Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361740

RESUMO

There is a challenging need for the development of new alternative nanostructures that can allow the coupling and/or encapsulation of therapeutic/diagnostic molecules while reducing their toxicity and improving their circulation and in-vivo targeting. Among the new materials using natural building blocks, peptides have attracted significant interest because of their simple structure, relative chemical and physical stability, diversity of sequences and forms, their easy functionalization with (bio)molecules and the possibility of synthesizing them in large quantities. A number of them have the ability to self-assemble into nanotubes, -spheres, -vesicles or -rods under mild conditions, which opens up new applications in biology and nanomedicine due to their intrinsic biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their surface chemical reactivity via amino- and carboxyl groups. In order to obtain nanostructures suitable for biomedical applications, the structure, size, shape and surface chemistry of these nanoplatforms must be optimized. These properties depend directly on the nature and sequence of the amino acids that constitute them. It is therefore essential to control the order in which the amino acids are introduced during the synthesis of short peptide chains and to evaluate their in-vitro and in-vivo physico-chemical properties before testing them for biomedical applications. This review therefore focuses on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of peptide sequences that can self-assemble to form nanostructures. The synthesis in batch or with new continuous flow and microflow techniques will be described and compared in terms of amino acids sequence, purification processes, functionalization or encapsulation of targeting ligands, imaging probes as well as therapeutic molecules. Their chemical and biological characterization will be presented to evaluate their purity, toxicity, biocompatibility and biodistribution, and some therapeutic properties in vitro and in vivo. Finally, their main applications in the biomedical field will be presented so as to highlight their importance and advantages over classical nanostructures.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/síntese química , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
Hypertension ; 74(1): 145-153, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079531

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a hypertensive pregnancy disease associated with a massive increase in sFlt-1 (soluble form of the vascular endothelial growth factor 1) in the maternal circulation, responsible for angiogenic imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. Pilot studies suggest that extracorporeal apheresis may reduce circulating sFlt-1 and prolong pregnancy. Nonspecific apheresis systems have potential adverse effects because of the capture of many other molecules. Our concept is based on a specific and competitive apheresis approach using VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) functionalized magnetic beads to capture sFlt-1 while releasing endogenous PlGF (placental growth factor) to restore a physiological angiogenic balance. Magnetic beads were functionalized with VEGF to capture sFlt-1. Experiments were performed using PBS, conditioned media from human trophoblastic cells, and human plasma. The proof of concept was validated in dynamic conditions in a microfluidic device as an approach mimicking real apheresis. Magnetic beads were functionalized with VEGF and characterized to evaluate their surface ligand density and recognition capabilities. VEGF-coated magnetic beads proved to be an efficient support in capturing sFlt-1 and releasing PlGF. In static conditions, sFlt-1 concentration decreased by 33±13%, whereas PlGF concentration increased by 27±10%. In dynamic conditions, the performances were improved, with 40% reduction of sFlt-1 and up to 2-fold increase of free PlGF. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was reduced by 63% in the plasma of preeclamptic patients. Apheresis was also associated with VEGF release. A ligand-based approach using VEGF-coated beads is an effective approach to the capture of sFlt-1 and the release of endogenous PlGF. It offers new perspectives for the treatment of preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Indutores da Angiogênese , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Magnetismo/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Placenta/citologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/fisiologia
3.
Bioconjug Chem ; 29(8): 2646-2653, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989798

RESUMO

The use of functionalized magnetic particles is increasing because they simplify the analytical process and yield promising results in a wide range of applications. Particularly, streptavidin-coated magnetic beads offer the possibility of rapid and very efficient grafting of biomolecules. Unfortunately, current methods to monitor and compute this grafting process are cumbersome and scarce. We describe herein a simple, rapid, and reliable chemiluminescent assay we have developed to check the grafting rate of functionalized magnetic beads. The power of the assay also relies on its ability to predict the amount of ligands required to obtain a precise grafting rate. In addition, results were correlated with a more general parameter in material functionalization characterization like surface ligand density. Finally, the assay was validated for a wide variety of biotinylated biomolecule sizes, ranging from small molecules (around 200 Da) to antibodies (around 150 kDa). This approach will allow a precise quantification and prediction of the functionalization of magnetic particles that is of enormous importance for quality control in many applications.


Assuntos
Medições Luminescentes/normas , Magnetismo , Proteínas/química , Estreptavidina/química , Bioensaio , Biotinilação , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/química , Ligantes , Peso Molecular , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(20): 17107-17116, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701456

RESUMO

In the last decades, fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have appeared as high-performance biological fluorescent nanoprobes and have been explored for a variety of biomedical optical imaging applications. However, many central challenges still exist concerning the control of the surface chemistry to ensure high biocompatibility, low toxicity, antifouling, and specific active targeting properties. Regarding in vivo applications, circulation time and clearance of the nanoprobe are also key parameters to control the design and characterization of new optical imaging agents. Herein, the complete design and characterization of a peptide-near-infrared-QD-based nanoprobe for biomedical optical imaging is presented from the synthesis of the QDs and the zwitterionic-azide copolymer ligand, enabling a bio-orthogonal coupling, till the final in vivo test through all the characterization steps. The developed nanoprobes show high fluorescence emission, controlled grafting rate, low toxicity, in vitro active specific targeting, and in vivo long circulating blood time. This is, to our knowledge, the first report characterizing the in vivo circulation kinetics and tumor accumulation of targeted zwitterionic QDs.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Humanos , Neoplasias , Imagem Óptica , Peptídeos
5.
Anal Biochem ; 544: 114-120, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284120

RESUMO

Angiogenesis and its involved proteins, particularly Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family (VEGFs) and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs), have been considered as a target of therapeutic interest for numerous inflammatory and vascular diseases. Acting on this biological process through interaction with VEGFs or VEGFRs has received considerable attention. Indeed, VEGFs and VEGFRs are currently targeted by drugs such as monoclonal antibodies. The feasibility of a therapeutic strategy based on blocking the VEGF/VEGFR interaction by using ligands "other-than-biologics" is also explored. To help to the discovery of new molecules, screening assays have been developed, particularly to evaluate the VEGFA/VEGFR1 interaction. Despite the therapeutic importance of VEGFB and PlGF (Placental Growth Factor), no assays have been developed to evaluate molecules against their interactions with VEGFR1. Here, we present new versatile colorimetric immunoassays to screen and evaluate the specific interaction of discovered molecules with different growth factors (VEGFA, VEGFB, PlGF) and receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). These tests, based on competitive immunoassay format, will provide essential information on specificity and selectivity of molecules for their targets and will help to work on the pharmaco-modulation of molecules for targeting one specific interaction.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Imunoensaio , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Humanos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(21): 18161-18169, 2017 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467039

RESUMO

Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit several unique properties that make them suitable candidates for biomolecular sensing, including high brightness, photostability, broad excitation, and narrow emission spectra. Assembling these QDs into robust and functionalizable nanosized clusters (QD-NSCs) can provide fluorescent probes that are several orders of magnitude brighter than individual QDs, thus allowing an even greater sensitivity of detection with simplified instrumentation. However, the formation of compact, antifouling, functionalizable, and stable QD-NSCs remains a challenging task, especially for a use at ultralow concentrations for single-molecule detection. Here, we describe the development of fluorescent QD-NSCs envisioned as a tool for fast and sensitive biomolecular recognition. First, QDs were assembled into very compact 100-150 nm diameter spherical aggregates; the final QD-NSCs were obtained by growing a cross-linked silica shell around these aggregates. Hydrolytic stability in several concentration and pH conditions is a key requirement for a potential and efficient single-molecule detection tool. However, the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds leads to desorption of monosilane-based surface groups at very low silica concentrations or in a slightly basic medium. Thus, we designed a novel multidentate copolymer composed of multiple silane as well as zwitterionic monomers. Coating silica beads with this multidentate copolymer provided a robust surface chemistry that was demonstrated to be stable against hydrolysis, even at low concentrations. Copolymer-coated silica beads also showed low fouling properties and high colloidal stability in saline solutions. Furthermore, incorporation of additional azido-monomers enabled easy functionalization of QD-NSCs using copper-free bio-orthogonal cyclooctyne-azide click chemistry, as demonstrated by a biotin-streptavidin affinity test.


Assuntos
Silanos/química , Polímeros , Pontos Quânticos , Semicondutores , Dióxido de Silício
7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 408(11): 2669-75, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26800982

RESUMO

This paper gives a critical overview of capillary electrophoresis (CE) methodologies recently developed for controlling and optimizing the synthesis of nanoparticles as well as characterizing their functionalization in terms of physicochemical properties. Thanks to their electrophoretic mobility, various parameters can be determined, such as NP size and charge distribution, ζ-potential, surface functionality, colloidal stability, grafting rates, and dissociation constants, allowing not only the complete characterization of new nanoprobes but also helping in their design and in the selection of chemical conditions for their storage and further manipulation. New strategies for the improvement of CE detection sensitivity are also described.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Nanopartículas
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 77: 1055-61, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26547433

RESUMO

A quantitative immunoassay for the determination of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum using gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) as fluorescent label was developed. Water soluble AuNCs were synthesized using lipoic acid and then thoroughly characterized. The obtained AuNCs have a particle size of 2.7 ± 0.1 nm and maximum fluorescence emission at 710 nm. The synthesized AuNCs showed very good stability of the fluorescent signal with light exposure and at neutral and slightly basic media. A covalent bioconjugation of these AuNCs with the desired antibody was carried out by the carbodiimide reaction. After due optimization of such bioconjugation reaction, a molar ratio 1:3 (antibody:AuNCs) was selected. The bioconjugate maintained an intense luminescence emission, slightly red-shifted as compared to the free AuNCs. Two typical immunoassay configurations, competitive and sandwich, were assayed and their performance for IgE determination critically compared. After the different immunoassay steps were accomplished, the fluorescence emission of the bioconjugate was measured. While the sandwich format provided a detection limit (DL) of 10 ng/mL and a linear range between 25 and 565 ng/mL of IgE, the competitive format revealed a DL of 0.2 ng/mL with a linear range between 0.3 and 7.1 ng/mL The applicability of the more sensitive competitive fluorescent immunoassay was assessed by successful analysis of the IgE in human serum and comparison of results with those from a commercial kit. The main advantages of the proposed AuNCs-based fluorimetric method include a low DL and a simple immunoassay protocol involving few reagents.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Análise Química do Sangue/instrumentação , Ouro/química , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Nanoconjugados/química , Nanoconjugados/ultraestrutura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Nanotechnology ; 26(21): 215601, 2015 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25944823

RESUMO

A one-step synthesis of near infrared fluorescent platinum nanoclusters (PtNCs) in aqueous medium is described. The proposed optimized procedure for PtNC synthesis is rather simple, fast and it is based on the direct metal reduction with NaBH4. Bidentated thiol ligands (lipoic acid) were selected as nanoclusters stabilizers in water media. The structural characterization revealed attractive features of the PtNCs, including small size, high water solubility, near-infrared luminescence centered at 680 nm, long-term stability and the highest quantum yield in water reported so far (47%) for PtNCs. Moreover, their stability in different pH media and an ionic strength of 0.2 M NaCl was studied and no significant changes in fluorescence emission were detected. In brief, they offer a new type of fluorescent noble metal nanoprobe with a great potential to be applied in several fields, including biolabeling and imaging experiments.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(7): 1733-40, 2014 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24437360

RESUMO

A reliable and robust direct screening methodology based on a quantum dot (QD) fluorescent immunoassay has been developed to detect trace levels of different antibiotic species from the family of the tetracyclines (e.g., oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline) in contaminated bovine muscle tissues. First, the synthesis and characterization of a new immunoprobe (oxytetracycline-bovine serum albumin-QD) has been carried out for its further application in the development of a competitive fluorescent QD-immunoassay. The developed fluoroimmunoassay provides sensitive and binary "yes/no" responses being appropriate for the screening of this family of antibiotics above or below a preset concentration threshold. The detection limit achieved with this strategy, 1 µg/L in aqueous media and 10 µg/kg in bovine muscle samples, is 10-fold lower than the maximum level concentration allowed by International Legislation in muscle tissue, enabling suitable and efficient screening of the antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/química , Tetraciclinas/química , Animais , Bovinos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Estrutura Molecular , Pontos Quânticos
11.
Nanotechnology ; 24(49): 495601, 2013 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24231856

RESUMO

A one-step aqueous synthesis of highly fluorescent water-soluble copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) is here described, based on direct reduction of the metal precursor with NaBH4 in the presence of bidentate ligands (made of lipoic acid anchoring groups, appended with a poly(ethylene glycol) short chain). A complete optical and structural characterization was carried out: the optical emission was centred at 416 nm, with a luminescence quantum yield in water of 3.6% (the highest one reported so far in water for this kind of nanocluster). The structural characterization reveals a homogeneous size distribution (of 2.5 nm diameter) with spherical shape. The CuNCs obtained offer long-term stability (the luminescence emission remained unaltered after more than two months) under a broad range of chemical conditions (e.g., stored at pH 3-12 or even in a high ionic strength medium such as 1 M NaCl) and high photostability, keeping their fluorescence emission intact after more than 2 h of daylight and UV-light exposition. All those advantageous features warrant synthesized CuNCs being promising fluorescent nanoprobes for further developments including (bio)applications.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Fluorescência , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Talanta ; 106: 243-8, 2013 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23598123

RESUMO

A general and universal analytical strategy for characterization of hapten-BSA conjugates based on complementary optical spectroscopy and molecular mass spectrometry techniques is here described. The proposed procedure provides highly-valuable information about the molecular weight of the conjugate, its stoichiometry and the concentration of the precursors (hapten and BSA) in the conjugate; such information is of great analytical interest for further development of novel quantitative immunoassays. Further, due to great demand of new, simple and robust methodologies for the melamine analysis in milk infant formula, a new immunoprobe melamine-bovine serum albumin-quantum dot was synthetized, characterized and successfully applied in a competitive fluorescent quantum dot-based immunoassay. It should be highlighted that the limit of detection achieved without any sample pretreatment, 0.15 mg kg(-1) for melamine in milk infant formula, is one order of magnitude lower than the maximum concentration level allowed by international legislation in such type of samples. Finally, this simple approach was validated by the use of an alternative technique (HPLC-UV) for the analysis of melamine in contaminated milk infant formula, showing a good agreement between the results obtained by using both analytical methodologies.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Pontos Quânticos , Triazinas/análise , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Bovinos , Haptenos/química , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/química , Lactente , Limite de Detecção , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
13.
ACS Nano ; 6(10): 8950-61, 2012 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22957671

RESUMO

We have used one phase growth reaction to prepare a series of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and luminescent nanoclusters (NCs) using sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of molecular scale ligands made of polyethylene glycol (PEG) appended with lipoic acid (LA) groups at one end and reactive (-COOH/-NH(2)) or inert (-OCH(3)) functional groups at the other end. The PEG segment in the ligand promotes solubility in a variety of solvents including water, while LAs provide multidentate coordinating groups that promote Ag-ligand complex formation and strong anchoring onto the NP/NC surface. The particle size and properties were primarily controlled by varying the Ag-to-ligand (Ag:L) molar ratios and the molar amount of NaBH(4) used. We found that while higher Ag:L ratios produced NPs, luminescent NCs were formed at lower ratios. We also found that nonluminescent NPs can be converted into luminescent clusters, via a process referred to as "size focusing", in the presence of added excess ligands and reducing agent. The nanoclusters emit in the far red region of the optical spectrum with a quantum yield of ~12%. They can be redispersed in a number of solvents with varying polarity while maintaining their optical and spectroscopic properties. Our synthetic protocol also allowed control over the number and type of reactive functional groups per nanocluster.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Prata/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 33(1): 165-71, 2012 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22265082

RESUMO

A critical comparison between Elemental Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and molecular fluorescence, as detection techniques for CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs)-based immunoassays is presented here. Using a QDs-based progesterone immunoassay as "model" analytical system the features of both detection modes has been investigated. Minimal changes, compared to the previously developed fluorescent approach, were necessary to build the corresponding inhibition curve for the progesterone immunoassay using ICP-MS detection of cadmium (contained in the QDs core). Adequate agreement between results obtained using both elemental and molecular techniques for the determination of progesterone in cow milk has been obtained. Moreover, results from the comparison showed that fluorescence detection of the QDs is simpler, less time consuming and less expensive, but ICP-MS detection affords alternative and useful information unattainable using luminescence detection. First of all, ICP-MS allowed mass balances to be carried out (all along the sample preparation) providing an internal validation of the immunoassay procedure. Secondly, matrix-independent quantification as provided by ICP-MS enabled a direct determination of progesterone in raw milk without any further sample preparation (dilution) step. As a matter of fact, ICP-MS results showed that the quenching matrix effect suffered on bioconjugated QDs fluorescence emission (e.g. when the immunoassay was carried out directly in whole milk without any dilution) could be unequivocally attributed to nonspecific interactions between the matrix of the whole milk and the QDs surface. Finally, better sensitivity could be obtained with ICP-MS detection, IC(10)=0.028 ng/mL, versus 0.11 ng/mL using conventional fluorimetric detection, just by using lower reagents concentrations.


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Leite/química , Progesterona/análise , Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 26(12): 4753-9, 2011 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21700445

RESUMO

The use of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent labels to develop a competitive immunoassay for sensitive detection and quantification of progesterone in cow's milk is described. Colloidal water-soluble CdSe/ZnS QDs are conjugated to an antigen derivative (progesterone-BSA conjugate) and a simple methodology is optimised to determine the antigen concentration in the final bioconjugate. The obtained QD-linked antigens were then employed together with unlabelled anti-progesterone monoclonal antibodies, as the biological recognition elements, in the development of the quantitative QDs-based fluorescent immunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk. After optimization, the developed immunoassay proved to cover a progesterone concentration range from 0.3 to 14.5 ng/mL in cow milk. Milk samples were just diluted 10-fold with deionised water and directly analysed with the proposed immunoassay, without additional sample pre-treatment or analyte extraction. The minimum detectable level (IC(10)) of the developed immunoassay turned out to be 0.1 ng/mL of progesterone in bovine milk. The sensitivity (IC(50)) achieved was 2.2 ng/mL with a reproducibility of 3.5% RSD as obtained from the results of the analysis of the triplicate of same samples but in three different days. Applicability of the proposed methodology was evaluated by analyzing cow's milk samples enriched with known concentrations of progesterone and recoveries better than 90% were achieved.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Leite/química , Progesterona/análise , Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Bovinos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Progesterona/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
16.
Nanoscale ; 3(3): 954-7, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21234505

RESUMO

Herein, we demonstrate that both qualitative molecular and quantitative elemental data obtained from size exclusion chromatography coupled online for the first time to both molecular fluorescence and elemental mass spectrometry, respectively, turned out to be critical to evaluate the quality of coatings of quantum dots. Moreover, such an instrumental approach also allowed us to study quantitatively the appropriated bioconjugation of quantum dots to antibodies, a critical step for QDs future use in quantitative fluorescence immunoassays.


Assuntos
Fluorimunoensaio/métodos , Pontos Quânticos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Água/química , Solubilidade , Integração de Sistemas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...