Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 378
Filtrar
1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 362, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501457

RESUMO

Deficiency of the immune checkpoint lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) protein is significantly associated with both elevated HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and myocardial infarction risk. We determined the association of genetic variants within ±500 kb of LAG3 with plasma LAG3 and defined LAG3-associated plasma proteins with HDL-C and clinical outcomes. Whole genome sequencing and plasma proteomics were obtained from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) cohorts as part of the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program. In situ Hi-C chromatin capture was performed in EBV-transformed cell lines isolated from four MESA participants. Genetic association analyses were performed in MESA using multivariate regression models, with validation in FHS. A LAG3-associated protein network was tested for association with HDL-C, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality. We identify an association between the LAG3 rs3782735 variant and plasma LAG3 protein. Proteomics analysis reveals 183 proteins significantly associated with LAG3 with four proteins associated with HDL-C. Four proteins discovered for association with all-cause mortality in FHS shows nominal associations in MESA. Chromatin capture analysis reveals significant cis interactions between LAG3 and C1S, LRIG3, TNFRSF1A, and trans interactions between LAG3 and B2M. A LAG3-associated protein network has significant associations with HDL-C and mortality.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Medicina de Precisão , HDL-Colesterol , Cromatina , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteínas de Membrana
2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma phosphorylated-tau181 (p-tau181) is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may offer utility for predicting preclinical disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prospective association between plasma p-tau181 and amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau-PET deposition in cognitively unimpaired individuals. METHODS: Plasma p-tau181 levels were measured at baseline in 52 [48% women, mean 64.4 (SD 5.5) years] cognitively unimpaired Framingham Offspring cohort participants using samples stored between 2011-2014 who subsequently underwent 11C-Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET and/or 18F-Flortaucipir (FTP)-PET scans (n = 18 with tau-PET) a mean of 6.8 (SD 0.6) years later. Our primary outcomes included Aß-precuneus, Aß-FLR (frontal, lateral, and retrosplenial cortices) and tau-global composite region PET deposition. Secondary outcomes included individual regional Aß and tau PET-deposition. P-tau181 was compared with plasma neurofilament light chain (NFL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in predicting PET outcomes. RESULTS: P-tau181 was associated with increased Aß deposition in the FLR (ß±SE, 1.25±0.30, p < 0.0001), precuneus (1.35±0.29, p < 0.001), and other cortical regions. Plasma NFL (1.30±0.49, p = 0.01) and GFAP (1.46±0.39, p < 0.001) were also associated with FLR Aß deposition. In models including all three biomarkers adjusted for age, sex, APOE E4 allele, AD polygenic risk score and cortical atrophy score, p-tau181 (0.93±0.31, p < 0.01, R2 = 0.18) and GFAP (0.93±0.41, p = 0.03, R2 = 0.11), but not NFL (0.25±0.51, p = 0.62, R2 = 0.01), were associated with FLR-Aß deposition. Plasma p-tau181 was not associated with tau-PET burden. CONCLUSION: In cognitively unimpaired adults, elevated plasma p-tau181 is associated with future increased Aß deposition across multiple brain regions. Our results highlight the potential utility of p-tau181 as a blood-biomarker to screen for brain-amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy individuals in a community-setting.

3.
Sci Adv ; 8(14): eabl6579, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385311

RESUMO

Human genetic studies support an inverse causal relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but directionally mixed effects for LTL and diverse malignancies. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), characterized by expansion of hematopoietic cells bearing leukemogenic mutations, predisposes both hematologic malignancy and CAD. TERT (which encodes telomerase reverse transcriptase) is the most significantly associated germline locus for CHIP in genome-wide association studies. Here, we investigated the relationship between CHIP, LTL, and CAD in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program (n = 63,302) and UK Biobank (n = 47,080). Bidirectional Mendelian randomization studies were consistent with longer genetically imputed LTL increasing propensity to develop CHIP, but CHIP then, in turn, hastens to shorten measured LTL (mLTL). We also demonstrated evidence of modest mediation between CHIP and CAD by mLTL. Our data promote an understanding of potential causal relationships across CHIP and LTL toward prevention of CAD.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e225012, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357453

RESUMO

Importance: Higher intake of dietary fiber has been associated with lower inflammation, but whether there are differences in this association by source of dietary fiber (ie, cereal, vegetable, or fruit) has not been studied to date. Objectives: To evaluate the associations of total fiber intake and source (ie, cereal, vegetable, and fruit fiber intake) with inflammation and to evaluate whether inflammation mediates the inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design, Setting, and Participants: At the baseline visit (1989-1990) of 4125 adults aged 65 years or older in an ongoing US cohort study, dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire among study participants without prevalent CVD (stroke and myocardial infarction) at enrollment. Inflammation was assessed from blood samples collected at baseline with immunoassays for markers of inflammation. Multivariable linear regression models tested the association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation. Also assessed was whether each inflammatory marker and its composite derived from principal component analysis mediated the association of baseline cereal fiber intake with development of CVD (stroke, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular death) through June 2015. Data from June 1, 1989, through June 30, 2015, were analyzed. Exposures: Total fiber intake and sources of fiber (cereal, vegetable, and fruit). Main Outcomes and Measures: Systemic markers of inflammation. Cardiovascular disease was the outcome in the mediation analysis. Results: Of 4125 individuals, 0.1% (n = 3) were Asian or Pacific Islander, 4.4% (n = 183) were Black, 0.3% (n = 12) were Native American, 95.0% (n = 3918) were White, and 0.2% (n = 9) were classified as other. Among these 4125 individuals (2473 women [60%]; mean [SD] age, 72.6 [5.5] years; 183 Black individuals [4.4%]; and 3942 individuals of other races and ethnicitites [95.6%] [ie, race and ethnicity other than Black, self-classified by participant]), an increase in total fiber intake of 5 g/d was associated with significantly lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (adjusted mean difference, -0.05 SD; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.01 SD; P = .007) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (adjusted mean difference, -0.04 SD; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.01 SD; P < .02) but with higher concentrations of soluble CD163 (adjusted mean difference, 0.05 SD; 95% CI, 0.02-0.09 SD; P = .005). Among fiber sources, only cereal fiber was consistently associated with lower inflammation. Similarly, cereal fiber intake was associated with lower CVD incidence (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-1.00; 1941 incident cases). The proportion of the observed association of cereal fiber with CVD mediated by inflammatory markers ranged from 1.5% for interleukin 18 to 14.2% for C-reactive protein, and 16.1% for their primary principal component. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that cereal fiber intake was associated with lower levels of various inflammatory markers and lower risk of CVD and that inflammation mediated approximately one-sixth of the association between cereal fiber intake and CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247051

RESUMO

To evaluate the association of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with dysglycemia in older adults, NEFA levels were measured among participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Associations with insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function, and with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were examined. The sample comprised 2144 participants (age 77.9±4.5). Participant data from CHS visit in 1996 was used with prospective follow-up through 2010. Fasting and post-load NEFA showed significant associations with lower insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function, individually and on concurrent adjustment. Over median follow-up of 9.7 years, 236 cases of DM occurred. Post-load NEFA was associated with risk of DM (HR per SD=1.18 [95% CI=1.08, 1.29]), but fasting NEFA was not (HR=1.11 [95% CI=0.97, 1.29]). The association for post-load NEFA persisted after adjustment for putative intermediates, and after adjustment for fasting NEFA. Sex and BMI modified these associations, which were stronger for fasting NEFA with DM in men, but were accentuated for post-load NEFA in women and among leaner individuals. Fasting and post-load NEFA were related to lower insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function, but only post-load NEFA was associated with increased DM. Additional study into NEFA metabolism could uncover novel potential targets for diabetes prevention in elders.

6.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 14(1): e12298, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356487

RESUMO

Introduction: The clinical translation of biofluid markers for dementia requires validation in diverse cohorts. The study goal was to evaluate if blood biomarkers reflecting diverse pathophysiological processes predict disease progression in Mexican American adults. Methods: Mexican American adults (n = 745), 50 years of age and older, completed annual assessments over a mean of 4 years. Serum collected at baseline was assayed for total tau, neurofilament light (NFL), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase LI, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), and chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40). Results: Higher GFAP and NFL were associated with global cognitive decline. Only GFAP was associated with increased incident dementia risk (hazard ratio: 1.611 (95% confidence interval: 1.204-2.155)) and inclusion of additional biomarkers did not improve model fit. Discussion: Among a panel of six blood biomarkers previously associated with neurodegenerative disease, only GFAP predicted incident dementia in our cohort. The findings suggest that blood GFAP levels may aid dementia-risk prediction among Mexican American adults.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 162(6): 1705-1715, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A genome-wide significant association between anti-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) IgG titers and Toll-like receptor (TLR1/6/10) locus on 4p14 was demonstrated for individuals of European ancestry, but not uniformly replicated. We re-investigated this association in an updated genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis for populations with low gastric cancer incidence, address potential causes of cohort heterogeneity, and explore functional implications of genetic variation at the TLR1/6/10 locus. METHODS: The dichotomous GWAS (25% individuals exhibiting highest anti-H pylori IgG titers vs remaining 75%) included discovery and replication sampls of, respectively, n = 15,685 and n = 9676, all of European ancestry. Longitudinal analysis of serologic data was performed on H pylori-eradicated subjects (n = 132) and patients under surveillance for premalignant gastric lesions (n = 107). TLR1/6/10 surface expression, TLR1 mRNA, and cytokine levels were measured in leukocyte subsets of healthy subjects (n = 26) genotyped for TLR1/6/10 variants. RESULTS: The association of the TLR1/6/10 locus with anti-H pylori IgG titers (rs12233670; ß = -0.267 ± SE 0.034; P = 4.42 × 10-15) presented with high heterogeneity and failed replication. Anti-H pylori IgG titers declined within 2-4 years after eradication treatment (P = 0.004), and decreased over time in patients with premalignant gastric lesions (P < 0.001). Variation at the TLR1/6/10 locus affected TLR1-mediated cytokine production and TLR1 surface expression on monocytes (P = 0.016) and neutrophils (P = 0.030), but not mRNA levels. CONCLUSIONS: The association between anti-H pylori IgG titers and TLR1/6/10 locus was not replicated across cohorts, possibly owing to dependency of anti-H pylori IgG titers on therapy, clearance, and antibody decay. H pylori-mediated immune cell activation is partly mediated via TLR1 signaling, which in turn is affected by genetic variation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Neoplasias Gástricas , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/genética , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Citocinas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
8.
AIDS ; 36(4): 501-511, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A higher proportion of circulating memory CD4+ T cells is associated with prevalent diabetes mellitus in persons with HIV (PWH) and HIV-negative persons. We assessed whether circulating T-cell subsets could also identify individuals who will subsequently develop diabetes. DESIGN: This is a longitudinal follow-up study of PWH and similar HIV-negative individuals from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study who provided peripheral mononuclear blood cells between 2005 and 2007. METHODS: We quantified T-cell subsets using flow cytometry and functional assays to identify CD4+ and CD8+ naive, activated, senescent, memory (central, effector, and effector RA+), and TH1, TH2, and TH17-phenotype cells. The occurrence of an incident diabetes diagnosis (i.e. after baseline blood draw) was adjudicated by a two-physician chart review. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for traditional risk factors, cytomegalovirus serostatus, and plasma inflammatory biomarkers assessed the relationship between T-cell subsets and incident diabetes. RESULTS: One thousand, eight hundred and thirty-seven participants (1259 PWH) without diabetes at baseline were included; 69% were black, 95% were men, and median follow-up was 8.6 years. Higher baseline frequencies of CD4+ T effector memory RA+ (TEMRA) cells defined as CD45RA+ CD27- (P = 0.04) and senescent T cells defined as CD4+ CD28- (P = 0.04) were associated with incident diabetes in PWH only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher frequencies of CD4+ TEMRA and CD4+ CD28- T cells were associated with incident diabetes in PWH only after adjustment for other factors. Additional studies are necessary to assess whether these cells act in blood via inflammatory mediators or reflect T-cell populations in metabolically active tissues.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infecções por HIV , Antígenos CD28 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T
9.
Stroke ; 53(3): 788-797, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a novel age-related risk factor for cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The association of CHIP with risk of incident ischemic stroke was reported previously in an exploratory analysis including a small number of incident stroke cases without replication and lack of stroke subphenotyping. The purpose of this study was to discover whether CHIP is a risk factor for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: We utilized plasma genome sequence data of blood DNA to identify CHIP in 78 752 individuals from 8 prospective cohorts and biobanks. We then assessed the association of CHIP and commonly mutated individual CHIP driver genes (DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1) with any stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS: CHIP was associated with an increased risk of total stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03-1.27]; P=0.01) after adjustment for age, sex, and race. We observed associations with CHIP with risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.01-1.51]; P=0.04) and with small vessel ischemic stroke subtypes. In gene-specific association results, TET2 showed the strongest association with total stroke and ischemic stroke, whereas DMNT3A and TET2 were each associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: CHIP is associated with an increased risk of stroke, particularly with hemorrhagic and small vessel ischemic stroke. Future studies clarifying the relationship between CHIP and subtypes of stroke are needed.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal/fisiologia , AVC Hemorrágico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dioxigenases/genética , Feminino , AVC Hemorrágico/genética , AVC Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , AVC Isquêmico/genética , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Risco
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(3): 914-924, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] thresholds for treatment with vitamin D supplementation have been suggested and are derived almost exclusively from observational studies. Whether other characteristics, including race/ethnicity, BMI, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), should also influence the threshold for treatment is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to identify clinical and biomarker characteristics that modify the response to vitamin D supplementation. METHODS: A total of 666 older adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) were randomly assigned to 16 wk of oral vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d; n = 499) or placebo (n = 167). Primary outcomes were changes in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations from baseline to 16 wk. RESULTS: Among 666 participants randomly assigned (mean age: 72 y; 53% female; 66% racial/ethnic minority), 611 (92%) completed the study. The mean (SD) change in PTH was -3 (16) pg/mL with vitamin D3 compared with 2 (18) pg/mL with placebo (estimated mean difference: -5; 95% CI: -8, -2 pg/mL). Within the vitamin D3 group, lower baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was associated with a larger decline in PTH in a nonlinear fashion. With baseline 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL as the reference, 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL was associated with a larger decline in PTH with vitamin D3 supplementation (-10; 95% CI: -15, -6 pg/mL), whereas 25(OH)D of 20-30 ng/mL was not (-2; 95% CI: -6, 1 pg/mL). A segmented threshold model identified a baseline 25(OH)D concentration of 21 (95% CI: 13, 31) ng/mL as an inflection point for difference in change in PTH. Race/ethnicity, BMI, and eGFR did not modify vitamin D treatment response. There was no significant change in 1,25(OH)2D in either treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Of characteristics most commonly associated with vitamin D metabolism, only baseline 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL modified the PTH response to vitamin D supplementation, providing support from a clinical trial to use this threshold to define insufficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02925195.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Idoso , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Calcifediol , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
11.
Circulation ; 145(5): 357-370, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma proteins are critical mediators of cardiovascular processes and are the targets of many drugs. Previous efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of the plasma proteome have been limited by a focus on individuals of European descent and leveraged genotyping arrays and imputation. Here we describe whole genome sequence analysis of the plasma proteome in individuals with greater African ancestry, increasing our power to identify novel genetic determinants. METHODS: Proteomic profiling of 1301 proteins was performed in 1852 Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study using aptamer-based proteomics (SomaScan). Whole genome sequencing association analysis was ascertained for all variants with minor allele count ≥5. Results were validated using an alternative, antibody-based, proteomic platform (Olink) as well as replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the HERITAGE Family Study (Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics). RESULTS: We identify 569 genetic associations between 479 proteins and 438 unique genetic regions at a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 3.8×10-11. These associations include 114 novel locus-protein relationships and an additional 217 novel sentinel variant-protein relationships. Novel cardiovascular findings include new protein associations at the APOE gene locus including ZAP70 (sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7412-T, ß=0.61±0.05, P=3.27×10-30) and MMP-3 (ß=-0.60±0.05, P=1.67×10-32), as well as a completely novel pleiotropic locus at the HPX gene, associated with 9 proteins. Further, the associations suggest new mechanisms of genetically mediated cardiovascular disease linked to African ancestry; we identify a novel association between variants linked to APOL1-associated chronic kidney and heart disease and the protein CKAP2 (rs73885319-G, ß=0.34±0.04, P=1.34×10-17) as well as an association between ATTR amyloidosis and RBP4 levels in community-dwelling individuals without heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the functional importance of variants in non-European populations, and suggest new biological mechanisms for ancestry-specific determinants of lipids, coagulation, and myocardial function.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 77(4): 763-769, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-11 controls embryonic development and has been proposed as an antiaging factor. GDF-8 (myostatin) inhibits skeletal muscle growth. Difficulties in accurately measuring circulating GDF-11 and GDF-8 have generated controversy. METHODS: We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous measurement of circulating GDF-8 and GDF-11 that employs denaturation, reduction, and alkylation; cation-exchange solid-phase extraction; tryptic digestion; followed by separation and quantification using 2 signature peptides for multiple reaction monitoring and C-terminal [13C615N4]-Arg peptides as internal standards. We evaluated age trends in serum GDF-11 and GDF-8 concentrations in community-dwelling healthy men, 19 years or older, and determined the effects of graded testosterone doses on GDF-8 and GDF-11 concentrations in healthy men in a randomized trial. RESULTS: The assay demonstrated linearity over a wide range, lower limit of quantitation 0.5 ng/mL for both proteins, and excellent precision, accuracy, and specificity (no detectable cross-reactivity of GDF-8 in GDF-11 assay or of GDF-11 in GDF-8 assay). Mean ± SD (median ± 1QR) GDF-8 and GDF-11 levels in healthy community-dwelling men, 19 years and older, were 7.2 ±â€…1.9 (6.8 ±â€…1.4) ng/mL. Neither GDF-8 nor GDF-11 levels were related to age or body composition. Testosterone treatment significantly increased serum GDF-8 but not GDF-11 levels. CONCLUSIONS: The LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous measurement of circulating total GDF-8 and GDF-11 demonstrates the characteristics of a valid assay. Testosterone treatment increased GDF-8 levels, but not GDF-11. Increase in GDF-8 levels by testosterone treatment, which increased muscle mass, suggests that GDF-8 acts as a chalone to restrain muscle growth.


Assuntos
Miostatina , Testosterona , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Miostatina/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Testosterona/administração & dosagem
13.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(2): 127-130, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749317

RESUMO

HIV is an independent risk factor for lung disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Angiotensin receptor blockers may be beneficial in COPD and emphysema through pathways that have been implicated in HIV-related lung disease. We performed a randomized comparison of the effects of losartan versus placebo on the plasma concentrations of the pneumoproteins, surfactant protein D (SPD) and club cell secretory protein (CCSP), in people living with HIV (PLWH). A total of 108 PLWH were included (52 assigned to losartan and 56 assigned to placebo). We found no difference in the change from baseline in log2 concentrations of CCSP or SPD over 1 year of follow-up. For SPD, we found a strong interaction by CD4+ counts, where those with CD4+ counts >350 cells/mm3 treated with losartan had more reduction (improvement) in SPD concentration than those treated with placebo (p value for interaction <.001). In conclusion, we did not find a beneficial effect of losartan on pneumoprotein concentrations in PLWH, but PLWH with higher CD4+ counts may have improvement in SPD when treated with losartan.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo
14.
Neurology ; 98(9): e903-e911, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neurofilament light chain (NfL) in blood is a sensitive but nonspecific marker of brain injury. This study sought to evaluate associations between NfL concentration and MRI findings of vascular brain injury in older adults. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study included 2 cranial MRI scans performed about 5 years apart and assessed for white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and infarcts. About 1 year before their second MRI, 1,362 participants (median age 77 years, 61.4% women) without a history of TIA or stroke had measurement of 4 biomarkers: NfL, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1. Most (n = 1,279) also had the first MRI scan, and some (n = 633) had quantitative measurements of hippocampal and WMH. In primary analyses, we assessed associations of NfL with a 10-point white matter grade (WMG) and prevalent infarcts on second MRI and with worsening WMG and incident infarct comparing the 2 scans. A p value <0.0125 (0.05/4) was considered significant for these analyses. We also assessed associations with hippocampal and WMH volume. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, log2(NfL) concentration was associated with WMG (ß = 0.27; p = 2.3 × 10-4) and worsening WMG (relative risk [RR] 1.24; p = 0.0022), but less strongly with prevalent brain infarcts (RR 1.18; p = 0.013) and not with incident brain infarcts (RR 1.18; p = 0.18). Associations were also present with WMH volume (ß = 2,242.9, p = 0.0036). For the other 3 biomarkers, the associations for log2 (GFAP) concentration with WMG and worsening WMG were significant. DISCUSSION: Among older adults without a history of stroke, higher serum NfL concentration was associated with covert MRI findings of vascular brain injury, especially the burden of WMH and its worsening. Whether these results offer opportunities for the use of NfL as a noninvasive biomarker of WMH or to control vascular risk factors remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Filamentos Intermediários , Substância Branca , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos , Crânio , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710063

RESUMO

Acute COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by diverse clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal respiratory failure, and often associated with varied longer-term sequelae. Over the past 18 months, it has become apparent that inappropriate immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Researchers working at the intersection of COVID-19 and autoimmunity recently gathered at an American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association Noel R. Rose Colloquium to address the current state of knowledge regarding two important questions: Does established autoimmunity predispose to severe COVID-19? And, at the same time, can SARS-CoV-2 infection trigger de novo autoimmunity? Indeed, work to date has demonstrated that 10% to 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia exhibit autoantibodies against type I interferons, suggesting that preexisting autoimmunity underlies severe disease in some patients. Other studies have identified functional autoantibodies following infection with SARS-CoV-2, such as those that promote thrombosis or antagonize cytokine signaling. These autoantibodies may arise from a predominantly extrafollicular B cell response that is more prone to generating autoantibody-secreting B cells. This Review highlights the current understanding, evolving concepts, and unanswered questions provided by this unique opportunity to determine mechanisms by which a viral infection can be exacerbated by, and even trigger, autoimmunity. The potential role of autoimmunity in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is also discussed.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/química , Autoimunidade/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes , Linfócitos B/citologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 136, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity. The genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing remains poorly understood. Through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, we performed the first whole-genome sequence analysis of sleep-disordered breathing. METHODS: The study sample was comprised of 7988 individuals of diverse ancestry. Common-variant and pathway analyses included an additional 13,257 individuals. We examined five complementary traits describing different aspects of sleep-disordered breathing: the apnea-hypopnea index, average oxyhemoglobin desaturation per event, average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation across the sleep episode, and the percentage of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90%. We adjusted for age, sex, BMI, study, and family structure using MMSKAT and EMMAX mixed linear model approaches. Additional bioinformatics analyses were performed with MetaXcan, GIGSEA, and ReMap. RESULTS: We identified a multi-ethnic set-based rare-variant association (p = 3.48 × 10-8) on chromosome X with ARMCX3. Additional rare-variant associations include ARMCX3-AS1, MRPS33, and C16orf90. Novel common-variant loci were identified in the NRG1 and SLC45A2 regions, and previously associated loci in the IL18RAP and ATP2B4 regions were associated with novel phenotypes. Transcription factor binding site enrichment identified associations with genes implicated with respiratory and craniofacial traits. Additional analyses identified significantly associated pathways. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the first gene-based rare-variant associations with objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing traits. Our results increase the understanding of the genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing and highlight associations in genes that modulate lung development, inflammation, respiratory rhythmogenesis, and HIF1A-mediated hypoxic response.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Alelos , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Pesquisa , Transdução de Sinais , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/metabolismo , Estados Unidos
17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 3769-3782, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240828

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the association of temporal changes in inflammatory biomarkers and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to evaluate the association between temporal changes in C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and risk of heart failure (HF), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality in individuals without a history of prior CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort with repeated measures of inflammatory biomarkers and no CVD event prior to the second measure were included. Quantitative measures, annual change, and biomarker change categories were used as main predictors in Cox proportional hazard models stratified based on sex and statin use. A total of 2258 subjects (50.6% female, mean age of 62 years) were studied over an average of 8.1 years of follow-up. The median annual decrease in CRP levels was 0.08 mg/L. Fibrinogen and IL-6 levels increased by a median of 30 mg/dL and 0.24 pg/mL annually. Temporal changes in CRP were positively associated with HF risk among females (HR: 1.18 per each standard deviation increase, P < 0.001) and other CVD in both female (HR: 1.12, P = 0.004) and male participants (HR: 1.24, P = 0.003). The association of CRP change with HF and other CVD was consistently observed in statin users (HR: 1.23 per SD increase, P = 0.001 for HF and HR: 1.19 per SD increase, P < 0.001 for other CVD). There were no significant associations between temporal changes of fibrinogen or IL-6 with HF or other CVD. Men with sustained high values of IL-6 had a 2.3-fold higher risk of all-cause mortality (P < 0.001) compared with those with sustained low values. CONCLUSIONS: Temporal change in CRP is associated with HF only in women and statin users, and other CVD in both women and men, and statin users. Annual changes in fibrinogen and IL-6 were not predictive of cardiovascular outcomes in either sex.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab245, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with HIV (PWWH) have high postpartum morbidity and mortality from infections like tuberculosis. Immunologic changes during pregnancy and postpartum periods may contribute to these risks, particularly the immunoregulatory kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, which contributes to both HIV and tuberculosis pathogenesis and increases in the early postpartum period. METHODS: Women with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) cohort who were pregnant at enrollment or became pregnant during observation were studied (n = 54). Plasma kynurenine/tryptophan (KT) ratio, soluble CD14 (sCD14), sCD163, sCD27, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), D-dimer, interleukin-6, and intestinal fatty-acid binding protein levels were assessed through the first year of ART and at 3-month intervals throughout pregnancy and 1 year postpartum. Biomarker changes were assessed with linear mixed models adjusted for ART duration. Hemoglobin concentration changes were used to estimate pregnancy-related changes in plasma volume. RESULTS: The median pre-ART CD4 count was 134. D-dimer increased through the third trimester before returning to baseline postpartum, while most other biomarkers declined significantly during pregnancy, beyond what would be expected from pregnancy-associated plasma volume expansion. IP-10 and sCD14 remained suppressed for at least 12 months postpartum. KT ratio was the only biomarker that increased above prepregnancy baseline postpartum (mean + 30%; P < .001) and remained higher than baseline for ≥9 months (P ≤ .045 for all time points). CONCLUSIONS: Several immune activation markers decline during pregnancy and remain suppressed postpartum, but the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism increases above baseline for ≥9 months postpartum. The mechanisms underlying postpartum kynurenine pathway activity are incompletely understood but may contribute to increased tuberculosis risk in this setting.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(21): 2638-2652, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for heart failure (HF). However, implications of pericardial fat on incident HF is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the association between pericardial fat volume (PFV) and newly diagnosed HF. METHODS: This study ascertained PFV using cardiac computed tomography in 6,785 participants (3,584 women and 3,201 men) without pre-existing cardiovascular disease from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate PFV as continuous and dichotomous variable, maximizing the J-statistic: (Sensitivity + Specificity - 1). RESULTS: In 90,686 person-years (median: 15.7 years; interquartile range: 11.7 to 16.5 years), 385 participants (5.7%; 164 women and 221 men) developed newly diagnosed HF. PFV was lower in women than in men (69 ± 33 cm3 vs. 92 ± 47 cm3; p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, every 1-SD (42 cm3) increase in PFV was associated with a higher risk of HF in women (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21 to 1.71; p < 0.001) than in men (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.27; p = 0.03) (interaction p = 0.01). High PFV (≥70 cm3 in women; ≥120 cm3 in men) conferred a 2-fold greater risk of HF in women (HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.87; p < 0.001) and a 53% higher risk in men (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.07; p = 0.006). In sex-stratified analyses, greater risk of HF remained robust with additional adjustment for anthropometric indicators of obesity (p ≤ 0.008), abdominal subcutaneous or visceral fat (p ≤ 0.03) or biomarkers of inflammation and hemodynamic stress (p < 0.001) and was similar among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese (interaction p = 0.24). Elevated PFV predominantly augmented the risk of HF with preserved ejection fraction (p < 0.001) rather than reduced ejection fraction (p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: In this large, community-based, ethnically diverse, prospective cohort study, pericardial fat was associated with an increased risk of HF, particularly HF with preserved ejection fraction, in women and men.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(12): 2293-2299, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukine-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with aging-related reductions in physical function, but little is known about their independent and combined relationships with major mobility disability (MMD), defined as the self-reported inability to walk a quarter mile. METHODS: We estimated the absolute and relative effect of elevated baseline IL-6, CRP, and their combination on self-reported MMD risk among older adults (≥68 years; 59% female) with slow gait speed (<1.0 m/s). Participants were MMD-free at baseline. IL-6 and CRP were assessed using a central laboratory. The study combined a cohort of community-dwelling high-functioning older adults (Health ABC) with 2 trials of low-functioning adults at risk of MMD (LIFE-P, LIFE). Analyses utilized Poisson regression for absolute MMD incidence and proportional hazards models for relative risk. RESULTS: We found higher MMD risk per unit increase in log IL-6 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.13-1.41). IL-6 meeting predetermined threshold considered to be high (>2.5 pg/mL) was similarly associated with higher risk of MMD (HR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.12-1.54). Elevated CRP (CRP >3.0 mg/L) was also associated with increased MMD risk (HR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.10-1.74). The CRP effect was more pronounced among participants with elevated IL-6 (HR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.12-2.33) compared to lower IL-6 levels (HR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.85-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: High baseline IL-6 and CRP were associated with an increased risk of MMD among older adults with slow gait speed. A combined biomarker model suggests CRP was associated with MMD when IL-6 was elevated.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Interleucina-6 , Limitação da Mobilidade , Velocidade de Caminhada , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Autorrelato , Caminhada
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...