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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132192

RESUMO

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at the pharyngeal, urogenital, and anorectal sites is recommended for men who have sex with men (MSM). Combining the three individual-site samples into a single pooled sample could result in significant cost savings, provided there is no significant sensitivity reduction. The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity of pooled samples for detecting chlamydia and gonorrhea in asymptomatic MSM using a nucleic acid amplification test. Asymptomatic MSM who tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhoea were invited to participate. Paired samples were obtained from participants prior to administration of treatment. To form the pooled sample, the anorectal swab was agitated in the urine specimen transport tube and then discarded. The pharyngeal swab and 2 ml of urine sample were then added to the tube. The difference in sensitivity between testing of pooled samples and individual-site testing was calculated against an expanded gold standard, where an individual is considered positive if either pooled-sample or individual-site testing returns a positive result. All samples were tested using the Aptima Combo 2 assay. A total of 162 MSM were enrolled in the study. Sensitivities of pooled-sample testing were 86% (94/109; 95% confidence interval [CI], 79 to 92%]) for chlamydia and 91% (73/80; 95% CI, 83 to 96%) for gonorrhea. The sensitivity reduction was significant for chlamydia (P = 0.02) but not for gonorrhea (P = 0.34). Pooling caused 22 infections (15 chlamydia and 7 gonorrhoea) to be missed, and the majority were single-site infections (19/22). Pooling urogenital and extragenital samples from asymptomatic MSM reduced the sensitivity of detection by approximately 10% for chlamydia but not for gonorrhea.

2.
Respir Res ; 18(1): 163, 2017 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal obstruction resulting from expiratory tracheal deformation has been associated with respiratory symptoms and severe airway exacerbations. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute exacerbations (AECOPD) create large intrathoracic pressure swings which may increase tracheal deformation. Excessive central airway collapse (ECAC) may be diagnosed when the tracheal area on expiration is less than 50% of that on inspiration. The prevalence of ECAC in AECOPD and its temporal course have not been systematically studied. METHODS: We prospectively recruited healthy volunteers (n = 53), stable outpatients with COPD (n = 40) and patients with hospitalised acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD, n = 64). 17 of the AECOPD group returned for repeat evaluation when clinically well at 6-12 weeks. All subjects underwent dynamic 320-slice computed tomography of the larynx and trachea during tidal breathing, enabling quantitation of tracheal area and dimensions (mean ± SD). RESULTS: No healthy individuals had ECAC. The prevalence of ECAC in stable COPD and AECOPD was 35% and 39% respectively. Mean tracheal collapse did not differ between stable COPD (57.5 ± 19.8%), AECOPD (53.8 ± 19.3%) and in the subset who returned when convalescent (54.9 ± 17.2%). AECOPD patients with and without ECAC had similar clinical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal collapse in both stable and AECOPD is considerably more prevalent than in healthy individuals. ECAC warrants assessment as part of comprehensive COPD evaluation and management. Further studies should evaluate the aetiology of ECAC and whether it predisposes to exacerbations.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Expiração/fisiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Método Simples-Cego
3.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 9: 212, 2014 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25528552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by immunodeficiency, oculocutaneous albinism, neurological dysfunction, and early death. Individuals with CHS present with increased susceptibility to infections of the skin, upper-respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and oral tissues. Classical CHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST). Although defects in cytotoxic T cell lytic secretory granule secretion and neutrophil phagocytosis are suggested to contribute to the immunodeficiency in CHS, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that skin fibroblasts from CHS subjects exhibit impaired immune response due to defective trafficking of inflammatory factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary skin fibroblasts from CHS subjects or healthy controls were assessed for genes encoding inflammatory response factors using PCR array. At baseline, we found CD14, IL1R1 and TLR-1 were down-regulated significantly (≥2 fold change) and the genes encoding TLR-3, IL-1ß and IL-6 were up-regulated in CHS cells compared to control cells. When challenged with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CHS cells were less responsive than control cells, with only 8 genes significantly up-regulated (3-68 fold change) compared to baseline values, whereas 28 genes in control cells were significantly up-regulated at a much higher magnitude (3-4,629 fold change). In addition, 50% of the genes significantly up-regulated in LPS-treated control cells were significantly lower in LPS-treated CHS cells. IL-6, a fibroblast-derived proinflammatory cytokine essential for fighting infections was significantly lower in culture media of CHS cells with or without LPS. Furthermore, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining revealed that TLR-2 and TLR-4 were diminished on cell membranes of CHS cells and dissociated from Rab11a. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, results from our study indicate defective trafficking of TLR-2 and TLR-4 contributes to the hyposensitive response of CHS skin fibroblasts to immunogenic challenge, providing a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention in CHS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fenômenos Imunogenéticos/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Fenômenos Imunogenéticos/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Masculino , Pele/patologia
4.
PLoS One ; 7(6): e38393, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22675556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i) are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i) and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP), and those that increase local PP(i) and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1). The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PP(i) in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/-)) mice featuring PP(i) dysregulation. RESULTS: Excess PP(i) in the Alpl(-/-) mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PP(i) in both Ank and Enpp1(-/-) mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PP(i) regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PP(i) output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PP(i) mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold) and Enpp1 (20-fold), while increasing PP(i) inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating local levels of PP(i), directing and regulating mineral apposition. These findings underscore developmental differences in acellular versus cellular cementum, and suggest new approaches for cementum regeneration.


Assuntos
Cementogênese , Cemento Dentário/metabolismo , Cemento Dentário/patologia , Difosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/deficiência , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Calcificação Fisiológica , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/biossíntese , Cemento Dentário/ultraestrutura , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Homeostase , Humanos , Mandíbula/patologia , Mandíbula/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Dente Molar/metabolismo , Dente Molar/patologia , Dente Molar/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/deficiência , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pirofosfatases/deficiência , Pirofosfatases/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Raiz Dentária/metabolismo , Raiz Dentária/ultraestrutura
5.
J Neurosurg ; 117(1): 109-17, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22503123

RESUMO

OBJECT: Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) is a heritable tumor predisposition syndrome that leads to the development of multiple intracranial tumors, including meningiomas and schwannomas. Because the natural history of these tumors has not been determined, their optimal management has not been established. To define the natural history of NF2-associated intracranial tumors and to optimize management strategies, the authors evaluated long-term clinical and radiographic data in patients with NF2. METHODS: Consecutive NF2 patients with a minimum of 4 years of serial clinical and MRI follow-up were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventeen patients, 9 males and 8 females, were included in this analysis (mean follow-up 9.5±4.8 years, range 4.0-20.7 years). The mean age at initial evaluation was 33.2±15.5 years (range 12.3-57.6 years). Patients harbored 182 intracranial neoplasms, 164 of which were assessable for growth rate analysis (18 vestibular schwannomas [VSs], 11 nonvestibular cranial nerve [CN] schwannomas, and 135 meningiomas) and 152 of which were assessable for growth pattern analysis (15 VSs, 9 nonvestibular CN schwannomas, and 128 meningiomas). New tumors developed in patients over the course of the imaging follow-up: 66 meningiomas, 2 VSs, and 2 nonvestibular CN schwannomas. Overall, 45 tumors (29.6%) exhibited linear growth, 17 tumors (11.2%) exhibited exponential growth, and 90 tumors (59.2%) displayed a saltatory growth pattern characterized by alternating periods of growth and quiescence (mean quiescent period 2.3±2.1 years, range 0.4-11.7 years). Further, the saltatory pattern was the most frequently identified growth pattern for each tumor type: meningiomas 60.9%, VSs 46.7%, and nonvestibular schwannoma 55.6%. A younger age at the onset of NF2-related symptoms (p=0.01) and female sex (p=0.05) were associated with an increased growth rate in meningiomas. The identification of saltatory growth in meningiomas increased with the duration of follow-up (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Neurofibromatosis Type 2-associated intracranial tumors most frequently demonstrated a saltatory growth pattern. Because new tumors can develop in NF2 patients over their lifetime and because radiographic progression and symptom formation are unpredictable, resection may be best reserved for symptom-producing tumors. Moreover, establishing the efficacy of nonsurgical therapeutic interventions must be based on long-term follow-up (several years).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Neurofibromatose 2/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genes da Neurofibromatose 2 , Genótipo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Meningioma/complicações , Meningioma/patologia , Meningioma/radioterapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurilemoma/complicações , Neurilemoma/patologia , Neurilemoma/terapia , Neurofibromatose 2/patologia , Neurofibromatose 2/terapia , Neuroma Acústico/complicações , Neuroma Acústico/patologia , Neuroma Acústico/terapia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Immunol ; 186(9): 5244-53, 2011 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21430229

RESUMO

IL-21 plays a key role in the late stage of B cell development, where it has been shown to induce growth and differentiation of mature B cells into Ig-secreting plasma cells. Because IL-21R has also been reported on bone marrow (BM) B cell progenitors, we investigated whether IL-21R influenced earlier stages of B cell development. IL-21R is functional as early as the pro-B cell stage, and the strength of receptor-mediated signaling increases as cells mature. The addition of IL-21 to B cell progenitors in cell culture resulted in the accelerated appearance of mature B cell markers and was associated with the induction of Aid, Blimp1, and germline transcripts. We also found that stimulation of both IL-21R and CD40 was sufficient to induce the maturation of early B cell progenitors into IgM- and IgG-secreting cells. Consistent with a role for IL-21 in promoting B cell differentiation, the number of B220(+)CD43(+)IgM(-) pro-B cells was increased, and the number of mature IgM(hi)IgD(hi) cells was decreased in BM of IL-21R-deficient mice. We also report in this paper that IL-21 is expressed by BM CD4(+) T cells. These results provide evidence that IL-21R is functional in B cell progenitors and indicate that IL-21 regulates B cell development.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Linfopoese/imunologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/citologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Separação Celular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
7.
J Neuroimmunol ; 232(1-2): 41-50, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20965576

RESUMO

Hemokinin-1, encoded by the TAC4 gene, is a tachykinin most closely related to substance P. Previous studies have shown that TAC4 distinguishes itself from other tachykinins by its predominantly non-neuronal expression profile, particularly in cells of the immune system. Here we report for the first time that the highest levels of TAC4 expression are found in the olfactory epithelium. Furthermore, we identify olfactory neuron-specific transcription factor (Olf-1), also known as early B-cell factor (EBF), as a novel regulator of TAC4 expression. EBF present in the olfactory epithelium and in B cells binds to two sites in the TAC4 promoter and modulates expression in developing B cells. Our findings suggest a role for TAC4 in cell differentiation, and represent a regulatory bridge between the nervous system and the immune system.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Mucosa Olfatória/imunologia , Precursores de Proteínas/biossíntese , Taquicininas/biossíntese , Transativadores/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Northern Blotting , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Separação Celular , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mucosa Olfatória/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Taquicininas/genética , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Transfecção
8.
Blood ; 116(19): 3792-801, 2010 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20660792

RESUMO

Hemokinin-1 (HK-1), encoded by the TAC4 gene, is a tachykinin peptide that is predominantly expressed in non-neuronal cells, such as immune cells. We have disrupted the mouse TAC4 gene to obtain a better understanding of the actions of HK-1 during hematopoiesis. We demonstrate here that TAC4(-/-) mice exhibit an increase of CD19(+)CD117(+)HSA(+)BP.1(-) "fraction B" pro-B cells in the bone marrow, whereas pre-B, immature, and mature B cells are within the normal range. We show that in vitro cultures derived from TAC4(-/-) bone marrow, sorted "fraction B" pro-B cells or purified long-term reconstituting stem cells, contain significantly higher numbers of pro-B cells compared with controls, suggesting an inhibitory role for HK-1 on developing B cells. Supporting this idea, we show that addition of HK-1 to cultures established from long-term reconstituting stem cells and the newly described intermediate-term reconstituting stem cells leads to a significant decrease of de novo generated pro-B cells. Based on our studies, we postulate that HK-1 plays an inhibitory role in hematopoiesis, and we hypothesize that it may be part of the bone marrow microenvironment that supports and regulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells.


Assuntos
Linfopoese/genética , Linfopoese/fisiologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/citologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Precursores de Proteínas/deficiência , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Taquicininas/deficiência , Taquicininas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Marcação de Genes , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Linfopoese/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Imunológicos , Precursores de Proteínas/imunologia , Precursores de Proteínas/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/genética , Taquicininas/imunologia , Taquicininas/fisiologia
9.
Life Sci ; 85(19-20): 700-3, 2009 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19800893

RESUMO

AIMS: In this study, we examined whether hemokinin-1, the newest member of the tachykinin family and a close relative of substance P, has antimicrobial properties which have been attributed to other neuropeptides including substance P. MAIN METHODS: Top agar assays were performed to determine the antimicrobial activity of hemokinin-1 and substance P against various microorganisms. KEY FINDINGS: Here we provide evidence that hemokinin-1 peptide possesses antimicrobial properties against some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while substance P was only marginally effective. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to link hemokinin-1 to the essential role of defending the body against microbial challenges and adds hemokinin-1 to the list of potential drugs that could help in the fight against P. aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Taquicininas/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Substância P/farmacologia , Taquicininas/química
10.
Neuropeptides ; 43(1): 1-12, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19081134

RESUMO

Hemokinin-1, encoded by the TAC4 gene, is the most recent addition to the tachykinin family. Although most closely related to the neuropeptide Substance P, Hemokinin-1 distinguishes itself from other tachykinins by its predominantly non-neuronal expression pattern. Its expression in T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells points to an important role for Hemokinin-1 in the immune system. To seek reasons for its preferential expression in the immune system and ultimately to provide clues to its function, we investigated the molecular mechanisms driving the differential expression pattern of this unique tachykinin. Our study provides the first analysis of the promoter region of the TAC4 gene, which reveals regulatory mechanism different from the Substance P promoter. We demonstrate for the first time that Hemokinin-1 initiates transcription from multiple start sites through a TATA-less promoter. Conservation of the 5' non-coding region indicates the importance of the upstream regulatory region in directing expression of Hemokinin-1 in specific cell types, during cell differentiation and activation. Furthermore, NFkappaB, a transcription factor important in the activation of immune cells was shown to be involved in promoting increased TAC4 transcription during PMA induction of a T cell line. Our studies reveal that Hemokinin-1 is regulated by a unique transcription regulation system that likely governs its differential expression pattern and suggests a role for Hemokinin-1 distinct from Substance P.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Taquicininas , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Substância P/genética , Substância P/metabolismo , Taquicininas/genética , Taquicininas/metabolismo , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Neuroimmunol ; 187(1-2): 83-93, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17537522

RESUMO

Hemokinin-1 (HK-1), a potent ligand for the Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1) is thought to play a role in the immune system. To investigate the regulation of this receptor-ligand pair, we examined the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on their expression in the monocyte/macrophage cell lines Wehi-3 and RAW264.7. We demonstrate co-expression of NK-1 and HK-1 mRNA in both lines, as well as functional NK-1 receptor protein in Wehi-3 cells. Stimulation with IFN-gamma, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha markedly decreased NK-1 and HK-1 mRNA as well as NK-1 receptor protein, which coincided with monocytic differentiation. A co-regulated decrease could also be observed in differentiating primary bone marrow macrophages, suggesting that this receptor-ligand pair may be controlled by cytokine networks and may serve a developmental role in the immune system.


Assuntos
Citocinas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/metabolismo , Taquicininas/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Taquicininas/genética
12.
Vet Ital ; 43(3): 381-91, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20422514

RESUMO

In recent years, several vector-borne, parasitic or zoonotic diseases have emerged or re-emerged in different parts of the world, with major public health, socio-economic and political consequences. Emergence of these diseases is linked to climatic change, human-induced landscape changes and human activities that have affected disease ecology. The authors illustrate geographic information system-based approaches to understand epidemiological processes and predict disease patterns. Continent-wide approaches are used to explore vector and host distributions and identify areas where substantial changes in vector and vector-borne disease distributions have occurred. Time series of high-resolution satellite data and locally collected data reveal the spatial relationships between factors impacting disease dynamics. Using Rift Valley fever as a case study, a conceptual approach is proposed to integrate all of these data and to identify key parameters for disease modelling. Some of the challenges posed by different spatial and temporal scales of the biological processes and associated indicators are highlighted.

13.
J Immunol ; 176(9): 5354-61, 2006 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16622003

RESUMO

70Z/3 is a murine pre-B cell leukemia line derived from BDF(1) mice and has been used in the study of signaling pathways in B cells. 70Z/3 cells were initially found to cause widespread disease upon injections in animals. We have isolated 70Z/3 variants divergent in their capacity to lead to morbidity after injections. One variant, 70Z/3-NL, elicits an immune response protecting the animal from tumor growth. Another variant, 70Z/3-L, does not induce an effective immune response and causes morbidity. We demonstrated that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are required for the rejection of 70Z/3-NL cells. Interestingly, the immune response generated against 70Z/3-NL cells was found to protect against a challenge with the lethal variant, 70Z/3-L. This indicates that although both lines can be recognized and killed by the immune system, only 70Z/3-NL is capable of inducing a protective response. Further observations, using subclones isolated from 70Z/3-NL, demonstrated that immune recognition of a portion of the cells was sufficient for protection. Depletion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in animals injected previously with 70Z/3-NL cells showed that T cells, and not Abs, were required for the maintenance of the protection initiated by 70Z/3-NL. We tested the capacity of 70Z/3-NL cells to treat mice challenged with 70Z/3-L. We can delay injections of 70Z/3-NL and still provide protection for the animals. We have a model of immune-mediated rejection which will allow us to dissect the requirements for the initiation of immune responses against an ALL tumor cell line.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Transplante de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vacinação
14.
J Law Med ; 13(3): 352-69, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16506727

RESUMO

The Australian Government has recently recommended that all jurisdictions regulate Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners along the lines of the Chinese Medicine Registration Act 2000 (Vic). In light of this recommendation, this article examines whether the Victorian legislation is an effective means of regulating a group of practitioners who operate under an alternative health care system. While the main focus is on the challenges of regulating of Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners, the article also considers the broader issue of whether a statutory approach is the appropriate method of regulating unregistered complementary and alternative medicine practitioners.


Assuntos
Regulamentação Governamental , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Prática Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Terapia por Acupuntura/normas , Austrália , Competência Clínica , Credenciamento , Humanos , Má Conduta Profissional
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 31(6): 1673-82, 2003 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12626709

RESUMO

The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Tetrahymena thermophila has been determined and compared with the mitochondrial genome of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The sequence similarity clearly indicates homology of the entire T.thermophila and T.pyriformis mitochondrial genomes. The T.thermophila genome is very compact, most of the intergenic regions are short (only three are longer than 63 bp) and comprise only 3.8% of the genome. The nad9 gene is tandemly duplicated in T.thermophila. Long terminal inverted repeats and the nad9 genes are undergoing concerted evolution. There are 55 putative genes: three ribosomal RNA genes, eight transfer RNA genes, 22 proteins with putatively assigned functions and 22 additional open reading frames of unknown function. In order to extend indications of homology beyond amino acid sequence similarity we have examined a number of physico-chemical properties of the mitochondrial proteins, including theoretical pI, molecular weight and particularly the predicted transmembrane spanning regions. This approach has allowed us to identify homologs to ymf58 (nad4L), ymf62 (nad6) and ymf60 (rpl6).


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Tetrahymena thermophila/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/química , Variação Genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Tetrahymena/genética , Tetrahymena pyriformis/genética
16.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 29(1): 86-93, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12482409

RESUMO

In this post-genomic era, it is necessary to formulate specific questions and develop bioinformatics tools to understand the vast amounts of information stored in DNA sequence. Using the combinatorial pattern discovery algorithm called Teiresias developed by the Bioinformatics and Pattern Discovery Group at IBM, we have identified novel conserved motifs present in the immunoglobulin loci. In the human VH promoter regions, two new putative regulatory elements have been implicated in basal transcriptional regulation of immunoglobulin. In the intergenic regions of the immunoglobulin constant region genes segments, elements were identified that are absent in similar regions of the Igbeta gene. Since the expression patterns of Igbeta and the Ig genes are similar such elements may have functions in activities specific to the Ig genes such as somatic hypermutation. These elements represent V gene-specific motifs identified through the use of a pattern discovery algorithm.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Genes de Imunoglobulinas , Genes Reguladores , Sequência Conservada , Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina
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