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1.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027145

RESUMO

Crystal phase switching between the zincblende and wurtzite structures in III-V nanowires is crucial from the fundamental viewpoint as well as for electronic and photonic applications of crystal phase heterostructures. Here, the results of in situ monitoring of self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth of GaAs nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy inside a transmission electron microscope are presented. It is demonstrated that the occurrence of the zincblende or wurtzite phase in self-catalyzed nanowires is determined by the sole parameter, the droplet contact angle, which can be finely tuned by changing the group III and V fluxes. The zincblende phase forms at small (<100°) and large (>125°) contact angles, whereas pure wurtzite phase is observed for intermediate contact angles. Wurtzite nanowires are restricted by vertical sidewalls, whereas zincblende nanowires taper or develop the truncated edge at their top. These findings are explained within a dedicated model for the surface energetics. These results give a clear route for the crystal phase control in Au-free III-V nanowires. On a more general note, in situ growth monitoring with atomic resolution and at the technological-relevant growth rates is shown to be a powerful tool for the fine-tuning of material properties at the nanoscale.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 31(14): 145708, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846937

RESUMO

Axial p-n and p-i-n junctions in GaAs0.7P0.3 nanowires are demonstrated and analyzed using electron beam induced current microscopy. Organized self-catalyzed nanowire arrays are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on nanopatterned Si substrates. The nanowires are doped using Be and Si impurities to obtain p- and n-type conductivity, respectively. A method to determine the doping type by analyzing the induced current in the vicinity of a Schottky contact is proposed. It is demonstrated that for the applied growth conditions using Ga as a catalyst, Si doping induces an n-type conductivity contrary to the GaAs self-catalyzed nanowire case, where Si was reported to yield a p-type doping. Active axial nanowire p-n junctions having a homogeneous composition along the axis are synthesized and the carrier concentration and minority carrier diffusion lengths are measured. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of axial p-n junctions in self-catalyzed GaAsP nanowires.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 5082-5089, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403800

RESUMO

The growth of catalytic liquid-metal nanodroplets on flat substrates is essential for many technological applications. However, the detailed nucleation and growth dynamics of these nanodroplets remain unclear. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, we track in real time the growth of individual Ga nanodroplets from a beam of Ga vapor. We show that the nucleation and growth are driven by thermally activated surface diffusion of Ga adatoms, with the diffusion activation energy of ED = 95 ± 10 meV on a SiNx surface. More importantly, our analysis shows that Ga dimers serve as the critical nucleation clusters and that the nanodroplet growth follows a power-law of the form R(t) ∝ e-ED/kBT(t - t0)1/2. These insights into the growth dynamics of metallic nanodroplets are essential for tailoring their size and density for their application in self-catalyzed growth of nanomaterials.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 30(29): 294003, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032812

RESUMO

We report on the detailed composition of ternary GaAsP nanowires (NWs) grown using self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth by molecular beam epitaxy. We evidence the formation of an unintentional shell, which enlarges by vapor-solid growth concurrently to the main VLS-grown core. The NW core and unintentional shell have typically different chemical compositions if no effort is made to adjust the growth conditions. The compositions can be made equal by changing the substrate temperature and the P/As flux ratio in the vapor phase. In all cases, we still observe the existence of a P-rich interface between the GaAsP NW core and the unintentional shell, even if favorable growth conditions are used.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(16): 166101, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387660

RESUMO

Crystal growth often proceeds by atomic step flow. When the surface area available for growth is limited, the nucleation and progression of the steps can be affected. This issue is particularly relevant to the formation of nanocrystals. We examine the case of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires, which we grow in a transmission electron microscope. Our in situ observations show that atomic layers nucleate at the periphery of the interface between the nanowire and the catalyst droplet. From this starting location, the atomic step flows within a restricted area of hexagonal shape. At specific partial coverages, the monolayer configuration changes abruptly. A simple model based on the geometry of the system and its edge energies explains these observations. In particular, we observe an inversion of the step curvature which reveals that the effective energy per unit length of monolayer edge is much lower at the interface periphery than inside the catalyst droplet.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(6)2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799440

RESUMO

We demonstrate for the first time the efficient mechanical-electrical conversion properties of InGaN/GaN nanowires (NWs). Using an atomic force microscope equipped with a modified Resiscope module, we analyse the piezoelectric energy generation of GaN NWs and demonstrate an important enhancement when integrating in their volume a thick In-rich InGaN insertion. The piezoelectric response of InGaN/GaN NWs can be tuned as a function of the InGaN insertion thickness and position in the NW volume. The energy harvesting is favoured by the presence of a PtSi/GaN Schottky diode which allows to efficiently collect the piezo-charges generated by InGaN/GaN NWs. Average output voltages up to 330 ± 70 mV and a maximum value of 470 mV per NW has been measured for nanostructures integrating 70 nm-thick InGaN insertion capped with a thin GaN top layer. This latter value establishes an increase of about 35% of the piezo-conversion capacity in comparison with binary p-doped GaN NWs. Based on the measured output signals, we estimate that one layer of dense InGaN/GaN-based NW can generate a maximum output power density of about 3.3 W/cm². These results settle the new state-of-the-art for piezo-generation from GaN-based NWs and offer a promising perspective for extending the performances of the piezoelectric sources.

7.
Nanoscale ; 9(13): 4610-4619, 2017 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323294

RESUMO

The performances of 1D-nanostructure based nanogenerators are governed by the ability of nanostructures to efficiently convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy, and by the efficiency with which this piezo-generated energy is harvested. In this paper, we highlight the crucial influence of the GaN nanowire-metal Schottky nanocontact on the energy harvesting efficiency. Three different metals, p-type doped diamond, PtSi and Pt/Ir, have been investigated. By using an atomic force microscope equipped with a Resiscope module, we demonstrate that the harvesting of piezo-generated energy is up to 2.4 times more efficient using a platinum-based Schottky nanocontact compared to a doped diamond-based nanocontact. In light of Schottky contact characteristics, we evidence that the conventional description of the Schottky diode cannot be applied. The contact is governed by its nanometer size. This specific behaviour induces notably a lowering of the Schottky barrier height, which gives rise to an enhanced conduction. We especially demonstrate that this effective thinning is directly correlated with the improvement of the energy harvesting efficiency, which is much pronounced for Pt-based Schottky diodes. These results constitute a building block to the overall improvement of NW-based nanogenerator devices.

8.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 4895-902, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27414518

RESUMO

Epitaxial growth of GaN nanowires on graphene is demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy without any catalyst or intermediate layer. Growth is highly selective with respect to silica on which the graphene flakes, grown by chemical vapor deposition, are transferred. The nanowires grow vertically along their c-axis and we observe a unique epitaxial relationship with the ⟨21̅1̅0⟩ directions of the wurtzite GaN lattice parallel to the directions of the carbon zigzag chains. Remarkably, the nanowire density and height decrease with increasing number of graphene layers underneath. We attribute this effect to strain and we propose a model for the nanowire density variation. The GaN nanowires are defect-free and they present good optical properties. This demonstrates that graphene layers transferred on amorphous carrier substrates is a promising alternative to bulk crystalline substrates for the epitaxial growth of high quality GaN nanostructures.

9.
Nano Lett ; 7(6): 1500-4, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17480113

RESUMO

We report on the fabrication by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of InP nanowires with embedded InAsP insertions. The growth temperature affects the nucleation on the nanowire lateral surface. It is therefore possible to grow the wires in two steps: to fabricate an axial heterostructure (at 420 degrees C), and then cover it by a shell (at 390 degrees C). The InAsP alloy composition could be varied between InAs0.35P0.65 and InAs0.5P0.5 by changing the As to P flux ratio. When a shell is present, the InAsP segments show strong room-temperature photoluminescence with a peak wavelength tunable from 1.2 to 1.55 mum by adjusting the As content. If the axial heterostructure has no shell, luminescence intensity is drastically reduced. Low-temperature microphotoluminescence performed on isolated single wires shows narrow peaks with a line width as small as 120 microeV.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/química , Cristalização/métodos , Índio/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Fosfinas/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
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