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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477475

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a metal toxicant of great public health concern. The present study investigated the applicability of the rat incisor in Pb exposure screening. The levels of lead in teeth (Pb-T) in the crown and root of incisors in laboratory Pb-exposed Sprague Dawley rats were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crown accumulated much Pb-T than the root of the Sprague Dawley rat incisor. The levels of lead in blood (Pb-B) were positively correlated with the Pb-T in the crown and root incisors of the Sprague Dawley rats. As an application of the Pb-T crown results in experimental rats, we subsequently analyzed the Pb-T in the crown incisors of Pb-exposed wild rats (Rattus rattus) sampled from residential sites within varying distances from an abandoned lead-zinc mine. The Pb-T accumulation in the crown of incisors of R. rattus rats decreased with increased distance away from the Pb-Zn mine. Furthermore, the Pb-T was strongly correlated (r = 0.85) with the Pb levels in the blood. Laser ablation ICP-MS Pb-T mappings revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the incisor with an increased intensity of Pb-T localized in the tip of the incisor crown bearing an enamel surface in both Sprague Dawley and R. rattus rats. These findings suggest that Pb-T in the crown incisor may be reflective of the rat's environmental habitat, thus a possible indicator of Pb exposure.

2.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127788, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182082

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) interferes with various bodily functions. Although high blood Pb (Pb-B) levels in residents from Kabwe, Zambia have been reported, the accumulation pattern of other metals remains unknown. The study was designed to determine the Pb-B, blood cadmium (Cd-B), and zinc (Zn-B) values of 504 representative samples from Kabwe, as well as the potential associated adverse health effects. The Pb-B level ranged from 0.79 to 154.75 µg/dL and generally increased in areas near the mine. A significant elevation of Cd-B was observed in two areas (0.37 ± 0.26 and 0.32 ± 0.30 µg/L) where the two highest mean Pb-B levels were recorded. By contrast, the Zn-B values did not differ greatly with respect to area. Some blood biochemical parameters relating to hepatic and renal functions were out of the normal range in approximately 20-50% of studied adult participants. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was significantly inhibited in the two areas contaminated by Pb and Cd. A significant negative relationship was observed between metal levels and clinical parameters, e.g., between Pb-B and δ-ALAD for all the age categories and between Cd-B and the estimated glomerular filtration rate for all the age categories except 0-4 years. The elevated Cd-B in areas near the mine relative to the other areas suggested the potential adverse health effects of Cd and/or the interaction of Pb and Cd. A significant association of metal levels with clinical parameters also indicated the effects of metal exposure on hematopoietic, hepatic, and renal systems.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais/análise , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Coleta de Dados , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Fígado/química , Registros , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia , Zinco
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14474-14481, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490671

RESUMO

We investigated the potential effects of different land use and other environmental factors on animals living in a contaminated environment. The study site in Kabwe, Zambia, is currently undergoing urban expansion, while lead contamination from former mining activities is still prevalent. We focused on a habitat generalist lizards (Trachylepis wahlbergii). The livers, lungs, blood, and stomach contents of 224 lizards were analyzed for their lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, and arsenic concentrations. Habitat types were categorized based on vegetation data obtained from satellite images. Multiple regression analysis revealed that land use categories of habitats and three other factors significantly affected lead concentrations in the lizards. Further investigation suggested that the lead concentrations in lizards living in bare fields were higher than expected based on the distance from the contaminant source, while those in lizards living in green fields were lower than expected. In addition, the lead concentration of lungs was higher than that of the liver in 19% of the lizards, implying direct exposure to lead via dust inhalation besides digestive exposure. Since vegetation reduces the production of dust from surface soil, it is plausible that dust from the mine is one of the contamination sources and that vegetation can reduce exposure to this.

4.
Environ Res ; 188: 109759, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a well-known toxic heavy metal which can have serious public health hazards. As of today, there is no safe threshold for Pb exposure, especially for children. Lead exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes involving epigenetic mechanisms, such as aberrant DNA methylation. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and gene-specific promoter DNA methylation status in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2 to 10-year-old children from high Pb exposed area (N = 102) and low Pb exposed area (N = 38). We measured BLLs using a LeadCare II analyzer and investigated the methylation status of the ALAD and p16 gene promoters by methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: The mean BLLs were 23.7 µg/dL and 7.9 µg/dL in high Pb exposed and low Pb exposed children, respectively. Pb exposure was correlated with increased methylation of the ALAD and p16 genes. The promoter methylation rates of ALAD and p16 in high Pb exposed children were 84.3% and 67.7%, and 42.1% and 44.7% in low Pb exposed children, respectively. Significantly increased methylation was found in both genes in high Pb exposed children compared with low Pb exposed children (p < 0.05). Children with methylated ALAD and p16 genes showed an increased risk of Pb poisoning (odd ratio >1) compared to the unmethylated status. CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time tries to correlate promoter methylation status of the ALAD and p16 genes in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia as a representative. The result suggests that Pb exposure increases aberrations in ALAD and p16 gene methylation, which may be involved in the mechanism of Pb toxicity.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Genes p16 , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/genética , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/genética , Zâmbia
5.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995873

RESUMO

Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning has devastating effects on neurodevelopment and causes overt clinical signs including convulsions and coma. Health effects including hypertension and various reproductive problems have been reported in adults. Historical Pb mining in Zambia's Kabwe town left a legacy of environmental pollution and childhood Pb poisoning. The current study aimed at establishing the extent of Pb poisoning and exposure differences among family members in Kabwe as well as determining populations at risk and identify children eligible for chelation therapy. Blood samples were collected in July and August 2017 from 1190 household members and Pb was measured using a portable LeadCare-II analyser. Participants included 291 younger children (3-months to 3-years-old), 271 older children (4-9-years-old), 412 mothers and 216 fathers from 13 townships with diverse levels of Pb contamination. The Blood Lead Levels (BLL) ranged from 1.65 to 162  µg/dL, with residents from Kasanda (mean 45.7  µg/dL) recording the highest BLL while Hamududu residents recorded the lowest (mean 3.3  µg/dL). Of the total number of children sampled (n = 562), 23% exceeded the 45  µg/dL, the threshold required for chelation therapy. A few children (5) exceeded the 100  µg/dL whereas none of the parents exceeded the 100  µg/dL value. Children had higher BLL than parents, with peak BLL-recorded at the age of 2-years-old. Lead exposure differences in Kabwe were attributed to distance and direction from the mine, with younger children at highest risk. Exposure levels in parents were equally alarming. For prompt diagnosis and treatment, a portable point-of-care devise such as a LeadCare-II would be preferable in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mineração , Mães , Registros , Reprodução , Manejo de Espécimes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
6.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125884, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978655

RESUMO

Lead (Pb)-poisoning is a serious public health concern and dogs have been useful as a sentinel-animal for Pb exposure of humans. In the present study, the blood Pb concentrations (BLC), isotope ratios (208 Pb/206 Pb and 207 Pb/206 Pb), and biochemistry of 120 domestically owned dogs living around a Pb mining area, in Kabwe, Zambia were analyzed to determine factors associated with Pb exposure. The overall mean value of Pb in dog blood in the present study was 271.6 µg/L. The BLC in the dogs from sites near the mine were significantly higher than those in the dogs from a site 4 km from the mine (352.9 ± 205.1 µg/L versus 28.0 ± 13.9 µg/L). BLC significantly decreased with both increasing age of the dogs and distance from the mine. The Pb isotope ratios in the dog that resided near the mine showed values similar to those reported at the galena mine in Kabwe, which is considered to be the source of Pb exposure. In contrast to the high metal exposure that was determined in these dogs, the mean values of most analyzed parameters in the blood biochemical analysis were surprisingly within or close to the standard reference values. Moreover, none of the dogs showed overt signs of Pb-poisoning or other clinical symptoms. The results of analysis of Pb exposure of the dogs obtained in the present study, which are similar to the previously reported results in human in this location, suggest that dogs could be useful as a sentinel animal for Pb exposure of humans in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Chumbo/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Isótopos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Sulfetos , Zâmbia
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 150: 77-85, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406087

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate factors that caused rapid spread during the early phase of the porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) epidemic in Japan in 2013 and 2014. Anonymized datasets from all pig farms were provided by Kagoshima (709 farms) and Miyazaki Prefectures (506 farms). Semi-parametric survival analysis was conducted using the first 180 days from the first case on December 3, 2013 in Kagoshima Prefecture. To compare the hazard between different farm management types, univariable survival analysis was conducted. As farm sizes varied among different farm types, bivariable survival analysis was conducted for farm size categories and farm density per km2 for each management type. A case-control study using a postal questionnaire survey was conducted in September 2014, and risk factor analysis was performed using generalized linear models with binomial errors. The hazard was significantly higher in farrow-to-finish farms than fattening farms [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.6, p < 0.01], but was not significantly different between reproduction and fattening farms (HR = 1.3, p = 0.16). In separate bivariable survival analyses for each farm type, large- and middle-scale farms had higher hazard than small-scale farms in fattening (HR = 5.8 and 2.6, respectively, both p < 0.01) and reproduction farms (HR = 4.0 and 3.6, respectively, both p < 0.01). In farrow-to-finish farms, large-scale farms had higher hazard than small-scale farms (HR = 2.8, p < 0.01), and higher farm density per km2 was also a risk factor (HR = 7.6, p < 0.01). In the case-control study, questionnaires were returned from 78 PED virus-infected and 91 non-infected farms. The overall response rate was 34%. Risk factors of the final model were occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in the past 5 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-4.00, p = 0.054], use of a common compost station (OR = 2.51, 95%CI: 1.08-5.83, p = 0.03), and use of a pig excrement disposal service (OR = 2.64, 95%CI: 1.05-6.63, p = 0.04). High hazard in farrow-to-finish farms suggested transmission from slaughterhouses to susceptible suckling piglets. Hazard associated with large-scale farms and high density might be due to frequent vehicle entrance and transmission by roads. Improvement of farm hygiene management and avoidance of risky practices associated with contact with pig excrement were keys in preventing invasion of PED virus to a farm.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Epidemias/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 144: 81-88, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716208

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) was detected for the first time in seven years in Japan in October 2013 in Okinawa Prefecture. By December 2013, PED had spread into Miyazaki and Kagoshima Prefectures in the southern part of Kyushu, one of the regions with the highest farm density in the country. The objective of the study here was to assess the spatial dynamics of PED spread during the 8 months of the epidemic in the southern part of Kyushu between December 2013, the month observed first case in the studied region, and July 2014. Information on location and capacity of all farms in the prefectures (n=1269) was obtained from a government database containing demographic information for livestock producers. Additionally, data on PED detection (positive or negative) was obtained from the regional Livestock Hygiene Service Center. The Cuzick-Edwards (CE) test, the Knox test, the directional test, and the permutation model of the scan statistic were used to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of the epidemic. PED cumulative farm level incidence was 19.5% (248/1269) through the study period. The highest density of positive farms was observed in the most farm-populated areas of the prefecture. The CE test revealed an extensive degree of spatial clustering, with clustering of positive sites being significant (P<0.01) up to the 35th level of neighborhood (approximately 5km in the studied data). The observed-to-expected ratio of cases was maximized at short spatio-temporal distances, with values of the observed-to-expected ratio of cases maximized when the thresholds were set at 2km and 10days, respectively. A significant (P<0.01) direction of spread was detected towards the northeastern direction. The permutation model detected five significant (P<0.01) clusters occurring at different stages of the epidemic wave. The strong spatio-temporal clustering of PED-infected farms during the first 6 months of the epidemic in the southern part of Kyushu is consistent with results obtained elsewhere and demonstrates the rapid spread of the virus in naïve populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diarreia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Japão , Suínos
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