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1.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(3): 231-239, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for ovarian cancer is essential for prevention because this cancer is predominantly detected at a late stage. Here, we estimated the relations of general adiposity and measures reflecting body fat distribution to the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: We ascertained 683 ovarian epithelial cancers (343 high-grade serous, 141 non-high grade serous) among 145,575 women, aged 50-72 years (median follow-up 12.6 years), from the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study. Using Cox models, we estimated confounder-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of overall ovarian cancer, high-grade serous and non-high-grade serous carcinoma with body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body adiposity index, body shape index, and abdominal volume index. RESULTS: Anthropometric measures were unrelated to overall ovarian cancer, high-grade serous cancer, and non-high-grade serous cancer. For example, the HR for overall ovarian cancer per standard deviation increment of body mass index at baseline was 0.98 (95% CI 0.88-1.10). Similar associations were observed with measurements of body fat distribution. CONCLUSION: These results do not indicate that adult adiposity is associated with ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal women.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433939

RESUMO

When powder is applied to the genital area, it has the potential to reach internal reproductive organs and promote carcinogenesis by irritating and inflaming exposed tissues. Although many studies have considered the association between genital powder use and ovarian cancer risk, the relationship between genital powder use and uterine cancer is less well-studied. We pooled data from four large, prospective cohorts (the Nurses' Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study II, the Sister Study and the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for prespecified confounders. In total, 209 185 women were included, with 37% reporting ever genital powder use. Over a mean 14.5 years of follow-up, 3272 invasive uterine cancers were diagnosed. There was no overall association between ever genital powder use and uterine cancer (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94-1.09), with little difference observed for frequent (≥1 times/week) vs never use (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.16; P-for-trend = .46). Long-term use (>20 years; HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.96-1.31; P-for-trend = 0.14) was associated with a small, but not statistically significant, increase in risk, compared to never use. There were not clear differences by uterine cancer histologic subtypes or across strata of relevant covariates, including race/ethnicity, follow-up time, menopausal status and body mass index. The results of this large, pooled analysis do not support a relationship between the use of genital powder and uterine cancer, although the positive associations observed for long-term use may merit further consideration.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Daily aspirin use has been shown to reduce risk of colorectal, and possibly other, cancers, but it is unknown if these benefits are consistent across subgroups of people with differing cancer risk factors. We investigated whether age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, physical inactivity, and family history of cancer modify the effect of daily aspirin use on colorectal, ovarian, breast, endometrial and aggressive prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We pooled 423,495 individuals from two prospective, U.S.-based studies: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995-2011) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (1993-2009). Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined associations between daily aspirin use (≥ 5 days/week) and risk of colorectal, ovarian, breast, endometrial, and aggressive prostate cancer, overall and across strata of risk factors. RESULTS: Daily aspirin use was associated with a 15% reduction in colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.89). Risk reductions were generally consistent across strata of risk factors but attenuated with increasing BMI (p-interaction = 0.16). For ovarian cancer, there was no significant association overall (HR: 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.08) but reduced risk among obese women (HR: 0.73, 95% CI 0.52-0.98, p-interaction = 0.12). Weak or null associations were observed for breast, endometrial, and aggressive prostate cancer, with no strong effect modification observed. CONCLUSIONS: Daily aspirin use appears to reduce colorectal cancer risk regardless of other risk factors, though the potential modifying effect of BMI warrants further investigation and may need to be considered in risk-benefit calculations for aspirin use.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(2): 522-526, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Frequent use of aspirin has been associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk in observational studies, but it is unclear if only daily, low-dose aspirin confers a protective benefit. We examined associations between patterns of aspirin use and ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in PLCO between 1993 and 2001 and followed for cancer outcomes through 2014. Detailed data on aspirin use (e.g., dose, frequency and duration) were ascertained via the supplemental questionnaire (SQX) administered in 2006-2007. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between aspirin use (defined as use ≥once/week) and incident ovarian cancer. We conducted analyses among all women in the study sample and stratified by age at the time of the SQX. RESULTS: There were 41,633 women included in this analysis, of whom 223 developed incident ovarian cancer. Overall, aspirin use was not significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.72-1.21). Among women <70 years, there was suggestion of an inverse association for daily use of aspirin (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.40-1.05), low-dose aspirin (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.51-1.24) and daily use of low-dose aspirin (HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.38-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a potential modest effect of daily, low-dose aspirin in reducing ovarian cancer risk. However, effect estimates were imprecise given the small number of events, and further research will be needed to confirm and extend these findings.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

7.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival. METHODS: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery. RESULTS: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.

8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(10): 869-879, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685996

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The link between lipid-stabilizing medications and epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis is incompletely understood. Statins may reduce ovarian cancer risk, but results are inconclusive. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting associations between statin use and ovarian cancer risk in PubMed. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Subgroup analyses by cancer histotype, statin class (lipo- or hydrophilic) and duration of statin use were conducted. Use of individual statins in populations was assessed to determine population-specific differences in statin types. RESULTS: Nine studies with 435,237 total women were included (1 randomized controlled trial (RCT); 4 prospective; 4 case-control). Statin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74-1.03) and risk was significantly reduced in populations with low pravastatin use (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.99). Risk estimates varied by statin class (3 studies; lipophilic: RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69-1.12; hydrophilic: RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.72-1.57) and cancer histotype (3 studies; serous: RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.69-1.30; clear cell: RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.74-1.86). Long-term use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.54-1.10) that further reduced when pravastatin use was low (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-1.01). Between-study heterogeneity was high overall and in subgroups (I2 > 60%). CONCLUSION: Statins may be associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, but the effect likely differs by individual statin, duration of use and cancer histotype. Additional well-powered studies are needed to elucidate important subgroup effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e203645, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329771

RESUMO

Importance: The role of endogenous progesterone in the development of breast cancer remains largely unexplored to date, primarily owing to assay sensitivity limitations and low progesterone concentrations in postmenopausal women. Recently identified progesterone metabolites may provide insights as experimental data suggest that 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) concentrations reflect cancer-promoting properties and 3α-dihydroprogesterone (3αHP) concentrations reflect cancer-inhibiting properties. Objective: To evaluate the association between circulating progesterone and progesterone metabolite levels and breast cancer risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay, prediagnostic serum levels of progesterone and progesterone metabolites were quantified in a case-cohort study nested within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (n = 15 595). Participation was limited to women not receiving exogenous hormone therapy at the time of blood sampling (1992-1993). Incident breast cancer cases (n = 405) were diagnosed during 12 follow-up years and a subcohort of 495 postmenopausal women were randomly selected within 10-year age and clinical center strata. Progesterone assays were completed in July 2017; subsequent data analyses were conducted between July 15, 2017, and December 20, 2018. Exposures: Circulating concentrations of pregnenolone, progesterone, and their major metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of breast cancer, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for key confounders, including estradiol. Evaluation of hormone ratios and effect modification were planned a priori. Results: The present study included 405 incident breast cancer cases and a subcohort of 495 postmenopausal women; the mean (SD) age at the time of the blood draw was 67.2 (6.2) years. Progesterone concentrations were a mean (SD) of 4.6 (1.7) ng/dL. Women with higher circulating progesterone levels were at an increased risk for breast cancer per SD increase in progesterone levels (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35; P = .048). The association with progesterone was linear in a 5-knot spline and stronger for invasive breast cancers (n = 267) (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.43; P = .004). Among women in the lowest quintile (Q1) of circulating estradiol (<6.30 pg/mL) elevated progesterone concentrations were associated with reduced breast cancer risk per SD increase in progesterone levels (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.95; P = .04) and increased risk among women in higher quintiles of estradiol (Q2-Q5; ≥6.30 pg/mL) (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.35; P = .01; P = .04 for interaction). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-cohort study of postmenopausal women, elevated circulating progesterone levels were associated with a 16% increase in the risk of breast cancer. Additional research should be undertaken to assess how postmenopausal breast cancer risk is associated with both endogenous progesterone and progesterone metabolites and their interactions with estradiol.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Br J Cancer ; 123(1): 161-166, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-epithelial ovarian cancers are divided into sex cord-stromal tumours (SCSTs) and germ cell tumours (GCTs). Whereas parity and other pregnancy-related factors are protective for epithelial ovarian cancer, their associations with SCSTs and GCTs remains unclear. METHODS: Using data from the medical birth registries from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, we compared all parous women with a diagnosis of SCSTs (n = 420) or GCTs (n = 345) 1970-2013 with up to 10 parous controls (SCSTs n = 4041; GCTs n = 2942) matched on the cases' birth year and country. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of associations between pregnancy-related factors and SCSTs and GCTs. RESULTS: The risk of SCSTs, but not GCTs, decreased with higher age at last birth [≥40 versus <25 years: OR 0.48 (95% CI 0.23-0.98)]. The risk of SCSTs (but not GCTs) also decreased with shorter time since last birth. Number of births, preterm birth, preeclampsia, and offspring size were not associated with risk of SCSTs or GCTs. CONCLUSIONS: We found a decreased risk of SCSTs with higher age at last birth and shorter time since last birth. The risk of SCSTs (but not GCTs) may be influenced by the woman's reproductive history.

11.
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(2): 173-180, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151170

RESUMO

Background: Body size in adult life is likely associated with risks of endometriosis and adenomyosis, yet little is known about associations with body size earlier in life.Aim: To examine whether birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI) and height are associated with risks of endometriosis and adenomyosis.Subjects and methods: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 171,447 girls born 1930-1996, with measured weights and heights at ages 7-13 were included. Outcomes were obtained from health registers. Cox regressions were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results: During follow-up, 2149 endometriosis cases and 1410 adenomyosis cases were diagnosed. Childhood BMI was inversely associated with endometriosis (HR = 0.92 [95% CI: 0.88-0.96] per z-score at age 7). In contrast, childhood height was positively associated with endometriosis (HR = 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05-1.14] per z-score at age 7). Associations with childhood body size did not differ by endometriosis location. Childhood BMI and height had limited associations with adenomyosis. Birth weight was not associated with endometriosis or adenomyosis.Conclusion: Lean and tall girls are more often diagnosed with endometriosis, but not adenomyosis. These findings suggest that indicators of endometriosis risk are already apparent at early ages.


Assuntos
Adenomiose/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Adenomiose/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Endometriose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(4): 309-320, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Disentangling the effects of endogenous estrogens and inflammation on obesity-related diseases requires a clearer understanding of how the two biological mechanisms relate to each other. METHODS: We studied 155 healthy postmenopausal women not taking menopausal hormone therapy enrolled in the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) screening cancer trial. From a baseline blood draw, we measured endogenous estradiol and 69 inflammation biomarkers: cytokines, chemokines, adipokines, angiogenic factors, growth factors, acute phase proteins, and soluble receptors. We evaluated the estradiol-inflammation relationship by assessing associations across different models (linear, ordinal logistic, and binary logistic) using a variety of estradiol classifications. We additionally investigated the estradiol-inflammation relationship stratified by baseline obesity status (BMI < 30 stratum and BMI > 30 stratum). RESULTS: Associations of estradiol with 7 inflammation biomarkers met p < 0.05 statistical significance in linear and ordinal models: C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-6, thymus activation-regulated chemokine, eosinophil chemotactic protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and serum amyloid A. The positive association between estradiol and CRP was robust to model changes. Each standard deviation increase in endogenous estradiol doubled a woman's odds of having CRP levels higher than the study median (odds ratio 2.29; 95% confidence interval 1.28, 4.09). Estradiol was consistently inversely associated with adiponectin. Other estradiol-inflammation biomarker associations were not robust to model changes. CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous estradiol appears to be associated with CRP and adiponectin; the evidence is limited for other inflammation biomarkers.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069802

RESUMO

Timing of breast development (or thelarche) and its endogenous and exogenous determinants may underlie global variation in breast cancer incidence. The study objectives were to characterize endogenous estrogen levels and bisphenol A (BPA) exposure using a migrant study of adolescent girls and test whether concentrations explained differences in thelarche by birthplace and growth environment. Estrogen metabolites (EM) and BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) were quantified in urine spot samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) from a cross-sectional study of Bangladeshi, first- and second-generation Bangladeshi migrants to the UK, and white British girls aged 5-16 years (n = 348). Thelarche status at the time of interview was self-reported and defined equivalent to Tanner Stage ≥2. We compared geometric means (and 95% confidence interval (CIs)) of EM and BPA-G using linear regression and assessed whether EM and BPA-G explained any of the association between exposure to the UK and the age at thelarche using hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Average EM decreased with exposure to the UK, whereas BPA-G increased and was significantly higher among white British (0.007 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.0024-0.0217) and second-generation British-Bangladeshi girls (0.009 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.0040-0.0187) compared to Bangladeshi girls (0.002 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.0018-0.0034). Two of four EM ratios (16-pathway/parent and parent/all pathways) were significantly associated with thelarche. The relationship between exposure to the UK and thelarche did not change appreciably after adding EM and BPA-G to the models. While BPA-G is often considered a ubiquitous exposure, our findings suggest it can vary based on birthplace and growth environment, with increasing levels for girls who were born in or moved to the UK. Our study did not provide statistically significant evidence that BPA-G or EM concentrations explained earlier thelarche among girls who were born or raised in the UK.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Mama , Estrogênios , Fenóis , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Mama/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Transversais , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca , Fenóis/toxicidade , Reino Unido
14.
J Clin Med ; 9(1)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963437

RESUMO

The association of progesterone/progesterone metabolites with elevated mammographic breast density (MBD) and delayed age-related terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, strong breast cancer risk factors, has received limited attention. Using a reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry assay, we quantified serum progesterone/progesterone metabolites and explored cross-sectional relationships with MBD and TDLU involution among women, ages 40-65, undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. Quantitative MBD measures were estimated in pre-biopsy digital mammograms. TDLU involution was quantified in diagnostic biopsies. Adjusted partial correlations and trends across MBD/TDLU categories were calculated. Pregnenolone was positively associated with percent MBD-area (MBD-A, rho: 0.30; p-trend = 0.01) among premenopausal luteal phase women. Progesterone tended to be positively associated with percent MBD-A among luteal phase (rho: 0.26; p-trend = 0.07) and postmenopausal (rho: 0.17; p-trend = 0.04) women. Consistent with experimental data, implicating an elevated 5α-pregnanes/3α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP/3αHP) metabolite ratio in breast cancer, higher 5αP/3αHP was associated with elevated percent MBD-A among luteal phase (rho: 0.29; p-trend = 0.08), but not postmenopausal women. This exploratory analysis provided some evidence that endogenous progesterone and progesterone metabolites might be correlated with MBD, a strong breast cancer risk factor, in both pre- and postmenopausal women undergoing breast biopsy. Additional studies are needed to understand the role of progesterone/progesterone metabolites in breast tissue composition and breast cancer risk.

15.
JAMA ; 323(1): 49-59, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910280

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship between use of powder in the genital area and ovarian cancer is not established. Positive associations reported in case-control studies have not been confirmed in cohort studies. Objective: To estimate the association between use of powder in the genital area and ovarian cancer using prospective observational data. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were pooled from 4 large, US-based cohorts: Nurses' Health Study (enrollment 1976; follow-up 1982-2016; n = 81 869), Nurses' Health Study II (enrollment 1989; follow-up 2013-2017; n = 61 261), Sister Study (enrollment 2003-2009; follow-up 2003-2017; n = 40 647), and Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (enrollment 1993-1998; follow-up 1993-2017; n = 73 267). Exposures: Ever, long-term (≥20 years), and frequent (≥1/week) use of powder in the genital area. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary analysis examined the association between ever use of powder in the genital area and self-reported incident ovarian cancer. Covariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The pooled sample included 252 745 women (median age at baseline, 57 years) with 38% self-reporting use of powder in the genital area. Ten percent reported long-term use, and 22% reported frequent use. During a median of 11.2 years of follow-up (3.8 million person-years at risk), 2168 women developed ovarian cancer (58 cases/100 000 person-years). Ovarian cancer incidence was 61 cases/100 000 person-years among ever users and 55 cases/100 000 person-years among never users (estimated risk difference at age 70 years, 0.09% [95% CI, -0.02% to 0.19%]; estimated HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.17]). The estimated HR for frequent vs never use was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.23) and for long-term vs never use, the HR was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.82 to 1.25). Subgroup analyses were conducted for 10 variables; the tests for heterogeneity were not statistically significant for any of these comparisons. While the estimated HR for the association between ever use of powder in the genital area and ovarian cancer risk among women with a patent reproductive tract was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.26), the P value for interaction comparing women with vs without patent reproductive tracts was .15. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of pooled data from women in 4 US cohorts, there was not a statistically significant association between use of powder in the genital area and incident ovarian cancer. However, the study may have been underpowered to identify a small increase in risk.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Pós/efeitos adversos , Talco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 636-642, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors, including parity, breastfeeding, and contraceptive use, affect lifetime ovulatory cycles and cumulative exposure to gonadotropins and are associated with ovarian cancer. To understand the role of ovulation-regulating hormones in the etiology of ovarian cancer, we prospectively analyzed the association of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin B with ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Our study included 370 women from the Janus Serum Bank, including 54 type I and 82 type II invasive epithelial ovarian cancers, 49 borderline tumors, and 185 age-matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression to assess the relationship between hormones and risk of ovarian cancer overall and by subtype (types I and II). RESULTS: Inhibin B was associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer overall [OR, 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-3.39; P trend = 0.05] and with type I ovarian (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.04-9.23; P trend = 0.06). FSH was not associated with ovarian cancer risk overall, but higher FSH was associated with type II ovarian cancers (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.05-7.38). AMH was not associated with ovarian cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: FSH and inhibin B may be associated with increased risk in different ovarian cancer subtypes, suggesting that gonadotropin exposure may influence risk of ovarian cancer differently across subtypes. IMPACT: Associations between prospectively collected AMH, FSH, and inhibin B levels with risk of ovarian cancer provide novel insight on the influence of premenopausal markers of ovarian reserve and gonadotropin signaling. Heterogeneity of inhibin B and FSH effects in different tumor types may be informative of tumor etiology.

17.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
Endocr Rev ; 41(2)2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512725

RESUMO

Synthetic progestogens (progestins) have been linked to increased breast cancer risk; however, the role of endogenous progesterone in breast physiology and carcinogenesis is less clearly defined. Mechanistic studies using cell culture, tissue culture, and preclinical models implicate progesterone in breast carcinogenesis. In contrast, limited epidemiologic data generally do not show an association of circulating progesterone levels with risk, and it is unclear whether this reflects methodologic limitations or a truly null relationship. Challenges related to defining the role of progesterone in breast physiology and neoplasia include: complex interactions with estrogens and other hormones (eg, androgens, prolactin, etc.), accounting for timing of blood collections for hormone measurements among cycling women, and limitations of assays to measure progesterone metabolites in blood and progesterone receptor isotypes (PRs) in tissues. Separating the individual effects of estrogens and progesterone is further complicated by the partial dependence of PR transcription on estrogen receptor (ER)α-mediated transcriptional events; indeed, interpreting the integrated interaction of the hormones may be more essential than isolating independent effects. Further, many of the actions of both estrogens and progesterone, particularly in "normal" breast tissues, are driven by paracrine mechanisms in which ligand binding to receptor-positive cells evokes secretion of factors that influence cell division of neighboring receptor-negative cells. Accordingly, blood and tissue levels may differ, and the latter are challenging to measure. Given conflicting data related to the potential role of progesterone in breast cancer etiology and interest in blocking progesterone action to prevent or treat breast cancer, we provide a review of the evidence that links progesterone to breast cancer risk and suggest future directions for filling current gaps in our knowledge.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1523-1531, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173648

RESUMO

Many pregnancy-related factors are associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk. However, it remains unclear whether pregnancy-related complications (e.g., hypertensive conditions) are associated with risk and whether these associations vary by endometrial cancer subtype. Thus, we evaluated the risk of endometrial cancer, overall and by subtype, in relation to pregnancy-related factors, pregnancy complications and birth characteristics. Utilizing population-based register data from four Nordic countries, we conducted a nested case-control analysis of endometrial cancer risk. We included 10,924 endometrial cancer cases and up to 10 matched controls per case. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from unconditional logistic regression models. We further evaluated associations by individual histology (i.e., endometrioid, serous, etc.) or, for rare exposures (e.g., pregnancy complications), by dualistic type (Type I [n = 10,343] and Type II [n = 581]). Preexisting and pregnancy-related hypertensive conditions were associated with increased endometrial cancer risk (OR [95% CI]: preexisting hypertension 1.88 [1.39-2.55]; gestational hypertension 1.47 [1.33-1.63]; preeclampsia 1.43 [1.30-1.58]), with consistent associations across dualistic type. Increasing number of pregnancies (≥4 vs. 1 birth: 0.64 [0.59-0.69]) and shorter time since last birth (<10 vs. ≥30 years: 0.34 [0.29-0.40]) were associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk, with consistent associations across most subtypes. Our findings support the role for both hormonal exposures and cell clearance as well as immunologic/inflammatory etiologies for endometrial cancer. This research supports studying endometrial hyperplasia, a precursor condition of endometrial cancer, in the context of pregnancy-related exposures, as this may provide insight into the mechanisms by which pregnancy affects subsequent cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 200-207, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laterality of epithelial ovarian tumors may reflect the underlying carcinogenic pathways and origins of tumor cells. METHODS: We pooled data from 9 prospective studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Information on measures of tumor size or tumor dominance was extracted from surgical pathology reports or obtained through cancer registries. We defined dominant tumors as those restricted to one ovary or where the dimension of one ovary was at least twice as large as the other, and nondominant tumors as those with similar dimensions across the two ovaries or peritoneal tumors. Competing risks Cox models were used to examine whether associations with reproductive and hormonal risk factors differed by ovarian tumor dominance. RESULTS: Of 1,058 ovarian cancer cases with tumor dominance information, 401 were left-dominant, 363 were right-dominant, and 294 were nondominant. Parity was more strongly inversely associated with risk of dominant than nondominant ovarian cancer (P heterogeneity = 0.004). Ever use of oral contraceptives (OC) was associated with lower risk of dominant tumors, but was not associated with nondominant tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.01). Higher body mass index was associated with higher risk of left-dominant tumors, but not significantly associated with risk of right-dominant or nondominant tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that reproductive and hormonal risk factors appear to have a stronger impact on dominant tumors, which may have an ovarian or endometriosis origin. IMPACT: Examining the associations of ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor dominance may help elucidate the mechanisms through which these factors influence ovarian cancer risk.

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