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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(Supplement_2): S50-S58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute infection characterized by prolonged fever following the ingestion and subsequent invasion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), a human-restricted pathogen. The incidence of typhoid fever has been most reported in children 5-15 years of age, but is increasingly recognized in children younger than 5 years old. There has been a recent expansion of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever globally. Prior typhoid vaccines were not suitable for use in the youngest children in countries with a high burden of disease. This study aims to determine the efficacy of a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) that was recently prequalified by the World Health Organization, by testing it in children 9 months through 12 years of age in Blantyre, Malawi. METHODS: In this Phase III, individually randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of the clinical efficacy of TCV, 28 000 children 9 months through 12 years of age will be enrolled and randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either Vi-TCV or a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine. A subset of 600 of these children will be further enrolled in an immunogenicity and reactogenicity sub-study to evaluate the safety profile and immune response elicited by Vi-TCV. Recruiting began in February 2018. RESULTS: All children will be under passive surveillance for at least 2 years to determine the primary outcome, which is blood culture-confirmed S. Typhi illness. Children enrolled in the immunogenicity and reactogenicity sub-study will have blood drawn before vaccination and at 2 timepoints after vaccination to measure their immune response to vaccination. They will also be followed actively for adverse events and serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a single-dose, efficacious typhoid vaccine into countries with high burden of disease or significant antimicrobial resistance could have a dramatic impact, protecting children from infection and reducing antimicrobial usage and associated health inequity in the world's poorest places. This trial, the first of a TCV in Africa, seeks to demonstrate the impact and programmatic use of TCVs within an endemic setting. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03299426.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e190348, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848808

RESUMO

Importance: Hospital readmissions are associated with patient harm and expense. Ways to prevent hospital readmissions have focused on identifying patients at greatest risk using prediction scores. Objective: To identify the type of score that best predicts hospital readmissions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study included 14 062 consecutive adult hospital patients with 16 649 discharges from a tertiary care center, suburban community hospital, and urban critical access hospital in Maryland from September 1, 2016, through December 31, 2016. Patients not included as eligible discharges by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services or the Chesapeake Regional Information System for Our Patients were excluded. A machine learning rank score, the Baltimore score (B score) developed using a machine learning technique, for each individual hospital using data from the 2 years before September 1, 2016, was compared with standard readmission risk assessment scores to predict 30-day unplanned readmissions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 30-day readmission rate evaluated using various readmission scores: B score, HOSPITAL score, modified LACE score, and Maxim/RightCare score. Results: Of the 10 732 patients (5605 [52.2%] male; mean [SD] age, 54.56 [22.42] years) deemed to be eligible for the study, 1422 were readmitted. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for individual rules was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.61-0.65) for the HOSPITAL score, which was significantly lower than the 0.66 for modified LACE score (95% CI, 0.64-0.68; P < .001). The B score machine learning score was significantly better than all other scores; 48 hours after admission, the AUROC of the B score was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.70-0.73), which increased to 0.78 (95% CI, 0.77-0.79) at discharge (all P < .001). At the hospital using Maxim/RightCare score, the AUROC was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.59-0.69) for HOSPITAL, 0.64 (95% CI, 0.61-0.68) for Maxim/RightCare, and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.62-0.69) for modified LACE score. The B score was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69-0.75) 48 hours after admission and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.79-0.84) at discharge. In directly comparing the B score with the sensitivity at cutoff values for modified LACE, HOSPITAL, and Maxim/RightCare scores, the B score was able to identify the same number of readmitted patients while flagging 25.5% to 54.9% fewer patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Among 3 hospitals in different settings, an automated machine learning score better predicted readmissions than commonly used readmission scores. More efficiently targeting patients at higher risk of readmission may be the first step toward potentially preventing readmissions.

3.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limitations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care necessitate greater patient activation and self-efficacy, measures associated with positive health outcomes. METHODS: We assessed change in patient activation and general self-efficacy from baseline to 12 months through our TELEmedicine for IBD trial, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial consisting of a web-based monitoring system that interacts with participants via text messaging. A total of 222 adults with IBD who had experienced an IBD flare within 2 years prior to the trial were randomized into either a control arm that received standard care (SC) or an intervention arm that completed self-testing through the TELE-IBD system every other week (EOW) or weekly (W). RESULTS: Changes in self-efficacy scores were not significantly different between control and experimental groups. Patient activation scores were significantly different between standard care and the TELE-IBD EOW group only (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Use of remote monitoring did not improve self-efficacy or patient activation compared to routine care.

4.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410041

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine has shown promise in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The objective of this study was to compare disease activity and quality of life (QoL) in a 1 year randomized trial of IBD patients receiving telemedicine versus standard care. METHODS: Patients with worsening symptoms in the prior 2 years were eligible for randomization to telemedicine (monitoring via texts EOW or weekly) or standard care. The primary outcomes were the differences in change in disease activity and QoL between the groups; change in health care utilization among groups was a secondary aim. RESULTS: 348 participants were enrolled (117 control group, 115 TELE-IBD EOW, and 116 TELE-IBD weekly). 259 (74.4%) completed the study. Age was 38.9 ± 12.3 years, 56.6% were women, 91.9% were Caucasian, 67.9% had Crohn's disease (CD) and 42.5% had active disease at baseline. In CD, all groups experienced a decrease in disease activity (control -5.2 ± 5.0 to 3.7 ± 3.6, TELE-IBD EOW 4.7 ± 4.1 to 4.2 ± 3.9, and TELE-IBD weekly 4.2 ± 4.2 to 3.2 ± 3.4, p < 0.0001 for each of the groups) In UC, only controls had a significant decrease in disease activity (control 2.9 ±;3.1 to 1.4 ± 1.4, p = 0.01, TELE-IBD EOW 2.7 ± 3.1 to 1.7 ± 1.9, p = 0.35, and TELE-IBD Weekly 2.5 ± 2.5 to 2.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.31). QoL increased in all groups; the increase was significant only in TELE-IBD EOW (control 168.1 ± 34.0 to 179.3 ± 28.2, p = 0.06, TELE-IBD EOW 172.3 ± 33.1 to 181.5 ± 28.2, p = 0.03, and TELE-IBD Weekly 172.3 ± 34.5 to 179.2 ± 32.8, p = 0.10). Unadjusted and adjusted changes in disease activity and QoL were not significantly different among groups. Health care utilization increased in all groups. TELE-IBD weekly were less likely to have IBD-related hospitalizations and more likely to have non-invasive diagnostic tests and electronic encounters compared to controls; both TELE-IBD groups had decreased non-IBD related hospitalizations and increased telephone calls compared to controls. DISCUSSION: Disease activity and QoL, although improved in all participants, were not improved further through use of the TELE-IBD system. TELE-IBD participants experienced a decrease in hospitalizations with an associated increase in non-invasive diagnostic tests, telephone calls and electronic encounters. Research is needed to determine if TELE-IBD can be improved through patient engagement and whether it can decrease healthcare utilization by replacing standard care.

5.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 24(10): 2191-2197, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788137

RESUMO

Background: Effective treatments are available for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, suboptimal outcomes occur and are often linked to patients' limited disease knowledge. The aim of this analysis was to determine if delivery of educational messages through a telemedicine system improves IBD knowledge. Methods: TELEmedicine for Patients with IBD (TELE-IBD) was a randomized controlled trial with visits at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months; patient knowledge was a secondary aim of the study. Patients were randomized to receive TELE-IBD every other week (EOW), weekly (TELE-IBD W), or standard of care. Knowledge was assessed at each visit with the Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge (CCKNOW) survey. The primary outcome was change in CCKNOW score over 1 year compared between the TELE-IBD and control groups. Results: This analysis included 219 participants. Participants in the TELE-IBD arms had a greater improvement in CCKNOW score compared with standard care (TELE-IBD EOW +2.4 vs standard care +1.8, P = 0.03; TELE-IBD W +2.0 vs standard care +1.8, P = 0.35). Participants with lower baseline CCKNOW scores had a greater change in their score over time (P < 0.01). However, after adjusting for race, site, and baseline knowledge, there was no difference in CCKNOW score change between the control and telemedicine arms. Conclusions: Telemedicine improves IBD-specific knowledge through text messaging, although the improvement is not additive with greater frequency of text messages. However, after adjustment for confounding variables, telemedicine is not superior to education given through standard visits at referral centers. Further research is needed to determine if revised systems with different modes of delivery and/or frequency of messages improve disease knowledge.

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 24(12): 2648-2654, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846623

RESUMO

Background: Depression is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is known to be associated with poor adherence in the usual care setting. In the last decade, there has been an increase in the use of information technology (IT) for the delivery of IBD care, but the association between depressive symptoms (DS) and adherence to self-testing in this context is not known. We aimed to investigate this association among IBD patients managed via a text messaging-based telemedicine system. Methods: This was a prospective study of participants in the 2 intervention arms of the Telemedicine for Patients with IBD (TELE-IBD) trial. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline, and then participants received periodic text messages to initiate IBD-specific self-testing. Treatment plans were similarly conveyed, and adherence to self-testing was evaluated at the end of 1 year. Regression analyses were performed, and age-stratified models were constructed to evaluate for effect modification. Results: Of the 193 study participants, 48% had DS at baseline. Overall, there was no significant association between DS and adherence to self-testing. However, upon stratification by age, adherence increased with depressive symptoms in those that were 40 years and younger (P = 0.02), but there was no association between depressive symptoms and adherence in the older group (P = 0.53). Conclusions: Younger IBD patients with DS have high adherence when managed in a text messaging-based telemedicine program. Telemedicine interventions have the potential to improve health outcomes in this demographic-a group that is often thought to be difficult to manage due to nonadherence.

7.
J Gambl Stud ; 34(4): 1205-1239, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427019

RESUMO

To review the scientific literature examining gambling behavior in military veterans in order to summarize factors associated with gambling behavior in this population. Database searches were employed to identify articles specifically examining gambling behavior in military veterans. Cumulative search results identified 52 articles (1983-2017) examining gambling behavior in veteran populations. Articles generally fell into one or more of the following categories: prevalence, psychological profiles and psychiatric comorbidities, treatment evaluations, measurement, and genetic contributions to gambling disorder. Results from reviewed articles are presented and implications for future research discussed. Research to date has provided an excellent foundation to inform potential screening, intervention and research activities going forward. The authors suggest that a public health approach to future research endeavors would strengthen the evidence base regarding gambling in veteran populations and better inform strategies for screening, prevention and treatment.

8.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 43(2): 313-324, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741626

RESUMO

Maladaptive decision making is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including problem gambling and suicidal behavior. The prevalence of these disorders is higher in men vs women, suggesting gender-dependent regulation of their pathophysiology underpinnings. We assessed sex differences in decision making using the rat version of the Iowa gambling task. Female rats identified the most optimal choice from session 1, whereas male rats from session 5. Male, but not female rats, progressively improved their advantageous option responding and surpassed females. Estrus cycle phase did not affect decision making. To test whether pharmacological manipulations targeting the dopaminergic and stress systems affect decision making in a sex-dependent manner, male and female rats received injections of a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist (eticlopride), D2R agonist (quinpirole), corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) antagonist (antalarmin), and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine; used as a pharmacological stressor). Alterations in mRNA levels of D2R and CRF1 were also assessed. Eticlopride decreased advantageous responding in male, but not female rats, whereas quinpirole decreased advantageous responding specifically in females. Yohimbine dose-dependently decreased advantageous responding in female rats, whereas decreased advantageous responding was only observed at higher doses in males. Antalarmin increased optimal choice responding only in female rats. Higher Drd2 and Crhr1 expression in the amygdala were observed in female vs male rats. Higher amygdalar Crhr1 expression was negatively correlated with advantageous responding specifically in females. This study demonstrates the relevance of dopaminergic- and stress-dependent sex differences to maladaptive decision making.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/farmacologia , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Quimpirol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Receptores de Dopamina D2/agonistas , Salicilamidas/farmacologia , Ioimbina/farmacologia
9.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 8(4): 301-307, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Utilization of patient-reported outcome tools allows a more accurate assessment of the efficacy of treatment, which is critical to comparative effectiveness research. OBJECTIVES: The Maryland Orthopaedic Registry (MOR) was established to assess post-surgical outcomes related to patients' pain, functional status, met expectations, and satisfaction using an electronic data collection system. Secondary aims of the registry include assessment of patient expectations of treatment, activity level, and general health status. METHODS: Adult patients enrolled in this prospective observational study completed self-report measures assessing pre-operative pain, function, treatment expectations, and activity levels during the perioperative period. MOR utilizes the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®)'computer adaptive testing for physical function, pain interference, fatigue, social satisfaction, anxiety, and depression. Perioperative data is extracted from the medical record. RESULTS: 300 patients (40% of eligible) have been enrolled into the initial cohort. Most patients (94.1%) were aged 18-65, and 57% were male. Fifty-seven percent of enrollees were White, 33% Black, and 4% Asian. PROMIS physical function and social satisfaction were both more than half a standard deviation below the population mean. Participants reported PROMIS anxiety scores that were half a standard deviation above the population mean and pain interference scores that were more than a standard deviation above the mean. Physical function scores were significantly worse among participants with lower extremity orthopaedic issues, but scores on other measures were similar between participants undergoing lower or upper extremity surgery. CONCLUSIONS: MOR provides a comprehensive assessment of patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. The utilization of electronic clinical assessment tools as well as computer adaptive testing allows for time-efficient data collection. The diverse population is a particular strength of MOR.

10.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171631, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28192460

RESUMO

Although screening for pre-cancerous cervical lesions and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination are accepted and effective means to prevent cervical cancer, women in Mali have limited access to these interventions. In addition, cervical cancer prevention by HPV vaccination has been controversial in some settings. To reduce cervical cancer prevalence and increase HPV vaccine uptake, it is important to understand the level of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and practices related to vaccination in at-risk populations. In this study, the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer and attitudes towards vaccination were assessed among 301 participants (male and female, adults and adolescents) in a house-to-house survey in two urban neighborhoods in Bamako, Mali. The survey was combined with a brief educational session on HPV. Prior to the education session, overall knowledge of HPV infection and cervical cancer was very low: only 8% knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Less than 20% of women had ever consulted a gynecologist and less than 3% had ever had cervical cancer screening. After hearing a description of HPV vaccine, more than 80% would accept HPV vaccination; fathers and husbands were identified as primary decisions makers and local clinics or the home as preferred sites for vaccination. This study provides information on STI knowledge and vaccine acceptance in Bamako, Mali in 2012, prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; 35(2): 180-201, 2017 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045595

RESUMO

Advances in breast cancer screening and treatment have led to an overall 5-year survival rate of 90%. Many of these cancer cases are diagnosed in working women. Few studies have explicitly examined the cancer-work interface, as experienced by low-wage earning women with breast cancer. This study uses in-depth, semistructured interviews with 24 low-wage breast cancer survivors to identify employment decisions and factors that influenced or enabled these decisions, and examine the individual strategies and workplace supports used to manage the cancer-work interface among a subset of women (n = 13) who continued to work. Future research areas and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisões , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Harmful Algae ; 57(B): 26-34, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616973

RESUMO

The Makah Tribe of Neah Bay, Washington, has historically relied on the subsistence harvest of coastal seafood, including shellfish, which remains an important cultural and ceremonial resource. Tribal legend describes visitors from other tribes that died from eating shellfish collected on Makah lands. These deaths were believed to be caused by paralytic shellfish poisoning, a human illness caused by ingestion of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, which are produced by toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates on which the shellfish feed. These paralytic shellfish toxins include saxitoxin, a potent Na+ channel antagonist that binds to the pore region of voltage gated Na+ channels. Amino acid mutations in the Na+ channel pore have been demonstrated to confer resistance to saxitoxin in softshell clam populations exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins present in their environment. Because of the notion of resistance to paralytic shellfish toxins, we aimed to determine if a resistance strategy was possible in humans with historical exposure to toxins in shellfish. We collected, extracted and purified DNA from buccal swabs of 83 volunteer Makah tribal members and sequenced the skeletal muscle Na+ channel (Nav1.4) at nine loci to characterize potential mutations in the relevant saxitoxin binding regions. No mutations of these specific regions were identified after comparison to a reference sequence. This study suggests that any resistance of Makah Tribal members to saxitoxin is not a function of Nav1.4 modification but may be due to mutations in neuronal or cardiac sodium channels or some other mechanism unrelated to sodium channel function.

13.
Child Abuse Negl ; 58: 24-38, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27337693

RESUMO

This study systematically reviews research on child maltreatment and risk of gambling problems in adulthood. It also reviews adult problem gamblers' risk of abusing or neglecting their own children. Multiple database searches were conducted using pre-defined search terms related to gambling and child abuse and neglect. We identified 601 unique references and excluded studies if they did not report original research, or did not specifically measure child maltreatment or gambling. Twelve studies that included multivariable analysis of childhood maltreatment exposure and problem gambling were identified. Six of seven studies examining childhood sexual abuse and four of five examining physical abuse showed a significant positive association between abuse and later gambling problems (odds ratios for sexual abuse 2.01-3.65; physical abuse 2.3-2.8). Both studies examining psychological maltreatment and two of three examining neglect identified positive associations with problem gambling. In most studies, risks were reduced or eliminated when controlling for other mental health disorders. The three studies measuring risk of child abuse and neglect among current problem gamblers suggest an increased risk for child physical abuse and medical conditions indicative of neglect although there is a considerable amount of variation among studies. Child abuse is associated with increased risk of gambling problems - gambling treatment providers should ask about maltreatment history as part of their clinical assessment. Problem gamblers may be more likely to physically abuse or neglect their children, but data here are more limited. Child welfare professionals should consider asking questions about parental gambling when assessing family risk.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Bem-Estar da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Harmful Algae ; 57(Pt B): 26-34, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918888

RESUMO

The Makah Tribe of Neah Bay, Washington, has historically relied on the subsistence harvest of coastal seafood, including shellfish, which remains an important cultural and ceremonial resource. Tribal legend describes visitors from other tribes that died from eating shellfish collected on Makah lands. These deaths were believed to be caused by paralytic shellfish poisoning, a human illness caused by ingestion of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, which are produced by toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates on which the shellfish feed. These paralytic shellfish toxins include saxitoxin, a potent Na+ channel antagonist that binds to the pore region of voltage gated Na+ channels. Amino acid mutations in the Na+ channel pore have been demonstrated to confer resistance to saxitoxin in softshell clam populations exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins present in their environment. Because of the notion of resistance to paralytic shellfish toxins, the study aimed to determine if a resistance strategy was possible in humans with historical exposure to toxins in shellfish. We collected, extracted and purified DNA from buccal swabs of 83 volunteer Makah tribal members and sequenced the skeletal muscle Na+ channel (Nav1.4) at nine loci to characterize potential mutations in the relevant saxitoxin binding regions. No mutations of these specific regions were identified after comparison to a reference sequence. This study suggests that any resistance of Makah tribal members to saxitoxin, if present, is not a function of Nav1.4 modification, but may be due to mutations in neuronal or cardiac sodium channels, or some other mechanism unrelated to sodium channel function.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Animais , Resistência à Doença/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Frutos do Mar/toxicidade , Washington
15.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 42: 132-44, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25812483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), comprised of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are chronic disorders characterized by worsening of symptoms followed by symptom-free periods. Symptoms have a profound negative impact on quality of life and are associated with increased health care utilization. Despite effective treatments, outcomes are suboptimal secondary to nonadherence, medication intolerance, inconsistent monitoring, poor patient knowledge and limited access to care. OBJECTIVES: Compare disease activity and quality of life over 1 year in a randomized trial of IBD patients receiving standard care versus telemedicine. METHODS: Patients evaluated at 3 IBD referral centers with worsening symptoms within the last 2 years are eligible for randomization to one of two interventions or standard care. The interventions consist of either every other week or weekly assessment of symptoms, side effects, weight and delivery of medication prompts and education via texts to the participant's mobile phone. Individualized alerts and action plans are created on a secure portal. Participants in the standard care group undergo routine and urgent follow-up visits and telephone calls. The primary outcomes group comparisons of changes in disease activity and quality of life scores from baseline to 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Methods such as telemedicine are needed to improve monitoring, adherence, self-efficacy, and patient knowledge in IBD. If effective, telemedicine should decrease symptoms, improve quality of life, and decrease health care utilization. The burden associated with use of telemedicine for patients and providers needs to be assessed. The trial is ongoing and will be completed in July 2016.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Doença Crônica , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Sistemas de Alerta
16.
J Infect Dis ; 210(11): 1723-33, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24943724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe the temporal relationship between vaginal microbiota and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection. METHODS: Thirty-two reproductive-age women self-collected midvaginal swabs twice weekly for 16 weeks (937 samples). Vaginal bacterial communities were characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes and clustered into 6 community state types (CSTs). Each swab was tested for 37 HPV types. The effects of CSTs on the rate of transition between HPV-negative and HPV-positive states were assessed using continuous-time Markov models. RESULTS: Participants had an average of 29 samples, with HPV point prevalence between 58%-77%. CST was associated with changes in HPV status (P<.001). Lactobacillus gasseri-dominated CSTs had the fastest HPV remission rate, and a low Lactobacillus community with high proportions of the genera Atopobium (CST IV-B) had the slowest rate compared to L. crispatus-dominated CSTs (adjusted transition rate ratio [aTRR], 4.43, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-17.7; aTRR, 0.33, 95% CI, .12-1.19, respectively). The rate ratio of incident HPV for low Lactobacillus CST IV-A was 1.86 (95% CI, .52-6.74). CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal microbiota dominated by L. gasseri was associated with increased clearance of detectable HPV. Frequent longitudinal sampling is necessary for evaluation of the association between HPV detection and dynamic microbiota.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alphapapillomavirus/classificação , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Metagenoma , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/virologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Vaccine ; 32(26): 3316-22, 2014 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24731734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality, particularly in the parts of the developing world that bear the greatest burden of disease. This research sought to predict the impact and cost-effectiveness of an HPV vaccination program in an example low-resource country with a high burden of cervical cancer: Mali, West Africa. METHODS: Novel compartmental mathematical models projected the impact of adolescent HPV vaccination in urban and rural areas of Mali. The models accounted for two high-risk vaccine-types: HPV 16 and 18. We then attached comprehensive real cost and cost-effectiveness estimates. RESULTS: Our models predict that HPV vaccination in Mali will reduce cervical cancer burden by a factor roughly equal to vaccine coverage. A point vaccination program was simulated in a cohort of 333,146 urban and 588,982 rural Malian women, age 10-14. Vaccination of 50% of girls reduced the peak prevalence of HPV 16/18 to 5.0% in the urban setting and 9.6% in the rural setting, down from 11.7% and 22.0%, respectively, with no vaccination. The 50% vaccination scenario averted 1145 cervical cancer deaths in the urban group and 2742 in the rural group. The cost per discounted life-year saved in this scenario was 1030 US dollars (urban) and 725 dollars (rural). The cost per life-year saved was higher at 90% coverage, but was still in the range of a "cost-effective" public health intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This research yielded the most comprehensive real cost estimates of HPV vaccination yet published for sub-Saharan Africa. Our models indicate that HPV vaccination in Mali will be cost-effective when introduced. To maximize the benefit using limited resources, vaccination programs may begin with a target coverage of about 50%. We anticipate that costs of reaching late adopters after the First Vaccinated Wave of vaccination will be higher, but worthwhile.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Previsões , Planejamento em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Masculino , Mali , Modelos Teóricos , População Rural , População Urbana , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) ; 10(8): 503-509, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845141

RESUMO

Adalimumab (Humira, AbbVie) has efficacy in treatment-naive and infliximab (Remicade, Janssen)-exposed patients with Crohn's disease (CD). An e-survey was sent to US gastroenterologists who were members of the American Gastroenterological Association. A total of 398 gastroenterologists (3%) completed the survey. Seventy-two percent prescribed adalimumab more than a few times yearly, 58% followed more than 50 patients with CD, and 15% followed 200 or more patients with CD. Ninety percent of gastroenterologists felt that adalimumab had a moderately significant positive impact on patient care. Eighty-two percent correctly identified the US Food and Drug Administration-approved adalimumab induction and maintenance regimens. These gastroenterologists were more likely to follow 200 or more patients with CD (P=.045) and prescribe adalimumab more than a few times per year (P=.037). Years in practice, practice setting, gender, and region did not impact prescribing. Correct dosing was associated with higher prescribing frequency (P=.014) and volume of patients with CD (P=.025). The frequency of adalimumab prescribing and volume of patients with CD were predictive of the total number of correct survey answers (P=.014 and P=.017, respectively). Only 50% of gastroenterologists always administered loading doses when switching to adalimumab from another anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent; 43.5% reported unclear loading efficacy and 24.3% reported infection concerns from excess anti-TNF as reasons. Eighteen percent of gastroenterologists reported that pharmacies had reduced their prescribed adalimumab doses. To our knowledge, this is the only study evaluating prescribing patterns of adalimumab in patients with CD in the United States. Our findings demonstrate that many gastroenterologists are not using optimal adalimumab dosing strategies, which may lead to a decreased rate of response in patients with CD. Further research is needed to confirm our findings and identify barriers to optimal adalimumab use by gastroenterologists for treatment of CD.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 13: 442, 2013 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23642184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lesbians have low rates of cervical cancer screening, even though they are at risk of developing the disease. The aim of this study was to examine cervical cancer screening behaviors in a national sample of lesbians. METHODS: A standardized internet survey was sent to 3,000 self-identified lesbians to assess cervical cancer screening behaviors and barriers to screening. The sample consisted of 1,006 respondents. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of the weighted sample of respondents were routine screeners. Lack of a physician referral (17.5%) and lack of a physician (17.3%) were the most commonly-cited top reasons for lack of screening. Adjusting for age, education, relationship status, employments status, and insurance status, women who had disclosed their sexual orientation to their primary care physician (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.84 [95% confidence interval 1.82-4.45]) or gynecologist (OR 2.30 [1.33-3.96]) had greater odds of routine screening than those who did not. Those who knew that lack of Pap testing is a risk factor for cervical cancer were also more likely to be routine screeners (OR 1.95 [1.30-2.91]), although no association with screening was apparent for women who had more knowledge of general cervical cancer risk factors. Physician recommendation appeared to be a potent determinant of regular screening behavior. Routine screeners perceived more benefits and fewer barriers to screening, as well as higher susceptibility to cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Some women who identify as lesbian are at a potentially elevated risk of cervical cancer because they are not routinely screened. Evidence-based interventions should be developed to address critical health beliefs that undermine participation in screening. Given the value placed on physician recommendation, patient-provider communication may serve as the optimal focus of effective intervention.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e56402, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23431375

RESUMO

Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12-17 years and men and women aged ≥ 18 years (N = 51) in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI), 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren) against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005), a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Participação do Paciente , População Urbana , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
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