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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1487: 116-128, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28131592

RESUMO

Atropisomers are stereoisomers resulting from hindered bond rotation. From synthesis of pure atropisomers, characterization of their interconversion thermodynamics to investigation of biological stereoselectivity, the evaluation of drug candidates subject to atropisomerism creates special challenges and can be complicated in both early drug discovery and later drug development. In this paper, we demonstrate an array of analytical techniques and systematic approaches to study the atropisomerism of drug molecules to meet these challenges. Using a case study of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor drug candidates at Bristol-Myers Squibb, we present the analytical strategies and methodologies used during drug discovery including the detection of atropisomers, the determination of their relative composition, the identification of relative chirality, the isolation of individual atropisomers, the evaluation of interconversion kinetics, and the characterization of chiral stability in the solid state and in solution. In vivo and in vitro stereo-stability and stereo-selectivity were investigated as well as the pharmacological significance of any changes in atropisomer ratios. Techniques applied in these studies include analytical and preparative enantioselective supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), enantioselective high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), circular dichroism (CD), and mass spectrometry (MS). Our experience illustrates how atropisomerism can be a very complicated issue in drug discovery and why a thorough understanding of this phenomenon is necessary to provide guidance for pharmaceutical development. Analytical techniques and methodologies facilitate key decisions during the discovery of atropisomeric drug candidates by characterizing time-dependent physicochemical properties that can have significant biological implications and relevance to pharmaceutical development plans.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Dicroísmo Circular , Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estereoisomerismo , Termodinâmica
2.
J Med Chem ; 59(19): 9173-9200, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27583770

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases. BTK plays an essential role in B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling as well as Fcγ receptor signaling in monocytes and Fcε receptor signaling in mast cells and basophils, all of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease. As a result, inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. This article details the structure-activity relationships (SAR) leading to a novel series of highly potent and selective carbazole and tetrahydrocarbazole based, reversible inhibitors of BTK. Of particular interest is that two atropisomeric centers were rotationally locked to provide a single, stable atropisomer, resulting in enhanced potency and selectivity as well as a reduction in safety liabilities. With significantly enhanced potency and selectivity, excellent in vivo properties and efficacy, and a very desirable tolerability and safety profile, 14f (BMS-986142) was advanced into clinical studies.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Isomerismo , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(4): 439-44, 2015 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25893046

RESUMO

We describe the hybridization of our previously reported acyclic and cyclic CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonists to lead to a new series of dual antagonists of CCR2 and CCR5. Installation of a γ-lactam as the spacer group and a quinazoline as a benzamide mimetic improved oral bioavailability markedly. These efforts led to the identification of 13d, a potent and orally bioavailable dual antagonist suitable for use in both murine and monkey models of inflammation.

4.
J Med Chem ; 58(3): 1556-62, 2015 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25584393

RESUMO

The prominent role of IAPs in controlling cell death and their overexpression in a variety of cancers has prompted the development of IAP antagonists as potential antitumor therapies. We describe the identification of a series of heterodimeric antagonists with highly potent antiproliferative activities in cIAP- and XIAP-dependent cell lines. Compounds 15 and 17 further demonstrate curative efficacy in human melanoma and lung cancer xenograft models and are promising candidates for advanced studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Prolina/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Prolina/síntese química , Prolina/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 36(12): 2513-22, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18787056

RESUMO

Various groups have sought to determine the impact of CYP2C8 genotype (and CYP2C8 inhibition) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ibuprofen (IBU) enantiomers. However, the contribution of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) in human liver microsomes (HLMs) has not been reported. Therefore, in vitro cytochrome P450 (P450) reaction phenotyping was conducted with selective inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and CYP2C8. In the presence of HLMs, sulfaphenazole (CYP2C9 inhibitor), and anti-CYP2C9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibited (73-100%) the 2- and 3-hydroxylation of both IBU enantiomers (1 and 20 microM). At a higher IBU concentration (500 microM), the same inhibitors were less able to inhibit the 2-hydroxylation of (S)-(+)-IBU (32-52%) and (R)-(-)-IBU (30-64%), whereas the 3-hydroxylation of (S)-(+)-IBU and (R)-(-)-IBU was inhibited 66 to 83 and 70 to 89%, respectively. In contrast, less inhibition was observed with montelukast (CYP2C8 inhibitor, < or =35%) and anti-CYP2C8 mAbs (< or =24%) at all concentrations of IBU. When (S)-(+)-IBU and (R)-(-)-IBU (1 microM) were incubated with a panel of recombinant human P450s, only CYP2C9 formed appreciable amounts of the hydroxy metabolites. At a higher IBU enantiomer concentration (500 microM), additional P450s catalyzed 2-hydroxylation (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP2B6) and 3-hydroxylation (CYP2C19). When the P450 reaction phenotype and additional clearance pathways are considered (e.g., direct glucuronidation and chiral inversion), it is concluded that CYP2C8 plays a minor role in (R)-(-)-IBU (<10%) and (S)-(+)-IBU ( approximately 13%) clearance. By extension, one would not expect CYP2C8 inhibition (and genotype) to greatly affect the pharmacokinetic profile of either enantiomer. On the other hand, CYP2C9 inhibition and genotype are expected to have an impact on the PK of (S)-(+)-IBU.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Ibuprofeno/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/imunologia , Catálise , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19 , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8 , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9 , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450 , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Ibuprofeno/análogos & derivados , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Cinética , Mefenitoína/análogos & derivados , Mefenitoína/farmacologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Sulfafenazol/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(2): 586-95, 2008 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18160284

RESUMO

Conformational analysis of the 3-benzylpiperidine in CCR3 antagonist clinical candidate 1 (BMS-639623) predicts that the benzylpiperidine may be replaced by acyclic, conformationally stabilized, anti-1,2-disubstituted phenethyl- and phenpropylamines. Ab initio calculations, enantioselective syntheses, and evaluation in CCR3 binding and chemotaxis assays of anti-1-methyl-2-hydroxyphenethyl- and phenpropylamine-containing CCR3 antagonists support this conformational correlation.


Assuntos
Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores CCR3/antagonistas & inibidores , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ciclização , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Conformação Molecular , Ureia/química , Ureia/farmacologia
7.
J Med Chem ; 49(24): 6946-9, 2006 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17125246

RESUMO

LFA-1 (leukocyte function-associated antigen-1), is a member of the beta2-integrin family and is expressed on all leukocytes. This letter describes the discovery and preliminary SAR of spirocyclic hydantoin based LFA-1 antagonists that culminated in the identification of analog 8 as a clinical candidate. We also report the first example of the efficacy of a small molecule LFA-1 antagonist in combination with CTLA-4Ig in an animal model of transplant rejection.


Assuntos
Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/síntese química , Tiofenos/síntese química , Animais , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/química , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/imunologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacocinética , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Transplante Homólogo
8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 16(15): 3937-42, 2006 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16730979

RESUMO

Synthesis and SAR of substituted pyrrolotriazine-4-one analogues as Eg5 inhibitors are described. Many of these analogues displayed potent inhibitory activities in the Eg5 ATPase and A2780 cell proliferation assays. In addition, pyrrolotriazine-4-one analogue 26 demonstrated in vivo efficacy in an iv P388 murine leukemia model. Both NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that these analogues bind to an allosteric site on the Eg5 protein.


Assuntos
Cinesina/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Pirróis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
J Comb Chem ; 7(4): 584-8, 2005 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16004502

RESUMO

An efficient method for the solid-supported synthesis of 5-N-alkylamino and 5-N-arylamino pyrazoles is described. This method is general and mild and utilizes readily accessible resin-immobilized beta-ketoamides 2 as starting materials for the preparation of 1. Resin-immobilized beta-ketoamide, aryl-, or alkylhydazine and Lawesson's reagent are suspended in a mixture of THF/Py and heated at 50-55 degrees C to give a resin-bound 5-aminopyrazole, that is liberated from the solid support by treatment with TFA.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular
10.
J Org Chem ; 69(1): 188-91, 2004 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14703396

RESUMO

N,N'-Disubstituted ketene aminals are bioisosteres of thioureas and are useful building blocks in many synthetic operations. A convenient one-pot synthesis of N,N'-disubstituted ketene aminals from activated methylene compounds and isothiocyanates is described. Most of these aminals exist in rotameric equilibrium around the central C=C bonds in solution, and the rotamers are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding both in solution and in solid states.

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