews. We used constant comparison method to develop our themes. SETTING: This qualitative study was nested within the UK FROST. PARTICIPANTS: 44 trial participants (ESP: 14; MUA: 15; ACR: 15), and 8 surgeons and 8 physiotherapists who delivered the treatments in the trial. RESULTS: Trial participants found UK FROST treatments acceptable and satisfactory in terms of content, delivery and treatment benefits. Participants in all arms experienced improvements in pain, shoulder movements, and function. Participants said they would choose the same treatment that they received in the trial.Surgeons and physiotherapists felt that the content and delivery of UK FROST treatments was not significantly different to their routine practice except for the additional number of physiotherapy sessions offered in the trial. They had mixed feelings about the effectiveness of UK FROST treatments. Both stressed the value of including hydrodilatation as a comparator of other treatment options. Physiotherapists raised concerns about the capacity to deliver the number of UK FROST physiotherapy sessions in routine clinical settings.Shared perceptions of trial participants, surgeons and physiotherapists were: (1) Pain relief and return of shoulder movements and function are important outcomes and (2) Adherence to exercises leads to better outcomes. CONCLUSION: In general, our findings indicated that trial participants, and surgeons and physiotherapists who delivered the treatments had positive experiences and perceptions in the UK FROST. Early qualitative investigations to explore the feasibility of delivering treatments in real-world settings are suggested in future trials in the frozen shoulder. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register, ID: ISRCTN48804508. Registered on 25 July 2014; Results.


Assuntos
Bursite , Humanos , Percepção , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Reino Unido
5.
Pain Med ; 22(6): 1333-1344, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a large body of research exploring what it means for a person to live with chronic pain. However, existing research does not help us understand what it means to recover. We aimed to identify qualitative research that explored the experience of living with chronic pain published since 2012 and to understand the process of recovery. DESIGN: A synthesis of qualitative research using meta-ethnography. METHODS: We used the seven stages of meta-ethnography. We systematically searched for qualitative research, published since 2012, that explored adults' experiences of living with, and being treated for, chronic pain. We used constant comparison to distill the essence of ideas into themes and developed a conceptual model. RESULTS: We screened 1,328 titles and included 195 studies. Our conceptual model indicates that validation and reconnection can empower a person with chronic pain to embark on a journey of healing. To embark on this journey requires commitment, energy, and support. CONCLUSIONS: The innovation of our study is to conceptualize healing as an ongoing and iterating journey rather than a destination. Health interventions for chronic pain would usefully focus on validating pain through meaningful and acceptable explanations; validating patients by listening to and valuing their stories; encouraging patients to connect with a meaningful sense of self, to be kind to themselves, and to explore new possibilities for the future; and facilitating safe reconnection with the social world. This could make a real difference to people living with chronic pain who are on their own healing journeys.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural , Dor Crônica/terapia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(71): 1-162, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder causes pain and stiffness. It affects around 10% of people in their fifties and is slightly more common in women. Costly and invasive surgical interventions are used, without high-quality evidence that these are effective. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three treatments in secondary care for adults with frozen shoulder; to qualitatively explore the acceptability of these treatments to patients and health-care professionals; and to update a systematic review to explore the trial findings in the context of existing evidence for the three treatments. DESIGN: This was a pragmatic, parallel-group, multicentre, open-label, three-arm, randomised superiority trial with unequal allocation (2 : 2 : 1). An economic evaluation and a nested qualitative study were also carried out. SETTING: The orthopaedic departments of 35 hospitals across the UK were recruited from April 2015, with final follow-up in December 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with unilateral frozen shoulder, characterised by restriction of passive external rotation in the affected shoulder to < 50% of the opposite shoulder, and with plain radiographs excluding other pathology. INTERVENTIONS: The inventions were early structured physiotherapy with a steroid injection, manipulation under anaesthesia with a steroid injection and arthroscopic capsular release followed by manipulation. Both of the surgical interventions were followed with post-procedural physiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome and end point was the Oxford Shoulder Score at 12 months post randomisation. A difference of 5 points between early structured physiotherapy and manipulation under anaesthesia or arthroscopic capsular release or of 4 points between manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic capsular release was judged clinically important. RESULTS: The mean age of the 503 participants was 54 years; 319 were female (63%) and 150 had diabetes (30%). The primary analyses comprised 473 participants (94%). At the primary end point of 12 months, participants randomised to arthroscopic capsular release had, on average, a statistically significantly higher (better) Oxford Shoulder Score than those randomised to manipulation under anaesthesia (2.01 points, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 3.91 points; p = 0.04) or early structured physiotherapy (3.06 points, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 5.41 points; p = 0.01). Manipulation under anaesthesia did not result in statistically significantly better Oxford Shoulder Score than early structured physiotherapy (1.05 points, 95% confidence interval -1.28 to 3.39 points; p = 0.38). No differences were deemed of clinical importance. Serious adverse events were rare but occurred in participants randomised to surgery (arthroscopic capsular release,n = 8; manipulation under anaesthesia,n = 2). There was, however, one serious adverse event in a participant who received non-trial physiotherapy. The base-case economic analysis showed that manipulation under anaesthesia was more expensive than early structured physiotherapy, with slightly better utilities. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for manipulation under anaesthesia was £6984 per additional quality-adjusted life-year, and this intervention was probably 86% cost-effective at the threshold of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Arthroscopic capsular release was more costly than early structured physiotherapy and manipulation under anaesthesia, with no statistically significant benefit in utilities. Participants in the qualitative study wanted early medical help and a quicker pathway to resolve their shoulder problem. Nine studies were identified from the updated systematic review, including UK FROST, of which only two could be pooled, and found that arthroscopic capsular release was more effective than physiotherapy in the long-term shoulder functioning of patients, but not to the clinically important magnitude used in UK FROST. LIMITATIONS: Implementing physiotherapy to the trial standard in clinical practice might prove challenging but could avoid theatre use and post-procedural physiotherapy. There are potential confounding effects of waiting times in the trial. CONCLUSIONS: None of the three interventions was clearly superior. Early structured physiotherapy with a steroid injection is an accessible and low-cost option. Manipulation under anaesthesia is the most cost-effective option. Arthroscopic capsular release carries higher risks and higher costs. FUTURE WORK: Evaluation in a randomised controlled trial is recommended to address the increasing popularity of hydrodilatation despite the paucity of high-quality evidence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48804508. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 71. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

7.
Lancet ; 396(10256): 977-989, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic capsular release are costly and invasive treatments for frozen shoulder, but their effectiveness remains uncertain. We compared these two surgical interventions with early structured physiotherapy plus steroid injection. METHODS: In this multicentre, pragmatic, three-arm, superiority randomised trial, patients referred to secondary care for treatment of primary frozen shoulder were recruited from 35 hospital sites in the UK. Participants were adults (≥18 years) with unilateral frozen shoulder, characterised by restriction of passive external rotation (≥50%) in the affected shoulder. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive manipulation under anaesthesia, arthroscopic capsular release, or early structured physiotherapy. In manipulation under anaesthesia, the surgeon manipulated the affected shoulder to stretch and tear the tight capsule while the participant was under general anaesthesia, supplemented by a steroid injection. Arthroscopic capsular release, also done under general anaesthesia, involved surgically dividing the contracted anterior capsule in the rotator interval, followed by manipulation, with optional steroid injection. Both forms of surgery were followed by postprocedural physiotherapy. Early structured physiotherapy involved mobilisation techniques and a graduated home exercise programme supplemented by a steroid injection. Both early structured physiotherapy and postprocedural physiotherapy involved 12 sessions during up to 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS; 0-48) at 12 months after randomisation, analysed by initial randomisation group. We sought a target difference of 5 OSS points between physiotherapy and either form of surgery, or 4 points between manipulation and capsular release. The trial registration is ISRCTN48804508. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2017, we screened 914 patients, of whom 503 (55%) were randomly assigned. At 12 months, OSS data were available for 189 (94%) of 201 participants assigned to manipulation (mean estimate 38·3 points, 95% CI 36·9 to 39·7), 191 (94%) of 203 participants assigned to capsular release (40·3 points, 38·9 to 41·7), and 93 (94%) of 99 participants assigned to physiotherapy (37·2 points, 35·3 to 39·2). The mean group differences were 2·01 points (0·10 to 3·91) between the capsular release and manipulation groups, 3·06 points (0·71 to 5·41) between capsular release and physiotherapy, and 1·05 points (-1·28 to 3·39) between manipulation and physiotherapy. Eight serious adverse events were reported with capsular release and two with manipulation. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life-year, manipulation under anaesthesia had the highest probability of being cost-effective (0·8632, compared with 0·1366 for physiotherapy and 0·0002 for capsular release). INTERPRETATION: All mean differences on the assessment of shoulder pain and function (OSS) at the primary endpoint of 12 months were less than the target differences. Therefore, none of the three interventions were clinically superior. Arthoscopic capsular release carried higher risks, and manipulation under anaesthesia was the most cost-effective. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.


Assuntos
Bursite/terapia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Liberação da Cápsula Articular , Manipulação Ortopédica , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
8.
Int Urogynecol J ; 31(12): 2631-2644, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870341

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) affects the lives of many people. We aimed to systematically search for, identify and synthesize qualitative research that explores what it is like to live with POP and make this knowledge available for healthcare improvement. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and CINAHL, from inception to March 2020, for qualitative research exploring the experience of living with POP. We used meta-ethnography to synthesize findings. This is a conceptual approach to qualitative evidence synthesis. We used the recent guidelines for reporting meta-ethnography. RESULTS: We screened 3103 titles and 255 abstracts and included 37 primary studies. These incorporated the experience of 777 women, (aged 18 to 95 years) from a range of countries. We organized 162 ideas into 27 conceptual categories and 10 themes. We developed a conceptual model that helps us to understand the experience of pelvic organ prolapse. This model indicates that (1) the physical losses of POP are intricately linked to loss of identity; (2) women conceptualized POP as part of womanhood, yet also its thief; (3) there is a vicious cycle of taboo, silence and misunderstanding about POP and its treatment; (4) this silence is exacerbated by a feeling that POP is not taken seriously in healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-ethnography helps us to understand the experience of living with a POP. Our model illustrates the complex process of healthcare decision making. Further studies to explore the complexity of decision making from the perspective of patient and health professional are timely.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
9.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(10): 1138-1146, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567044

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the reported outcome domains and measures used to assess lower limb orthopaedic surgery of ambulant children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP) and map these outcomes to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY) framework. METHOD: This updated scoping review included studies published between January 2016 and July 2019 in five databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were included if participants were ambulant individuals with CP aged between 0 and 20 years who had undergone lower limb orthopaedic surgery. Health outcome domains and measures were identified and classified using the ICF-CY framework. RESULTS: Forty-four eligible studies were identified with a total of 40 different outcome domains recorded. Among eligible studies, 44 (100%) measured body function and structural impairment and seven (16%) measured activity limitation and participation restriction. The most frequently reported outcome was gait pattern (n=37, 84%). Few studies reported adverse effects of surgery (n=13, 30%). Twenty-nine different outcome measures were identified. Patient-reported outcomes measures were used in 10 studies (23%). INTERPRETATION: The review highlights a heterogeneity in the reported outcome domains and measures used in CP studies. The majority of the reported outcomes focus on the ICF-CY domain of body function and structure. The review also highlights a notable shift towards patient-reported outcomes in recent years. Development of a core outcome set for lower limb orthopaedic surgery would guide researchers to use more consistent and complete measurement sets.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Paralisia Cerebral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Criança , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
10.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e034744, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139490

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal deformities and gait deviations are common features in ambulatory cerebral palsy (CP). Deformity correction through lower limb orthopaedic surgery is the standard form of care aimed at improving or preserving motor function. Current research on CP care does not always take into account individual patients' expectations and needs. There is a wide range of outcome domains and outcome measures used to assess outcome from treatment. This can lead to reporting bias and make it difficult to compare and contrast studies. A core outcome set (COS) would enhance the efficiency, relevance and overall quality of CP orthopaedic surgery research. The aim of this study is to establish a standardised COS for use in evaluating lower limb orthopaedic surgery for ambulatory children and young people with CP. METHODS/ANALYSIS: A set of outcomes domains and outcome measures will be developed as follows: (1) a qualitative evidence synthesis to identify relevant outcomes from children and young people and family perspective; (2) a scoping review to identify relevant outcomes and outcome measures; (3) qualitative research to explore the experience of key stakeholders; (4) prioritisation of outcome domains will be achieved through a two-round Delphi process with key stakeholders; (5) a final COS will be developed at a consensus meeting with representation from key stakeholder groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study was granted in the UK by the Oxfordshire Research Ethics Committee B (REC reference 19/SC/0357). Informed consent will be obtained from participants taking part in the qualitative research and Delphi process. Study findings will be published in an open access journal and presented at relevant national and international conferences. Charities and associations will be engaged to promote awareness of the project COS results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: COMET registration: 1236. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018089538.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Criança , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/normas , Pais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Participação dos Interessados
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e032988, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review qualitative studies on the experience of taking opioid medication for chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP) or coming off them. DESIGN: This is a qualitative evidence synthesis using a seven-step approach from the methods of meta-ethnography. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We searched selected databases-Medline, Embase, AMED, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Scopus (Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index)-for qualitative studies which provide patients' views of taking opioid medication for CNMP or of coming off them (June 2017, updated September 2018). DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Papers were quality appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and the GRADE-CERQual (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group - Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) guidelines were applied. We identified concepts and iteratively abstracted these concepts into a line of argument. RESULTS: We screened 2994 unique citations and checked 153 full texts, and 31 met our review criteria. We identified five themes: (1) reluctant users with little choice; (2) understanding opioids: the good and the bad; (3) a therapeutic alliance: not always on the same page; (4) stigma: feeling scared and secretive but needing support; and (5) the challenge of tapering or withdrawal. A new overarching theme of 'constantly balancing' emerged from the data. CONCLUSIONS: People taking opioids were constantly balancing tensions, not always wanting to take opioids, and weighing the pros and cons of opioids but feeling they had no choice because of the pain. They frequently felt stigmatised, were not always 'on the same page' as their healthcare professional and felt changes in opioid use were often challenging. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: 49470934; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Atitude , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Conflito Psicológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Emoções , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Antropologia Cultural , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Compreensão , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social
12.
BMC Urol ; 20(1): 1, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is highly prevalent and affects the lives of many men and women. We aimed to conduct a qualitative evidence synthesis (QES) to explore the experience of living with UI and to develop a conceptual model that can help us to understand this experience, and the potential barriers to appropriate healthcare. METHODS: We used the methods of meta-ethnography developed by Noblit and Hare and recently refined for larger studies. Meta-ethnography involves identifying concepts from the studies and abstracting these concepts into a line of argument. We searched for studies that explored the experience of adults with UI. We used the GRADE-CERQual framework to assess confidence in review findings. RESULTS: We screened 2307 titles, 429 abstracts, 107 full texts and included 41 studies (36 unique samples) in the synthesis. We organised the concepts into 26 conceptual categories, which we further abstracted into 6 themes: (1) Am I ill or is this normal? (2) It effects who I am and how I feel; (3) I feel stigmatised, ashamed and guilty; (4) talking can be difficult but it can help; (5) keeping incontinence under control; (6) have I got to the point that I need help? Our model conceptualises living with UI as navigating antagonists: Is UI normal or am I ill? Do I need help or am I managing? Do I keep UI to myself (and manage alone) or do I tell other people (and get the support that I need)? Do I use control strategies that focus on concealing (avoid risky situations, wear pads) versus, I use strategies that focus on improving the bodily function to improve continence. Our model highlights the experience of stigma, shame and guilt which exert a pull towards concealment. CONCLUSIONS: The culture of secrecy and profound sense of shame is barrier to seeking help. An environment which reduces the shame and stigma of UI may help people to switch the focus to strategies that will improve continence, rather than conceal incontinence.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Internacionalidade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vergonha , Incontinência Urinária/etnologia , Incontinência Urinária/terapia , Antropologia Cultural/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico
13.
Qual Health Res ; 30(1): 3-22, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631748

RESUMO

Advances in health care mean that we can now treat diseases that once cut lives short. However, the increase in life expectancy has not been matched by improvements in quality of life. The World Health Organization warns us that all countries should prepare to meet the challenges of an aging population and this is integral to the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This may require a shift in attitude toward aging. We aimed to use meta-ethnography to explore the experience of adults living beyond the age of 80. Our conceptual model illuminates the phenomenon of connection in older age and reflects on the paradox of time: ephemeral, yet interminable. Our findings encourage us to reflect on the influence of enlightenment philosophies that underpin the desire for autonomy at all costs. Our study challenges the stereotypes of old age and has the potential to influence people's perspectives toward aging.


Assuntos
Atitude , Envelhecimento Saudável , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Antropologia Cultural , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida
14.
Disabil Rehabil ; 40(16): 1914-1920, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28478692

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Small reductions in body weight can decrease osteoarthritic knee pain. Intuitively this should provide a strong incentive for weight-loss. However many people undergoing knee joint replacement (KJR) are categorised as obese. Gender theories can help us to understand differential responses to illness and therefore make an important contribution to rehabilitation. We aimed to explore barriers to weight loss in a group of older men with osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted 12 in-depth interviews, before and 1 year after surgery, with six obese men listed for KJR. Analysis was influenced by constructivist grounded theory. We abstracted conceptual themes from the data through constant comparison. RESULTS: We identified the following themes: (1) I am big and healthy and don't need to lose weight; (2) being this size isn't good for me; (3) men don't have to worry about that sort of thing; (4) I am not as active as I used to be; (5) I have worked hard all my life; (6) what is the point in trying anyway? CONCLUSIONS: Gendered narratives can make it challenging for men to lose weight. Healthcare professionals cannot ignore the influence of gender on rehabilitation and should consider gender specific strategies. Implications for rehabilitation Men may not associate being overweight with being unhealthy. Men may take pride in being in good shape and may respond better to weight loss strategies that focus on fitness not body size. Men may link weight gain with decrease in activity levels rather than overeating. Health care professionals should challenge the assumption that weight loss will follow surgery. Health care professionals cannot ignore the influence of gender on the success of rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Perda de Peso
15.
Trials ; 18(1): 614, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder (also known as adhesive capsulitis) occurs when the capsule, or the soft tissue envelope around the ball and socket shoulder joint, becomes scarred and contracted, making the shoulder tight, painful and stiff. It affects around 1 in 12 men and 1 in 10 women of working age. Although this condition can settle with time (typically taking 1 to 3 years), for some people it causes severe symptoms and needs referral to hospital. Our aim is to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of two invasive and costly surgical interventions that are commonly used in secondary care in the National Health Service (NHS) compared with a non-surgical comparator of Early Structured Physiotherapy. METHODS: We will conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of 500 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of frozen shoulder, and who have radiographs that exclude other pathology. Early Structured Physiotherapy with an intra-articular steroid injection will be compared with manipulation under anaesthesia with a steroid injection or arthroscopic (keyhole) capsular release followed by manipulation. Both surgical interventions will be followed with a programme of post-procedural physiotherapy. These treatments will be undertaken in NHS hospitals across the United Kingdom. The primary outcome and endpoint will be the Oxford Shoulder Score (a patient self-reported assessment of shoulder function) at 12 months. This will also be measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months after randomisation; and on the day that treatment starts and 6 months later. Secondary outcomes include the Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, the EQ-5D-5 L score, pain, extent of recovery and complications. We will explore the acceptability of the different treatments to patients and health care professionals using qualitative methods. DISCUSSION: The three treatments being compared are the most frequently used in secondary care in the NHS, but there is uncertainty about which one works best and at what cost. UK FROST is a rigorously designed and adequately powered study to inform clinical decisions for the treatment of this common condition in adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register, ID: ISRCTN48804508 . Registered on 25 July 2014.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Bursite/terapia , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adulto , Anestesia , Artroscopia/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Coleta de Dados , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/economia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tamanho da Amostra
16.
BMJ Open ; 7(12): e018411, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore healthcare professionals' experience of treating chronic non-malignant pain by conducting a qualitative evidence synthesis. Understanding this experience from the perspective of healthcare professionals will contribute to improvements in the provision of care. DESIGN: Qualitative evidence synthesis using meta-ethnography. We searched five electronic bibliographic databases from inception to November 2016. We included studies that explore healthcare professionals' experience of treating adults with chronic non-malignant pain. We used the GRADE-CERQual framework to rate confidence in review findings. RESULTS: We screened the 954 abstracts and 184 full texts and included 77 published studies reporting the experiences of over 1551 international healthcare professionals including doctors, nurses and other health professionals. We abstracted six themes: (1) a sceptical cultural lens, (2) navigating juxtaposed models of medicine, (3) navigating the geography between patient and clinician, (4) challenge of dual advocacy, (5) personal costs and (6) the craft of pain management. We rated confidence in review findings as moderate to high. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first qualitative evidence synthesis of healthcare professionals' experiences of treating people with chronic non-malignant pain. We have presented a model that we developed to help healthcare professionals to understand, think about and modify their experiences of treating patients with chronic pain. Our findings highlight scepticism about chronic pain that might explain why patients feel they are not believed. Findings also indicate a dualism in the biopsychosocial model and the complexity of navigating therapeutic relationships. Our model may be transferable to other patient groups or situations.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Dor Crônica/etnologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Physiother Theory Pract ; 33(11): 841-849, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Activity pacing (AP) is widely used to manage chronic pain. However, recent developments in pain management do not necessarily include AP. Research has explored the experience of AP for physiotherapists who specialize in chronic pain. The innovation of this study is to build on previous research by exploring the experiences of patients and physiotherapists who do not specialize in chronic pain. METHODS: We interviewed eight patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who had used AP and eight physiotherapists working in an out-patient department who had not specialized in chronic pain. Interviews were recorded, and transcribed verbatim and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) were used for analysis. RESULTS: We present the following themes: 1) I have tried everything and have no other place to go; 2) AP provides a tangible, physical structure that can be used flexibly; 3) working to retune the brain to a different way of life; 4) retuning the brain can pay off in the end as "less is more"; 5) working hard to connect with patients; 6) connecting with patients can be exhausting; and 7) the patient needs to be on board. CONCLUSION: AP can provide a useful vehicle for psychological change through experiential learning. It can support psychological flexibility and is not incompatible with other biopsychosocial approaches.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/psicologia
18.
Musculoskeletal Care ; 15(1): 49-58, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27074876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to explore the experiences and impact of caring for an individual with severe osteoarthritis (OA) from the perspective of adult children, looking at the relationship between adult children caring for parents with this condition and the tensions of the 'sandwich generation'. METHODS: A mixed qualitative approach, combining focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews was used. In total, 36 participants were purposively sampled and discussed the impact of caring for a parent with OA. Data analysis was based upon interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Findings reported the impact and complexity of caring for a parent with OA. We present three themes related to the work of caring for a relative with this condition: (i) the physical and emotional work of caring; (ii) changes in reciprocal family roles; (iii) the imbalance in caring roles within the family. CONCLUSIONS: Participants described the significant and extensive impact on their lives of caring for a parent with long-term OA, particularly when faced with the pressures of caring for their own children as well. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Musculoskeletal Care Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Osteoartrite/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino
19.
Disabil Rehabil ; 39(18): 1856-1863, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558097

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study explores the experience of participants taking part in a hand exercise programme for people with rheumatoid arthritis with a focus on adherence. The exercise programme was tested in a randomised controlled trial. This parallel qualitative study will inform future implementation into clinical practice. METHOD: Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews from 14 participants were undertaken at two time points (4 and 12 months after randomisation). We collected data of participants' experiences over time. This was guided by an interview schedule. Interview data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis which is informed by phenomenological and hermeneutic theory. We recruited participants from National Health Service rheumatology and therapy departments. RESULTS: At 4 months, 11/14 participants reported continuing with the exercises. By 12 months, 7/13 participants still reported exercising. The ability to establish a routine determined whether participants adhered to the exercise programme. This was sometimes influenced by practical issues. We also identified facilitators and barriers to regular exercise in the themes of the following: the therapeutic encounter, perceived benefit of exercises, attitude of mind, confidence, and unpredictability. CONCLUSIONS: Establishing a routine was an important step towards participants being able to exercise independently. Therapists provided participants with skills to continue to exercise while dealing with changes in symptoms and schedules. Potential barriers to long-term exercise adherence need to be taken into account and addressed for successful implementation of this programme. Implications for Rehabilitation Behavioural change components such as the use of an exercise planner (stating intentions of where, when and how), daily diary sheets, and joint goal setting enhance adherence to a hand exercise programme for RA by helping to establish routines. Exercise routines need to be flexible enough to fit in with life and symptom changes whilst delivering a sufficient dosage. Therapists facilitate this process by using behavioural components alongside more commonly used aspects of care (assessment, education, advice, and encouragement) to enable people with RA to become independent exercisers.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Artrite Reumatoide/reabilitação , Atitude , Terapia por Exercício , Cooperação do Paciente , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reino Unido
20.
Trials ; 17(1): 501, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of knee arthroplasties performed each year is steadily increasing. Although the outcome is generally favourable, up to 15 % fail to achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome which may indicate that the existing model of rehabilitation after surgery may not be the most efficacious. Given the increasing number of knee arthroplasties, the relative limited physiotherapy resources available and the increasing age and frailty of patients receiving arthroplasty surgery, it is important that we concentrate our rehabilitation resources on those patients who most need help to achieve a good outcome. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a community-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation intervention in comparison to usual care. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial is designed as a prospective, single-blind, two-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT). A bespoke algorithm to predict which patients are at risk of poor outcome will be developed to screen patients for inclusion into a RCT using existing datasets. Six hundred and twenty patients undergoing knee arthroplasty, and assessed as being at risk of poor outcome using this algorithm, will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two rehabilitation strategies: usual care or an individually tailored community-based rehabilitation package. The primary outcome is the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument measured at 1 year after surgery. Secondary outcomes include the Oxford Knee Score, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score quality of life subscale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, the EQ-5D-5L and physical function measured by three performance-based tests: figure of eight, sit to stand and single-leg stand. A nested qualitative study will explore patient experience and perceptions and a health economic analysis will assess whether a home-based multidisciplinary individually tailored rehabilitation package represents good value for money when compared to usual care. DISCUSSION: There is lack of consensus about what constitutes the optimum package of rehabilitation after knee arthroplasty surgery. There is also a need to tailor rehabilitation to the needs of those predicted to do least well by focussing on interventions that target the elderly and frailer population receiving arthroplasty surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 13517704 , registered on 12 February 2015.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Terapia Ocupacional , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Ocupacional/economia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/economia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
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