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1.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10108, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572467

RESUMO

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct clinical syndrome, characterized by acute decompensation (AD) of liver cirrhosis, severe systemic inflammation, intra- and extrahepatic organ failures, and a high short-term mortality. Liver transplantation (LT) is a potentially life-saving treatment for patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and, due to the high mortality rates, particularly for ACLF patients. In the last decade, a plethora of studies has produced compelling evidence in favor of LT in ACLF, demonstrating high post-LT survival rates and excessive waitlist mortality. The importance of LT in these patients is underscored by the fact that no specific therapy for ACLF is available yet, rendering expeditious life-saving LT to be the only feasible treatment option for some ACLF patients. This review aims to provide an overview on pathophysiology, clinical trajectory, and clinical management of ACLF and to delineate the current literature regarding perspectives and limitations of LT as a life-saving treatment option for ACLF patients.

2.
Liver Transpl ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that liver transplantation (LT) is the most effective treatment for acute-on-chronic liver failure grade-3 (ACLF-3). This study examines whether and how this evidence translates into practice by analyzing the variability in intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, listing strategies and LT activity for ACLF-3 patients across transplant centers in Europe. METHODS: Consecutive patients who were admitted to the ICU with ACLF-3, whether or not they were listed and/or transplanted with ACLF-3 between 2018 and 2019 were included across 20 transplantation centers. RESULTS: 351 patients with ACLF-3 were included: 33 had been listed prior to developing ACLF-3 and 318 had not been listed at the time of admission to the ICU. There was no correlation between the number of unlisted ACLF-3 patients admitted to the ICU and the number listed or transplanted whilst in ACLF-3 across centers. In contrast, there was a correlation between the number of patients listed and the number transplanted whilst in ACLF-3. 21% of patients who were listed whilst in ACLF-3 died on the waiting list or were delisted. The percentage of LT for ACLF-3 patients varied from 0%-29% of patients transplanted with decompensated cirrhosis across centers (average = 8%), with an I2 index of 68% (95% CI: 49%-80%), showing substantial heterogeneity among centers. The one-year survival for all patients with ACLF-3 was significantly higher in centers that listed and transplanted more ACLF-3 patients (>10 patients) than in centers that listed and transplanted fewer: respectively 36% vs. 20%, p = 0.012. CONCLUSION: Patients with ACLF-3 face inequity of access to LT across Europe. Wait-listing strategies for ACLF-3 patients influence their access to LT and, ultimately, their survival.

3.
Mol Syst Biol ; 18(5): e10947, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579278

RESUMO

Deeper understanding of liver pathophysiology would benefit from a comprehensive quantitative proteome resource at cell type resolution to predict outcome and design therapy. Here, we quantify more than 150,000 sequence-unique peptides aggregated into 10,000 proteins across total liver, the major liver cell types, time course of primary cell cultures, and liver disease states. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that half of hepatocyte protein mass is comprised of enzymes and 23% of mitochondrial proteins, twice the proportion of other liver cell types. Using primary cell cultures, we capture dynamic proteome remodeling from tissue states to cell line states, providing useful information for biological or pharmaceutical research. Our extensive data serve as spectral library to characterize a human cohort of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Dramatic proteome changes in liver tissue include signatures of hepatic stellate cell activation resembling liver cirrhosis and providing functional insights. We built a web-based dashboard application for the interactive exploration of our resource (www.liverproteome.org).

4.
Gastroenterology ; 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify gut and oral metagenomic signatures that accurately predict pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC) and to validate these signatures in independent cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a multinational study and performed shotgun metagenomic analysis of fecal and salivary samples collected from patients with treatment-naïve PDAC and non-PDAC controls in Japan, Spain, and Germany. Taxonomic and functional profiles of the microbiomes were characterized, and metagenomic classifiers to predict PDAC were constructed and validated in external datasets. RESULTS: Comparative metagenomics revealed dysbiosis of both the gut and oral microbiomes and identified 30 gut and 18 oral species significantly associated with PDAC in the Japanese cohort. These microbial signatures achieved high area under the curve values of 0.78 to 0.82. The prediction model trained on the Japanese gut microbiome also had high predictive ability in Spanish and German cohorts, with respective area under the curve values of 0.75 and 0.80, validating its high confidence and versatility for PDAC prediction. Significant enrichments of Streptococcus and Veillonella spp and a depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were common gut signatures for PDAC in all 3 cohorts. Prospective follow-up data revealed that patients with certain gut and oral microbial species were at higher risk of PDAC-related mortality. Finally, 58 bacteriophages that could infect microbial species consistently enriched in patients with PDAC across the 3 countries were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenomics targeting the gut and oral microbiomes can provide a powerful source of biomarkers for identifying individuals with PDAC and their prognoses. The identification of shared gut microbial signatures for PDAC in Asian and European cohorts indicates the presence of robust and global gut microbial biomarkers.

7.
Hepatol Int ; 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) implantation is an established procedure to treat portal hypertension. Impact of administration of aspirin on transplant-free survival after TIPS remains unknown. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective analysis including patients with TIPS implantation between 2011 and 2018 at three tertiary German Liver Centers was performed. N = 583 patients were included. Survival analysis was performed in a matched cohort after propensity score matching. Patients were grouped according to whether aspirin was (PSM-aspirin-cohort) or was not (PSM-no-aspirin-cohort) administered after TIPS. Primary endpoint of the study was transplant-free survival at 12 months after TIPS. RESULTS: Aspirin improved transplant-free survival 12 months after TIPS with 90.7% transplant-free survival compared to 80.0% (p = 0.001) after PSM. Separated by TIPS indication, aspirin did improve transplant-free survival in patients with refractory ascites significantly (89.6% vs. 70.6% transplant-free survival, p < 0.001), while no significant effect was observed in patients with refractory variceal bleeding (91.1% vs. 92.2% transplant-free survival, p = 0.797). CONCLUSION: This retrospective multicenter study provides first data indicating a beneficial effect of aspirin on transplant-free survival after TIPS implantation in patients with refractory ascites.

8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3559, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241785

RESUMO

Complications of portal hypertension can be treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in selected patients. TIPS dysfunction is a relevant clinical problem. This study investigated the prognostic value of two-dimensional (2D) TIPS geometry for the development of TIPS dysfunction. Three hundred and seven patients undergoing TIPS procedure between 2014 and 2019 were analyzed in this monocentric retrospective study. 2D angiograms from the patients with and without TIPS dysfunction were reviewed to determine geometric characteristics including insertion and curve angles and the location of the stent. Primary outcome was the development of TIPS dysfunction. A total of 70 patients developed TIPS dysfunction and were compared to the dysfunction-free (n = 237) patients. The position of the cranial stent end in the hepatic vein and the persistence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts were significantly associated with the development of TIPS dysfunction. Among significant parameters in univariable regression analysis (portal vein-pressure after TIPS, Child-Pugh Score before TIPS, MELD before TIPS and white blood cell count before TIPS), multivariable models showed cranial stent position (p = 0.027, HR 2.300, 95% CI 1.101-4.806) and SPSS embolization (p = 0.006, HR 0.319, 95% CI 0.140-0.725) as the only predictors of TIPS dysfunction. This monocentric study demonstrates that the position of the cranial stent end is independently associated with the development of TIPS dysfunction. The distance of the cranial stent end to the IVC at the time of TIPS placement should be less than 1 cm in 2D angiography.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Veias Hepáticas , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275900

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Albumin has been used primarily as a plasma expander, since it leads to an increase in the circulating blood volume. Current generally recommended indications for albumin therapy in cirrhotic patients are the prevention of circulatory dysfunction after large-volume paracentesis, the prevention of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), and the management of HRS in combination with vasoconstrictors. Yet, new indications for albumin have been tested in the recent years and are outlined in this short review. RECENT FINDINGS: New data show that albumin both supports the circulation and reduces systemic inflammation. In addition, to its oncotic function, it acts as an antioxidant, radical scavenger, and immune modulator. These nononcotic properties explain why long-term albumin administration in patients with decompensated cirrhosis may be useful in the prevention of associated complications (acute-on-chronic liver failure, infections). New data show that long-term albumin therapy in patients with cirrhosis and ascites improves survival, prevents complications, simplifies ascites management, and lowers hospitalization rates. The so-called disease-modifying effects of long-term albumin therapy may have a favorable effect on the course of the disease. Nevertheless, the optimal dosage and administration intervals have not yet been finally defined. SUMMARY: Albumin therapy is effective in the indications already recommended by the guidelines. A possible extension of the indication for albumin administration in non-SBP infections and as long-term therapy is promising, but should be confirmed by further studies.

10.
JHEP Rep ; 4(5): 100448, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313729

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major complication after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and is primarily influenced by the gut microbiota. We aimed to evaluate alterations in the microbiota after TIPS and the association between such alterations and HE. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 106 patients with cirrhosis receiving TIPS. Faecal samples were collected before and after TIPS, and the gut microbiota was analysed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Results: Among all patients, 33 developed HE (HE+ group) within 6 months after TIPS and 73 did not (HE- group), and 18 died during follow-up. After TIPS, the autochthonous taxa increased, whereas the potential pathogenic taxa decreased in the HE- group, and the autochthonous taxon Lachnospiraceae decreased in the HE+ group. Furthermore, synergism among harmful bacteria was observed in all patients, which was weakened in the HE- group (p <0.001) but enhanced in the HE+ group (p <0.01) after TIPS. Variations of 5 autochthonous taxa, namely, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, Blautia, Ruminococcaceae_uncultured, and Roseburia, were negatively correlated with the severity of HE. Notably, increased abundances of Coprococcus and Ruminococcus were protective factors against HE, and the incidences of HE in patients with improved, stable, and deteriorated microbiota after TIPS were 13.3, 25.9, and 68.2%, respectively. Higher total bilirubin level, Child-Pugh score, model for end-stage liver disease score, Granulicatella, and Alistipes and lower Subdoligranulum before TIPS were the independent risk factors for death. Conclusions: Alterations in gut dysbiosis were negatively related to the occurrence and severity of post-TIPS HE, and the pre-TIPS microbiota were associated with death, suggesting the gut microbiota could be a promising potential biological target for screening suitable patients receiving TIPS and prevention and treatment of post-TIPS HE. Lay summary: Alterations in the gut microbiota after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and the relationship between such alterations and post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy (HE) remain unclear. We therefore performed this study and found that after TIPS, restoration of the gut microbiota, mainly characterised by expansion of autochthonous taxa, depletion of harmful taxa, and weakening of synergism among harmful bacteria, was inversely related to the occurrence and severity of post-TIPS HE.

11.
Gut ; 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a role for the microbiome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) aetiology and progression. OBJECTIVE: To explore the faecal and salivary microbiota as potential diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: We applied shotgun metagenomic and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to samples from a Spanish case-control study (n=136), including 57 cases, 50 controls, and 29 patients with chronic pancreatitis in the discovery phase, and from a German case-control study (n=76), in the validation phase. RESULTS: Faecal metagenomic classifiers performed much better than saliva-based classifiers and identified patients with PDAC with an accuracy of up to 0.84 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) based on a set of 27 microbial species, with consistent accuracy across early and late disease stages. Performance further improved to up to 0.94 AUROC when we combined our microbiome-based predictions with serum levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9, the only current non-invasive, Food and Drug Administration approved, low specificity PDAC diagnostic biomarker. Furthermore, a microbiota-based classification model confined to PDAC-enriched species was highly disease-specific when validated against 25 publicly available metagenomic study populations for various health conditions (n=5792). Both microbiome-based models had a high prediction accuracy on a German validation population (n=76). Several faecal PDAC marker species were detectable in pancreatic tumour and non-tumour tissue using 16S rRNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results indicate that non-invasive, robust and specific faecal microbiota-based screening for the early detection of PDAC is feasible.

12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263989, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transition from compensated to decompensated liver cirrhosis is a hallmark of disease progression, however, reliable predictors to assess the risk of decompensation in individual patients from routine diagnostics are lacking. Here, we characterize serum levels of cell death-associated markers and routine biochemistry from patients with chronic liver disease with and without decompensation. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was based on prospectively collected clinical data from 160 patients with chronic liver disease, stably compensated or decompensated at baseline or during follow-up, over a median period of 721 days. Serum levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and routine biochemistry are quantified at baseline (for all patients) and during follow-up (for patients with acute decompensation). The panel of DAMPs assessed in this study comprises high-mobility group-box protein 1 (HMGB1), cytochrome C (cyt C), soluble Fas-ligand (sFasL), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble cytokeratin-18 (CK18-M65) and its caspase-cleaved fragment CK18-M30. RESULTS: In this cohort study, 80 patients (50%) were diagnosed with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, 60 patients (37.5%) with hepatitis C virus- and 20 patients (13.5%) with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis. At baseline, 17 patients (10.6%) showed decompensated liver disease and another 28 patients (17.5%) developed acute decompensation during follow-up (within 24 months). One hundred fifteen patients showed stable liver disease (71.9%). We found DAMPs significantly elevated in patients with decompensated liver disease versus compensated liver disease. Patients with acute decompensation during follow-up showed higher baseline levels of IL-6, sFasL, CK18-M65 and-M30 (P<0.01) compared to patients with stably compensated liver disease. In multivariate analyses, we found an independent association of baseline serum levels of sFasL (P = 0.02; OR = 2.67) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (P<0.001; OR = 2.1) with acute decompensation. Accuracy of the marker combination for predicting acute decompensation was high (AUC = 0.79). Elevated aminotransferase levels did not correlate with decompensated liver disease and acute decompensation. CONCLUSIONS: DAMPs are elevated in patients with decompensated liver disease and patients developing acute decompensation. The prognostic value of a marker combination with soluble Fas-ligand and GGT in patients with liver cirrhosis should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Alarminas/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Morte Celular , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Queratina-18/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 13(6): 1701-1716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver fibrosis arises from long-term chronic liver injury, accompanied by an accelerated wound healing response with interstitial accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the main source for ECM production. MicroRNA29a (miR-29a) is a crucial antifibrotic miRNA that is repressed during fibrosis, resulting in up-regulation of collagen synthesis. METHODS: Intracellular and extracellular miRNA levels of primary and immortalized myofibroblastic HSC in response to profibrogenic stimulation by transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) or upon inhibition of vesicular transport and autophagy processes were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Autophagy flux was studied by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. Hepatic and serum miR-29a levels were quantified by using both liver tissue and serum samples from a cohort of chronic hepatitis C virus patients and a murine CCl4 induced liver fibrosis model. RESULTS: In our study, we show that TGFß and PDGF-BB resulted in decrease of intracellular miR-29a and a pronounced increase of vesicular miR-29a release into the supernatant. Strikingly, miR-29a vesicular release was accompanied by enhanced autophagic activity and up-regulation of the autophagy marker protein LC3. Moreover, autophagy inhibition strongly prevented miR-29a secretion and repressed its targets' expression such as Col1A1. Consistently, hepatic miR-29a loss and increased LC3 expression in myofibroblastic HSC were associated with increased serum miR-29a levels in CCl4-treated murine liver fibrosis and specimens of hepatitis C virus patients with chronic liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that activation-associated autophagy in HSC induces release of miR-29a, whereas inhibition of autophagy represses fibrogenic gene expression in part through attenuated miR-29a secretion.

14.
JHEP Rep ; 4(3): 100442, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35198929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome associated with organ failure and high short-term mortality. Recently, the role of surgery as a precipitating event for ACLF has been characterised. However, the impact of preoperative transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement on ACLF development in patients with cirrhosis undergoing surgery has not been investigated yet. METHODS: A total of 926 patients (363 with cirrhosis undergoing surgery and 563 patients with TIPS) were screened. Forty-five patients with preoperative TIPS (TIPS group) were 1:1 propensity matched to patients without preoperative TIPS (no-TIPS group). The primary endpoint was the development of ACLF within 28 and 90 days after surgery. The secondary endpoint was 1-year mortality. Results were confirmed by a differently 1:2 matched cohort (n = 176). RESULTS: Patients in the no-TIPS group had significantly higher rates of ACLF within 28 days (29 vs. 9%; p = 0.016) and 90 days (33 vs. 13%; p = 0.020) after surgery as well as significantly higher 1-year mortality (38 vs. 18%; p = 0.023) compared with those in the TIPS group. Surgery without preoperative TIPS and Chronic Liver Failure Consortium-Acute Decompensation (CLIF-C AD) score were independent predictors for 28- and 90-day ACLF development and 1-year mortality after surgery, especially in patients undergoing visceral surgery. In the no-TIPS group, a CLIF-C AD score of >45 could be identified as cut-off for patients at risk for postoperative ACLF development benefiting from TIPS. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that preoperative TIPS may result in lower rates of postoperative ACLF development especially in patients undergoing visceral surgery and with a CLIF-C AD score above 45. LAY SUMMARY: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome that is associated with high short-term mortality. Surgical procedures are a known precipitating event for ACLF. This study investigates the role of preoperative insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on postoperative mortality and ACLF development. Patients with TIPS insertion before a surgical procedure exhibit improved postoperative survival and lower rates of postoperative ACLF, especially in patients undergoing visceral surgery and with a high CLIF-C AD prognostic score. Thus, this study suggests preoperative TIPS insertion in those high-risk patients.

15.
World J Surg ; 46(4): 855-864, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to improve knowledge about the best conversional bariatric procedure following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: Data of conversional Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and of one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) after SG were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Weight loss parameters, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and comorbidities outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Total of 123 patients (90 female, mean age 44 ± 0.9 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 42 ± 0.8 kg/m2) had either RYGB (n = 68) or OAGB (n = 55). Perioperative mortality was zero. Mean surgery time was significantly shorter for OAGB (168 ± 7.2 vs. 201 ± 6.8 min). Perioperative complication rates were not significantly (ns) different between RYGB and OAGB. Total body weight loss (TBWL) in RYGB and OAGB was 18 ± 2.2% and 18 ± 1.9% (12 months) and 18 ± 3.0% and 23 ± 2.6% (24 months; ns), respectively. Length of (individualized) biliopancreatic limb (BPL) correlated significantly with weight loss. Remission rates after 12 months of RYGB and OAGB for arterial hypertension (aHt) were 89% and 92%, for obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) 56% and 82%, for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 100% and 92%, for osteoarthritis 64% and 85% and for GERD 89% versus 87% (ns), respectively. Nutritional deficiencies were comparable in RYGB (n = 11) and OAGB (n = 14) group (ns). CONCLUSION: Both RYGB and OAGB are effective conversional procedures after SG, leading to comparable TBWL, BMI-loss and high remission rates of comorbidities including GERD. Significantly shorter operation times were in favor of OAGB. BPL, which was longer in OAGB was significantly related to higher %TBWL and %BMI-loss compared to RYGB.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Derivação Gástrica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Feminino , Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Perda de Peso
16.
J Hepatol ; 76(5): 1079-1089, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It remains unclear whether rectal colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is prevalent and predisposes to infections by the same pathogens in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Two series of critically ill patients were evaluated. In the Barcelona cohort, 486 consecutive patients were prospectively evaluated, 129 with and 357 without cirrhosis (2015-2016). Rectal swabs were performed at admission and weekly thereafter (until intensive care unit [ICU] discharge) to detect MDRO colonization. Risk factors for colonization and infection by MDROs were evaluated. A retrospective cohort from Frankfurt (421 patients with cirrhosis; 2010-2018) was investigated to evaluate MDRO rectal colonization in another epidemiological scenario. RESULTS: In the Barcelona cohort, 159 patients were colonized by MDROs (32.7%), 102 (64.2%) at admission and 57 (35.8%) during follow-up. Patients with cirrhosis showed higher rates of rectal colonization at admission than those without cirrhosis (28.7% vs. 18.2%, p = 0.01) but similar colonization rates during ICU stay. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-Enterobacterales were the most frequent MDROs isolated in both groups. Colonization by MDROs independently increased the risk of infection by MDROs at admission and during follow-up. Risk of new infection by the colonizing strain was also significantly increased in patients with (hazard ratio [HR] 7.41) and without (HR 5.65) cirrhosis. Rectal colonization by MDROs was also highly prevalent in Frankfurt (n = 198; 47%; 131 at admission [66.2%] and 67 [33.8%] during follow-up), with vancomycin-resistant enterococci being the most frequent colonizing organism. Rectal colonization by MDROs was also associated with an increased risk of infection by MDROs in this cohort. Infections occurring in MDR carriers were mainly caused by the colonizing strain. CONCLUSION: Rectal colonization by MDROs is extremely frequent in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. Colonization increases the risk of infection by the colonizing resistant strain. LAY SUMMARY: Rectal colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is a prevalent problem in patients with cirrhosis requiring critical care. The pattern of colonizing bacteria is heterogeneous with relevant differences between centers. Colonization by MDROs is associated with increased risk of infection by the colonizing bacteria in the short term. This finding suggests that colonization data could be used to guide empirical antibiotic therapy and de-escalation policies in patients with cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Z Gastroenterol ; 60(1): 67-76, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042255

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis is the acute deterioration of alcoholic liver disease with rapid onset or worsening of jaundice, which in severe cases, may transition to acute-on-chronic liver failure with extremely high short-term mortality, increasing with the number and severity of hepatic and extra-hepatic organ dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment are insufficient and challenging, especially due to the complex, multi-factorial and as yet not fully understood pathogenesis. While current management is limited to steroids and best supportive care, debate is ongoing concerning liver transplantation for selected patients, and several novel approaches are under way with mixed results. These drawbacks in disease management together with increasing prevalence in Germany, and generally in Western countries, constitute an unmet need for the healthcare systems. This review tries to summarize the current status of these aspects and provides an overview for pathogenesis, management and potential future treatments.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Hepatite Alcoólica , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Transplante de Fígado , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Humanos , Prognóstico
18.
Liver Int ; 42(3): 640-650, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Decompensation is a hallmark of disease progression in cirrhotic patients. Early detection of a phase transition from compensated cirrhosis to decompensation would enable targeted therapeutic interventions potentially extending life expectancy. This study aims to (a) identify the predictors of decompensation in a large, multicentric cohort of patients with compensated cirrhosis, (b) to build a reliable prognostic score for decompensation and (c) to evaluate the score in independent cohorts. METHODS: Decompensation was identified in electronic health records data from 6049 cirrhosis patients in the IBM Explorys database training cohort by diagnostic codes for variceal bleeding, encephalopathy, ascites, hepato-renal syndrome and/or jaundice. We identified predictors of clinical decompensation and developed a prognostic score using Cox regression analysis. The score was evaluated using the IBM Explorys database validation cohort (N = 17662), the Penn Medicine BioBank (N = 1326) and the UK Biobank (N = 317). RESULTS: The new Early Prediction of Decompensation (EPOD) score uses platelet count, albumin, and bilirubin concentration. It predicts decompensation during a 3-year follow-up in three validation cohorts with AUROCs of 0.69, 0.69 and 0.77, respectively, and outperforms the well-known MELD and Child-Pugh score in predicting decompensation. Furthermore, the EPOD score predicted the 3-year probability of decompensation. CONCLUSIONS: The EPOD score provides a prediction tool for the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis that outperforms well-known cirrhosis scores. Since EPOD is based on three blood parameters, only, it provides maximal clinical feasibility at minimal costs.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Ascite/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Oncol Res Treat ; 45(3): 79-87, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While irresectable pancreatic cancer has still a dismal overall prognosis, evidence about the optimal chemotherapy sequence is scarce. After treatment with FOLFIRINOX in first-line, gemcitabine monotherapy was established for years. As a potential treatment alternative after failure of FOLFIRINOX therapy, combination of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel is used. However, this combination has formally not yet been approved for second-line treatment and investigation of efficiency and treatment tolerance is the aim of this trial. METHODS: Therefore, we investigated 225 patients with histologically confirmed local advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer in this retrospective monocentre study (November 2010 - July 2019). Of this, 44 patients received FOLFIRINOX therapy and outcome was further analysed. The primary end point of this cohort was overall survival (OS), and secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and safety. RESULTS: In most of the patients, FOLFIRINOX as first-line treatment of irresectable pancreatic cancer resulted in temporary cancer control (partial response [PR]: 50% and stable disease [SD]: 18%), whereas tumour progression was observed in 23% of the patients. The median PFS time for FOLFIRINOX treatment was 7.3 months and median OS 10.3 months. Seven (16%) patients received additional local radio chemotherapy of the pancreatic tumour. During first-line therapy, in 8 (18%) patients, laparotomy was performed to proof resectability of the tumour. Hereby, in 3 patients R0- and in 3 patients R1 resection was achieved, whereas 2 patients stayed irresectable. Twenty-five of the 44 patients (57%) received second-line therapy, namely, 24 patients gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel and 1 patient gemcitabine and erlotinib. Hereby, gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel led again to temporary tumour control in 46% of the patients (PR: 21%, SD: 25%), while in 29% of the patients, disease progression was observed. Corresponding median PFS for gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel treatment was 3.5 months. Patients who received second-line treatment with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine had a more favourable prognosis (median OS: 17 vs. 9.2 months; HR 0.32 [0.14-0.70], p < 0.001) than patients who were not eligible for second-line treatment. Moreover, in multivariate analyses association with patients' survival and tumour response to chemotherapy in both therapeutic lines and µGT concentrations below 100 IU/L in first-line FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy were observed. CONCLUSION: These real-world data suggest that gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel may be feasible after FOLFIRINOX therapy in patients with irresectable pancreatic cancer. However, prospective randomized data about the superiority to gemcitabine monotherapy are needed.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Irinotecano , Leucovorina , Oxaliplatina , Paclitaxel , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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