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1.
ACS Photonics ; 10(2): 394-400, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36820323

##### RESUMO

Terahertz spectroscopy is a perfect tool to investigate the electronic intraband conductivity of graphene, but a phenomenological model (Drude-Smith) is often needed to describe disorder. By studying the THz response of isotropically strained polycrystalline graphene and using a fully atomistic computational approach to fit the results, we demonstrate here the connection between the Drude-Smith parameters and the microscopic behavior. Importantly, we clearly show that the strain-induced changes in the conductivity originate mainly from the increased separation between the single-crystal grains, leading to enchanced localization of the plasmon excitations. Only at the lowest strain values explored, a behavior consistent with the deformation of the individual grains can instead be observed.

2.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296019

##### RESUMO

Artificially-induced defects in the lattice of graphene are a powerful tool for engineering the properties of the crystal, especially if organized in highly-ordered structures such as periodic arrays. A method to deterministically induce defects in graphene is to irradiate the crystal with low-energy (<20 keV) electrons delivered by a scanning electron microscope. However, the nanometric precision granted by the focused beam can be hindered by the pattern irradiation itself due to the small lateral separation among the elements, which can prevent the generation of sharp features. An accurate analysis of the achievable resolution is thus essential for practical applications. To this end, we investigated patterns generated by low-energy electron irradiation combining atomic force microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements. We proved that it is possible to create well-defined periodic patterns with precision of a few tens of nanometers. We found that the defected lines are influenced by electrons back-scattered by the substrate, which limit the achievable resolution. We provided a model that takes into account such substrate effects. The findings of our study allow the design and easily accessible fabrication of graphene devices featuring complex defect engineering, with a remarkable impact on technologies exploiting the increased surface reactivity.

3.
ACS Photonics ; 9(2): 360-367, 2022 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211645

##### RESUMO

Fast room-temperature imaging at terahertz (THz) and subterahertz (sub-THz) frequencies is an interesting technique that could unleash the full potential of plenty of applications in security, healthcare, and industrial production. In this Letter, we introduce micromechanical bolometers based on silicon nitride trampoline membranes as broad-range detectors down to sub-THz frequencies. They show, at the longest wavelengths, room-temperature noise-equivalent powers comparable to those of state-of-the-art commercial devices (â¼100 pW Hz-1/2), which, along with the good operation speed and the easy, large-scale fabrication process, could make the trampoline membrane the next candidate for cheap room-temperature THz imaging and related applications.

4.
ACS Nano ; 16(1): 1291-1300, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939407

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate a graphene-MoS2 architecture integrating multiple field-effect transistors (FETs), and we independently probe and correlate the conducting properties of van der Waals coupled graphene-MoS2 contacts with those of the MoS2 channels. Devices are fabricated starting from high-quality single-crystal monolayers grown by chemical vapor deposition. The heterojunction was investigated by scanning Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Moreover, transconductance curves of MoS2 are compared with the current-voltage characteristics of graphene contact stripes, revealing a significant suppression of transport on the n-side of the transconductance curve. On the basis of ab initio modeling, the effect is understood in terms of trapping by sulfur vacancies, which counterintuitively depends on the field effect, even though the graphene contact layer is positioned between the backgate and the MoS2 channel.

5.
Opt Express ; 29(21): 33602-33614, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809170

##### RESUMO

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) represent a most promising compact source at terahertz (THz) frequencies, but efficiency of their continuous wave (CW) operation still needs to be improved to achieve large-scale exploitation. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient operation of a subwavelength microcavity laser consisting of two evanescently coupled whispering gallery microdisk resonators. Exploiting a dual injection scheme for the laser cavity, single mode CW vertical emission at 3.3 THz is obtained at 10 K with 6.4 mA threshold current and 145 mW/A slope efficiency up to 320 µW emitted power measured in quasi-CW mode. The tuning of the laser emission directionality is also obtained by independently varying the pumping strength between the microdisks. By connecting the resonators through a suspended gold bridge, the laser out-coupling efficiency in the vertical direction is strongly enhanced. Owing to the high brightness, low-power consumption and CW operation, the proposed microcavity laser design could allow the realization of high-performance CW THz QCLs ready for massive parallelization.

6.
Opt Lett ; 44(23): 5663-5666, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774748

##### RESUMO

Owing to their intrinsic stability against optical feedback (OF), quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) represent a uniquely versatile source to further improve self-mixing interferometry at mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) frequencies. Here, we show the feasibility of detecting with nanometer precision, the deeply subwavelength ($\lt \lambda /6000$<λ/6000) mechanical vibrations of a suspended ${{\rm Si}_3}{{\rm N}_4}$Si3N4 membrane used as the external element of a THz QCL feedback interferometer. Besides representing an extension of the applicability of vibrometric characterization at THz frequencies, our system can be exploited for the realization of optomechanical applications, such as dynamical switching between different OF regimes and a still-lacking THz master-slave configuration.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(22)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698861

##### RESUMO

Water availability is a major limiting factor in plant productivity and plays a key role in plant species distribution over a given area. New technologies, such as terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCLs) have proven to be non-invasive, effective, and accurate tools for measuring and monitoring leaf water content. This study explores the feasibility of using an advanced THz-QCL device for measuring the absolute leaf water content in Corylus avellana L., Laurus nobilis L., Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Quercus ilex L., Quercus suber L., and Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Sangiovese). A recently proposed, simple spectroscopic technique was used, consisting in determining the transmission of the THz light beam through the leaf combined with a photographic measurement of the leaf area. A significant correlation was found between the product of the leaf optical depth (τ) and the leaf surface area (LA) with the leaf water mass (Mw) for all the studied species (Pearson's r test, p ≤ 0.05). In all cases, the best fit regression line, in the graphs of τLA as a function of Mw, displayed R2 values always greater than 0.85. The method proposed can be combined with water stress indices of plants in order to gain a better understanding of the leaf water management processes or to indirectly monitor the kinetics of leaf invasion by pathogenic bacteria, possibly leading to the development of specific models to study and fight them.

##### Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Secas
8.
RSC Adv ; 9(52): 30269-30276, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530250

##### RESUMO

Dicationic ionic liquids (DILs) are a subclass of the ionic liquid (IL) family and are characterized by two cationic head groups linked by means of a spacer. While DILs are increasingly attracting interest due to their peculiar physico-chemical properties, there is still a lack of understanding of their intermolecular interactions. Herein, we report our investigations on the intermolecular vibrational modes of two bromide DILs and of a bistriflimide DIL. The minimal possible neutral cluster of ions was studied as a simplified model of these systems and was optimized at the DFT level. Normal modes of two sandwich-like conformers were then calculated using the harmonic approximation with analytical computation of the second derivatives of molecular energy with respect to the atomic coordinates. The calculated spectra were compared to far-infrared experimental spectra and two groups of peaks over three, for the two bromide DILs, and three over five, for the Tf2N- DIL, were described by the proposed neutral cluster model. Therefore, this model represents a reliable and computationally affordable model for the exploration of the intermolecular interactions of this kind of system.

9.
Opt Express ; 26(3): 3328-3340, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401862

##### RESUMO

In the present article we numerically investigated the magneto-optical behaviour of a sub-wavelength structure composed by a monolayer graphene and a metallic metasurface of optical resonators. Using this hybrid graphene-metal structure, a large increase of the non-reciprocal polarization rotation of graphene can be achieved over a broad range of terahertz frequencies. We demonstrate that the symmetry of the resonator geometry plays a key role for the performance of the system: in particular, increasing the symmetry of the resonator the non-reciprocal properties can be progressively enhanced. Moreover, the possibility to exploit the metallic metasurface as a voltage gate to vary the graphene Fermi energy allows the system working point to be tuned to the desired frequency range. Another peculiar result is the achievement of a structure able to operate both in transmission and reflection with almost the same performance, but in a different frequency range of operation. The described system is hence a sub-wavelength, tunable, multifunctional, effective non-reciprocal element in the terahertz region.

10.
Opt Express ; 26(3): 3618-3626, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401889

##### RESUMO

The interplay between interference and absorption leads to interesting phenomena like coherent perfect absorption and coherent perfect transparency (CPA and CPT), which can be exploited for fully optical modulation. While it is known that it is possible to harness CPA and CPT for switching a strong signal beam with a weak control beam, it is not immediate that this process suffers from a fundamental compromise between the device efficiency (quantified by device loss and modulation depth) and the asymmetry between signal and control intensity desired for operation. This article quantifies this compromise and outlines a possible way to overcome it by means of a combination of optical gain and loss in the same photonic component. A general formulation and a specific device realization are both discussed.

11.
Plant Methods ; 13: 51, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638439

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant water resource management is one of the main future challenges to fight recent climatic changes. The knowledge of the plant water content could be indispensable for water saving strategies. Terahertz spectroscopic techniques are particularly promising as a non-invasive tool for measuring leaf water content, thanks to the high predominance of the water contribution to the total leaf absorption. Terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz QCL) are one of the most successful sources of THz radiation. RESULTS: Here we present a new method which improves the precision of THz techniques by combining a transmission measurement performed using a THz QCL source, with simple pictures of leaves taken by an optical camera. As a proof of principle, we performed transmission measurements on six plants of Vitis vinifera L. (cv "Colorino"). We found a linear law which relates the leaf water mass to the product between the leaf optical depth in the THz and the projected area. Results are in optimal agreement with the proposed law, which reproduces the experimental data with 95% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: This method may overcome the issues related to intra-variety heterogeneities and retrieve the leaf water mass in a fast, simple, and non-invasive way. In the future this technique could highlight different behaviours in preserving the water status during drought stress.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15763, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643788

##### RESUMO

Saturable absorbers (SA) operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies can open new frontiers in the development of passively mode-locked THz micro-sources. Here we report the fabrication of THz SAs by transfer coating and inkjet printing single and few-layer graphene films prepared by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite. Open-aperture z-scan measurements with a 3.5 THz quantum cascade laser show a transparency modulation â¼80%, almost one order of magnitude larger than that reported to date at THz frequencies. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy provides evidence of intraband-controlled absorption bleaching. These results pave the way to the integration of graphene-based SA with electrically pumped THz semiconductor micro-sources, with prospects for applications where excitation of specific transitions on short time scales is essential, such as time-of-flight tomography, coherent manipulation of quantum systems, time-resolved spectroscopy of gases, complex molecules and cold samples and ultra-high speed communications, providing unprecedented compactness and resolution.

13.
Light Sci Appl ; 6(10): e17054, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167200

##### RESUMO

Resonators and the way they couple to external radiation rely on very different concepts if one considers devices belonging to the photonic and electronic worlds. The terahertz frequency range, however, provides intriguing possibilities for the development of hybrid technologies that merge ideas from both fields in novel functional designs. In this paper, we show that high-quality, subwavelength, whispering-gallery lasers can be combined to form a linear dipole antenna, which creates a very efficient, low-threshold laser emission in a collimated beam pattern. For this purpose, we employ a terahertz quantum-cascade active region patterned into two 19-µm-radius microdisks coupled by a suspended metallic bridge, which simultaneously acts as an inductive antenna and produces the dipole symmetry of the lasing mode. Continuous-wave vertical emission is demonstrated at approximately 3.5 THz in a very regular, low-divergence (±10°) beam, with a high slope efficiency of at least 160 mW A-1 and a mere 6 mA of threshold current, which is ensured by the ultra-small resonator size (VRES/λ3≈10-2). The extremely low power consumption and the superior beam brightness make this concept very promising for the development of miniaturized and portable THz sources to be used in the field for imaging and sensing applications as well as for exploring novel optomechanical intracavity effects.

14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31489, 2016 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27538586

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate the use of a compound optical cavity as linear displacement detector, by measuring the thermal motion of a silicon nitride suspended membrane acting as the external mirror of a near-infrared Littrow laser diode. Fluctuations in the laser optical power induced by the membrane vibrations are collected by a photodiode integrated within the laser, and then measured with a spectrum analyzer. The dynamics of the membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator is investigated as a function of air pressure and actuator displacement in a homodyne configuration. The high Q-factor (~3.4 · 10(4) at 8.3 · 10(-3) mbar) of the fundamental mechanical mode at ~73 kHz guarantees a detection sensitivity high enough for direct measurement of thermal motion at room temperature (~87 pm RMS). The compound cavity system here introduced can be employed as a table-top, cost-effective linear displacement detector for cavity optomechanics. Furthermore, thanks to the strong optical nonlinearities of the laser compound cavity, these systems open new perspectives in the study of non-Markovian quantum properties at the mesoscale.

##### Assuntos
Lasers Semicondutores , Artefatos , Desenho de Equipamento , Modelos Teóricos , Pressão
15.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5688-93, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479039

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate localization and field-effect spatial control of the plasmon resonance in semiconductor nanostructures, using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy in the mid-infrared region. We adopt InAs nanowires embedding a graded doping profile to modulate the free carrier density along the axial direction. Our near-field measurements have a spatial resolution of 20 nm and demonstrate the presence of a local resonant feature whose position can be controlled by a back-gate bias voltage. In the present implementation, field-effect induces a modulation of the free carrier density profile yielding a spatial shift of the plasmon resonance of the order of 100 nm. We discuss the relevance of our electrically tunable nanoplasmonic architectures in view of innovative optoelectronic devices concepts.

16.
Opt Express ; 24(14): 15261-73, 2016 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27410803

##### RESUMO

We investigate the nonlinear transmission of a ~280-layer turbostratic graphene sheet for near-infrared amplifier laser pulses (775 nm, Ti:sapphire laser) with a duration of 150-fs and 20-fs. Saturable absorption is observed in both cases, however it is not very strong, amounting to ~13% transmittance change for the 20-fs (150-fs) pulses at a peak intensity of 30 GW/cm2 (4 GW/cm2). The dependence on incident peak intensity is reproduced well using a theoretical model for the time-dependent saturable absorption, where the excited carriers vacate the photo-excited energy range within 3-5 fs, which we attribute to energy redistribution due to carrier-carrier scattering. This is also supported by spectrally resolved measurements for the 20-fs pulses, which show a marked dependence of the degree of saturation on the photon energy. A key result is that the shorter pulses do not yield a lower saturation fluence, due to the combined effects of the broader excitation bandwidth, and the rapid and broad energy redistribution. We also predict the potential performance of multilayer graphene samples for removing pedestal and pre-pulse structure from ultrafast high-energy pulses.

17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 27046, 2016 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27253609
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24592, 2016 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091489

##### RESUMO

In this article we discuss a model describing key features concerning the lineshapes and the coherent absorption conditions in Fano-resonant dissipative coupled oscillators. The model treats on the same footing the weak and strong coupling regimes, and includes the critical coupling concept, which is of great relevance in numerous applications; in addition, the role of asymmetry is thoroughly analyzed. Due to the wide generality of the model, which can be adapted to various frameworks like nanophotonics, plasmonics, and optomechanics, we envisage that the analytical formulas presented here will be crucial to effectively design devices and to interpret experimental results.

19.
Adv Mater ; 27(37): 5567-72, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270791

##### RESUMO

The first room-temperature terahertz (THz)-frequency nanodetector exploiting a 10 nm thick flake of exfoliated crystalline black phosphorus as an active channel of a field-effect transistor, is devised. By engineering and embedding planar THz antennas for efficient light harvesting, the first technological demonstration of a phosphorus-based active THz device is described.

20.
Opt Express ; 23(9): 11632-40, 2015 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25969255

##### RESUMO

We investigated the room-temperature Terahertz (THz) response as saturable absorber of turbostratic multilayer graphene grown on the carbon-face of silicon carbide. By employing an open-aperture z-scan method and a 2.9 THz quantum cascade laser as source, a 10% enhancement of transparency is observed. The saturation intensity is several W/cm2, mostly attributed to the Pauli blocking effect in the intrinsic graphene layers. A visible increase of the modulation depth as a function of the number of graphene sheets was recorded as consequence of the low nonsaturable losses. The latter in turn revealed that crystalline disorder is the main limitation to larger modulations, demonstrating that the THz nonlinear absorption properties of turbostratic graphene can be engineered via a proper control of the crystalline disorder and the layers number.

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