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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1132, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580418

RESUMO

Platelets play an important role in hemostasis and other aspects of vascular biology. We conducted a meta-analysis of platelet count GWAS using data on 536,974 Europeans and identified 577 independent associations. To search for mechanisms through which these variants affect platelets, we applied cis-expression quantitative trait locus, DEPICT and IPA analyses and assessed genetic sharing between platelet count and various traits using polygenic risk scoring. We found genetic sharing between platelet count and counts of other blood cells (except red blood cells), in addition to several other quantitative traits, including markers of cardiovascular, liver and kidney functions, height, and weight. Platelet count polygenic risk score was predictive of myeloproliferative neoplasms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, hypertension, and benign prostate hyperplasia. Taken together, these results advance understanding of diverse aspects of platelet biology and how they affect biological processes in health and disease.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(10): e14060, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551209

RESUMO

The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is well known. The effect of SNPs on disease predisposition has been established not only for protein coding genes but also for genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs). The miR-143/145 cluster is smooth muscle cell-specific and implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Whether SNPs within the genomic sequence of the miR-143/145 cluster are involved in cardiovascular disease development is not known. We thus searched annotated sequence databases for possible SNPs associated with miR-143/145. We identified one SNP, rs41291957 (G > A), located -91 bp from the mature miR-143 sequence, as the nearest genetic variation to this miRNA cluster, with a minor allele frequency > 10%. In silico and in vitro approaches determined that rs41291957 (A) upregulates miR-143 and miR-145, modulating phenotypic switching of vascular smooth cells towards a differentiated/contractile phenotype. Finally, we analysed association between rs41291957 and CAD in two cohorts of patients, finding that the SNP was a protective factor. In conclusion, our study links a genetic variation to a pathological outcome through involvement of miRNAs.

3.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1135-1142, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282336

RESUMO

Birth weight is a common measure of fetal growth that is associated with a range of health outcomes. It is directly affected by the fetal genome and indirectly by the maternal genome. We performed genome-wide association studies on birth weight in the genomes of the child and parents and further analyzed birth length and ponderal index, yielding a total of 243 fetal growth variants. We clustered those variants based on the effects of transmitted and nontransmitted alleles on birth weight. Out of 141 clustered variants, 22 were consistent with parent-of-origin-specific effects. We further used haplotype-specific polygenic risk scores to directly test the relationship between adult traits and birth weight. Our results indicate that the maternal genome contributes to increased birth weight through blood-glucose-raising alleles while blood-pressure-raising alleles reduce birth weight largely through the fetal genome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 655, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079037

RESUMO

Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a chronic inflammation marker associated with the development of a range of diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. The genetics of suPAR remain unexplored but may shed light on the biology of the marker and its connection to outcomes. We report a heritability estimate of 60% for the variation in suPAR and performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis on suPAR levels measured in Iceland (N = 35,559) and in Denmark (N = 12,177). We identified 13 independently genome-wide significant sequence variants associated with suPAR across 11 distinct loci. Associated variants were found in and around genes encoding uPAR (PLAUR), its ligand uPA (PLAU), the kidney-disease-associated gene PLA2R1 as well as genes with relations to glycosylation, glycoprotein biosynthesis, and the immune response. These findings provide new insight into the causes of variation in suPAR plasma levels, which may clarify suPAR's potential role in associated diseases, as well as the underlying mechanisms that give suPAR its prognostic value as a unique marker of chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 706, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108613

RESUMO

Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is the most common sensory disorder in older adults. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 121,934 ARHI cases and 591,699 controls from Iceland and the UK. We identified 21 novel sequence variants, of which 13 are rare, under either additive or recessive models. Of special interest are a missense variant in LOXHD1 (MAF = 1.96%) and a tandem duplication in FBF1 covering 4 exons (MAF = 0.22%) associating with ARHI (OR = 3.7 for homozygotes, P = 1.7 × 10-22 and OR = 4.2 for heterozygotes, P = 5.7 × 10-27, respectively). We constructed an ARHI genetic risk score (GRS) using common variants and showed that a common variant GRS can identify individuals at risk comparable to carriers of rare high penetrance variants. Furthermore, we found that ARHI and tinnitus share genetic causes. This study sheds a new light on the genetic architecture of ARHI, through several rare variants in both Mendelian deafness genes and genes not previously linked to hearing.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Feminino , Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Eur Heart J ; 42(18): 1742-1756, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748830

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway such as interleukin-1ß can therapeutically be targeted. Associations of genetically determined inflammasome-mediated systemic inflammation with CVD and mortality in humans are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We explored the association of genetic NLRP3 variants with prevalent CVD and cardiovascular mortality in 538 167 subjects on the individual participant level in an explorative gene-centric approach without performing multiple testing. Functional relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been evaluated in monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Genetic analyses identified the highly prevalent (minor allele frequency 39.9%) intronic NLRP3 variant rs10754555 to affect NLRP3 gene expression. rs10754555 carriers showed significantly higher C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A plasma levels. Carriers of the G allele showed higher NLRP3 inflammasome activation in isolated human PBMCs. In carriers of the rs10754555 variant, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was significantly higher as compared to non-carriers with a significant interaction between rs10754555 and age. Importantly, rs10754555 carriers had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. Inflammasome inducers (e.g. urate, triglycerides, apolipoprotein C3) modulated the association between rs10754555 and mortality. CONCLUSION: The NLRP3 intronic variant rs10754555 is associated with increased systemic inflammation, inflammasome activation, prevalent coronary artery disease, and mortality. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of genetically driven systemic inflammation in CVD and highlights the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Inflamassomos , Inflamação , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamação/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética
8.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 156, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536631

RESUMO

Iron is essential for many biological functions and iron deficiency and overload have major health implications. We performed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies from Iceland, the UK and Denmark of blood levels of ferritin (N = 246,139), total iron binding capacity (N = 135,430), iron (N = 163,511) and transferrin saturation (N = 131,471). We found 62 independent sequence variants associating with iron homeostasis parameters at 56 loci, including 46 novel loci. Variants at DUOX2, F5, SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 associate with iron deficiency anemia, while variants at TF, HFE, TFR2 and TMPRSS6 associate with iron overload. A HBS1L-MYB intergenic region variant associates both with increased risk of iron overload and reduced risk of iron deficiency anemia. The DUOX2 missense variant is present in 14% of the population, associates with all iron homeostasis biomarkers, and increases the risk of iron deficiency anemia by 29%. The associations implicate proteins contributing to the main physiological processes involved in iron homeostasis: iron sensing and storage, inflammation, absorption of iron from the gut, iron recycling, erythropoiesis and bleeding/menstruation.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/genética , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Sobrecarga de Ferro/genética , Ferro/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dinamarca , Ferritinas/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Homeostase , Humanos , Islândia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/sangue , Sobrecarga de Ferro/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transferrina/metabolismo , Reino Unido
9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(20): 1959-1971, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580673

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to use human genetics to investigate the pathogenesis of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and the role of risk factors in its development. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide association study of 6469 SSS cases and 1 000 187 controls from deCODE genetics, the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, UK Biobank, and the HUNT study. Variants at six loci associated with SSS, a reported missense variant in MYH6, known atrial fibrillation (AF)/electrocardiogram variants at PITX2, ZFHX3, TTN/CCDC141, and SCN10A and a low-frequency (MAF = 1.1-1.8%) missense variant, p.Gly62Cys in KRT8 encoding the intermediate filament protein keratin 8. A full genotypic model best described the p.Gly62Cys association (P = 1.6 × 10-20), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.44 for heterozygotes and a disproportionally large OR of 13.99 for homozygotes. All the SSS variants increased the risk of pacemaker implantation. Their association with AF varied and p.Gly62Cys was the only variant not associating with any other arrhythmia or cardiovascular disease. We tested 17 exposure phenotypes in polygenic score (PGS) and Mendelian randomization analyses. Only two associated with the risk of SSS in Mendelian randomization, AF, and lower heart rate, suggesting causality. Powerful PGS analyses provided convincing evidence against causal associations for body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We report the associations of variants at six loci with SSS, including a missense variant in KRT8 that confers high risk in homozygotes and points to a mechanism specific to SSS development. Mendelian randomization supports a causal role for AF in the development of SSS.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Marca-Passo Artificial , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8 , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/genética
10.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1314-1332, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230300

RESUMO

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA5/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fosfolipase C beta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
Curr Biol ; 30(23): 4643-4653.e3, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035477

RESUMO

Olfactory receptor (OR) genes in humans form a special class characterized by unusually high DNA sequence diversity, which should give rise to differences in perception and behavior. In the largest genome-wide association study to date based on olfactory testing, we investigated odor perception and naming with smell tasks performed by 9,122 Icelanders, with replication in a separate sample of 2,204 individuals. We discovered an association between a low-frequency missense variant in TAAR5 and reduced intensity rating of fish odor containing trimethylamine (p.Ser95Pro, pcombined = 5.6 × 10-15). We demonstrate that TAAR5 genotype affects aversion to fish odor, reflected by linguistic descriptions of the odor and pleasantness ratings. We also discovered common sequence variants in two canonical olfactory receptor loci that associate with increased intensity and naming of licorice odor (trans-anethole: lead variant p.Lys233Asn in OR6C70, pcombined = 8.8 × 10-16 and pcombined = 1.4 × 10-9) and enhanced naming of cinnamon (trans-cinnamaldehyde; intergenic variant rs317787-T, pcombined = 5.0 × 10-17). Together, our results show that TAAR5 genotype variation influences human odor responses and highlight that sequence diversity in canonical OR genes can lead to enhanced olfactory ability, in contrast to the view that greater tolerance for mutations in the human OR repertoire leads to diminished function.

13.
Circulation ; 142(6): 546-555, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies examining the role of factor V Leiden among patients at higher risk of atherothrombotic events, such as those with established coronary heart disease (CHD), are lacking. Given that coagulation is involved in the thrombus formation stage on atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we hypothesized that factor V Leiden may be a stronger risk factor for atherothrombotic events in patients with established CHD. METHODS: We performed an individual-level meta-analysis including 25 prospective studies (18 cohorts, 3 case-cohorts, 4 randomized trials) from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) consortium involving patients with established CHD at baseline. Participating studies genotyped factor V Leiden status and shared risk estimates for the outcomes of interest using a centrally developed statistical code with harmonized definitions across studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain age- and sex-adjusted estimates. The obtained estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. The primary outcome was composite of myocardial infarction and CHD death. Secondary outcomes included any stroke, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The studies included 69 681 individuals of whom 3190 (4.6%) were either heterozygous or homozygous (n=47) carriers of factor V Leiden. Median follow-up per study ranged from 1.0 to 10.6 years. A total of 20 studies with 61 147 participants and 6849 events contributed to analyses of the primary outcome. Factor V Leiden was not associated with the combined outcome of myocardial infarction and CHD death (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.92-1.16]; I2=28%; P-heterogeneity=0.12). Subgroup analysis according to baseline characteristics or strata of traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show relevant differences. Similarly, risk estimates for the secondary outcomes including stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were also close to identity. CONCLUSIONS: Factor V Leiden was not associated with increased risk of subsequent atherothrombotic events and mortality in high-risk participants with established and treated CHD. Routine assessment of factor V Leiden status is unlikely to improve atherothrombotic events risk stratification in this population.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2618-2628, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702746

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore whether variability in dietary cholesterol and phytosterol absorption impacts the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) using as instruments sequence variants in the ABCG5/8 genes, key regulators of intestinal absorption of dietary sterols. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of ABCG5/8 variants on non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (N up to 610 532) and phytosterol levels (N = 3039) and the risk of CAD in Iceland, Denmark, and the UK Biobank (105 490 cases and 844 025 controls). We used genetic scores for non-HDL cholesterol to determine whether ABCG5/8 variants confer greater risk of CAD than predicted by their effect on non-HDL cholesterol. We identified nine rare ABCG5/8 coding variants with substantial impact on non-HDL cholesterol. Carriers have elevated phytosterol levels and are at increased risk of CAD. Consistent with impact on ABCG5/8 transporter function in hepatocytes, eight rare ABCG5/8 variants associate with gallstones. A genetic score of ABCG5/8 variants predicting 1 mmol/L increase in non-HDL cholesterol associates with two-fold increase in CAD risk [odds ratio (OR) = 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-2.31, P = 9.8 × 10-23] compared with a 54% increase in CAD risk (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.49-1.59, P = 1.1 × 10-154) associated with a score of other non-HDL cholesterol variants predicting the same increase in non-HDL cholesterol (P for difference in effects = 2.4 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in cholesterol absorption affects levels of circulating non-HDL cholesterol and risk of CAD. Our results indicate that both dietary cholesterol and phytosterols contribute directly to atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Fitosteróis , Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Humanos , Islândia , Esteróis
15.
Nature ; 584(7822): 619-623, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581359

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common autoimmune disease and is highly heritable1. Here, by using a genome-wide association study of 30,234 cases and 725,172 controls from Iceland and the UK Biobank, we find 99 sequence variants at 93 loci, of which 84 variants are previously unreported2-7. A low-frequency (1.36%) intronic variant in FLT3 (rs76428106-C) has the largest effect on risk of autoimmune thyroid disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, P = 2.37 × 10-24). rs76428106-C is also associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 1.90, P = 6.46 × 10-4), rheumatoid factor and/or anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.41, P = 4.31 × 10-4) and coeliac disease (OR = 1.62, P = 1.20 × 10-4). FLT3 encodes fms-related tyrosine kinase 3, a receptor that regulates haematopoietic progenitor and dendritic cells. RNA sequencing revealed that rs76428106-C generates a cryptic splice site, which introduces a stop codon in 30% of transcripts that are predicted to encode a truncated protein, which lacks its tyrosine kinase domains. Each copy of rs76428106-C doubles the plasma levels of the FTL3 ligand. Activating somatic mutations in FLT3 are associated with acute myeloid leukaemia8 with a poor prognosis and rs76428106-C also predisposes individuals to acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.90, P = 5.40 × 10-3). Thus, a predicted loss-of-function germline mutation in FLT3 causes a reduction in full-length FLT3, with a compensatory increase in the levels of its ligand and an increased disease risk, similar to that of a gain-of-function mutation.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Ligantes , Mutação , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo , Alelos , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Islândia , Íntrons/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação com Perda de Função , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Reino Unido
16.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 189, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327693

RESUMO

Hemoglobin is the essential oxygen-carrying molecule in humans and is regulated by cellular iron and oxygen sensing mechanisms. To search for novel variants associated with hemoglobin concentration, we performed genome-wide association studies of hemoglobin concentration using a combined set of 684,122 individuals from Iceland and the UK. Notably, we found seven novel variants, six rare coding and one common, at the ACO1 locus associating with either decreased or increased hemoglobin concentration. Of these variants, the missense Cys506Ser and the stop-gained Lys334Ter mutations are specific to eight and ten generation pedigrees, respectively, and have the two largest effects in the study (EffectCys506Ser = -1.61 SD, CI95 = [-1.98, -1.35]; EffectLys334Ter = 0.63 SD, CI95 = [0.36, 0.91]). We also find Cys506Ser to associate with increased risk of persistent anemia (OR = 17.1, P = 2 × 10-14). The strong bidirectional effects seen in this study implicate ACO1, a known iron sensing molecule, as a major homeostatic regulator of hemoglobin concentration.


Assuntos
Eritropoese/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Reguladora do Ferro/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Proteína 1 Reguladora do Ferro/metabolismo , Reino Unido
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 5997-6002, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132206

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified at least 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk. Most of these SNPs are common variants with small to moderate effect sizes. Here we assessed the combined genetic effects of these variants on PTC risk by using summarized GWAS results to build polygenic risk score (PRS) models in three PTC study groups from Ohio (1,544 patients and 1,593 controls), Iceland (723 patients and 129,556 controls), and the United Kingdom (534 patients and 407,945 controls). A PRS based on the 10 established PTC SNPs showed a stronger predictive power compared with the clinical factors model, with a minimum increase of area under the receiver-operating curve of 5.4 percentage points (P ≤ 1.0 × 10-9). Adding an extended PRS based on 592,475 common variants did not significantly improve the prediction power compared with the 10-SNP model, suggesting that most of the remaining undiscovered genetic risk in thyroid cancer is due to rare, moderate- to high-penetrance variants rather than to common low-penetrance variants. Based on the 10-SNP PRS, individuals in the top decile group of PRSs have a close to sevenfold greater risk (95% CI, 5.4-8.8) compared with the bottom decile group. In conclusion, PRSs based on a small number of common germline variants emphasize the importance of heritable low-penetrance markers in PTC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/epidemiologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 129, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184442

RESUMO

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a downward descent of one or more of the pelvic organs, resulting in a protrusion of the vaginal wall and/or uterus. We performed a genome-wide association study of POP using data from Iceland and the UK Biobank, a total of 15,010 cases with hospital-based diagnosis code and 340,734 female controls, and found eight sequence variants at seven loci associating with POP (P < 5 × 10-8); seven common (minor allele frequency >5%) and one with minor allele frequency of 4.87%. Some of the variants associating with POP also associated with traits of similar pathophysiology. Of these, rs3820282, which may alter the estrogen-based regulation of WNT4, also associates with leiomyoma of uterus, gestational duration and endometriosis. Rs3791675 at EFEMP1, a gene involved in connective tissue homeostasis, also associates with hernias and carpal tunnel syndrome. Our results highlight the role of connective tissue metabolism and estrogen exposure in the etiology of POP.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prolapso Uterino/genética , Proteína Wnt4/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Prolapso Uterino/diagnóstico , Prolapso Uterino/epidemiologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 393, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959851

RESUMO

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting both children and adults. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 69,189 cases and 702,199 controls from Iceland and UK biobank. We find 88 asthma risk variants at 56 loci, 19 previously unreported, and evaluate their effect on other asthma and allergic phenotypes. Of special interest are two low frequency variants associated with protection against asthma; a missense variant in TNFRSF8 and 3' UTR variant in TGFBR1. Functional studies show that the TNFRSF8 variant reduces TNFRSF8 expression both on cell surface and in soluble form, acting as loss of function. eQTL analysis suggests that the TGFBR1 variant acts through gain of function and together with an intronic variant in a downstream gene, SMAD3, points to defective TGFßR1 signaling as one of the biological perturbations increasing asthma risk. Our results increase the number of asthma variants and implicate genes with known role in T cell regulation, inflammation and airway remodeling in asthma pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/genética , Asma/genética , Antígeno Ki-1/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Eosinófilos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Antígeno Ki-1/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-1/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/imunologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/imunologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/imunologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/metabolismo , Reino Unido
20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(1): 13-20, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746962

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic studies have evaluated the influence of blood lipid levels on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but less is known about how they are associated with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Objective: To estimate the contributions of genetically predicted blood lipid levels on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genetic study included Icelandic adults who had undergone coronary angiography or assessment of coronary artery calcium using cardiac computed tomography. The study incorporates data collected from January 1987 to December 2017 in Iceland in the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry and 2 registries of individuals who had undergone percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass grafting. For each participant, genetic scores were calculated for levels of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides, based on reported effect sizes of 345 independent, lipid-associated variants. The genetic scores' predictive ability for lipid levels was assessed in more than 87 000 Icelandic adults. A mendelian randomization approach was used to estimate the contribution of each lipid trait. Exposures: Genetic scores for levels of non-HDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides. Main Outcomes and Measures: The extent of angiographic CAD and coronary artery calcium quantity. Results: A total of 12 460 adults (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [10.7] years; 8383 men [67.3%]) underwent coronary angiography, and 4837 had coronary artery calcium assessed by computed tomography. A genetically predicted increase in non-HDL-C levels by 1 SD (38 mg/dL [to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259]) was associated with greater odds of obstructive CAD (odds ratio [OR], 1.83 [95% CI, 1.63-2.07]; P = 2.8 × 10-23). Among patients with obstructive CAD, there were significant associations with multivessel disease (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.11-1.44]; P = 4.1 × 10-4) and 3-vessel disease (OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.26-1.72]; P = 9.2 × 10-7). There were also significant associations with the presence of coronary artery calcium (OR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.70-2.44]; P = 5.3 × 10-15) and loge-transformed coronary artery calcium (effect, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.53-0.87]; P = 1.0 × 10-15). Genetically predicted levels of non-HDL-C remained associated with obstructive CAD and coronary artery calcium extent even after accounting for the association with LDL-C. Genetically predicted levels of HDL-C and triglycerides were associated individually with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis, but not after accounting for the association with non-HDL cholesterol. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, genetically predicted levels of non-HDL-C were associated with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis as estimated by 2 different methods. The association was stronger than for genetically predicted levels of LDL-C. These findings further support the notion that non-HDL-C may be a better marker of the overall burden of atherogenic lipoproteins than LDL-C.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Calcificação Vascular/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Causalidade , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Islândia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Calcificação Vascular/genética
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