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1.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8973-8995, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318208

RESUMO

Small molecule JAK inhibitors have emerged as a major therapeutic advancement in treating autoimmune diseases. The discovery of isoform selective JAK inhibitors that traditionally target the catalytically active site of this kinase family has been a formidable challenge. Our strategy to achieve high selectivity for TYK2 relies on targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain. Herein we report the late stage optimization efforts including a structure-guided design and water displacement strategy that led to the discovery of BMS-986165 (11) as a high affinity JH2 ligand and potent allosteric inhibitor of TYK2. In addition to unprecedented JAK isoform and kinome selectivity, 11 shows excellent pharmacokinetic properties with minimal profiling liabilities and is efficacious in several murine models of autoimmune disease. On the basis of these findings, 11 appears differentiated from all other reported JAK inhibitors and has been advanced as the first pseudokinase-directed therapeutic in clinical development as an oral treatment for autoimmune diseases.

2.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8953-8972, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314518

RESUMO

As a member of the Janus (JAK) family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, TYK2 plays an important role in mediating the signaling of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and type 1 interferons. The nicotinamide 4, identified by a SPA-based high-throughput screen targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase domain, potently inhibits IL-23 and IFNα signaling in cellular assays. The described work details the optimization of this poorly selective hit (4) to potent and selective molecules such as 47 and 48. The discoveries described herein were critical to the eventual identification of the clinical TYK2 JH2 inhibitor (see following report in this issue). Compound 48 provided robust inhibition in a mouse IL-12-induced IFNγ pharmacodynamic model as well as efficacy in an IL-23 and IL-12-dependent mouse colitis model. These results demonstrate the ability of TYK2 JH2 domain binders to provide a highly selective alternative to conventional TYK2 orthosteric inhibitors.

3.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(3): 383-388, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891145

RESUMO

In sharp contrast to a previously reported series of 6-anilino imidazopyridazine based Tyk2 JH2 ligands, 6-((2-oxo-N1-substituted-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)amino)imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine analogs were found to display dramatically improved metabolic stability. The N1-substituent on 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine ring can be a variety of alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl groups, but among them, 2-pyridyl provided much enhanced Caco-2 permeability, attributed to its ability to form intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Further structure-activity relationship studies at the C3 position led to the identification of highly potent and selective Tyk2 JH2 inhibitor 6, which proved to be highly effective in inhibiting IFNγ production in a rat pharmacodynamics model and fully efficacious in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.

4.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(2): 143-148, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456803

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of potent, tripeptidic acylsulfonamide inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease that contain a difluoromethyl cyclopropyl amino acid at P1 are described. A cocrystal structure of 18 with a NS3/4A protease complex suggests the presence of a H-bond between the polarized C-H of the CHF2 moiety and the backbone carbonyl of Leu135 of the enzyme. Structure-activity relationship studies indicate that this H-bond enhances enzyme inhibitory potency by 13- and 17-fold compared to the CH3 and CF3 analogues, respectively, providing insight into the deployment of this unique amino acid.

5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(12): 1217-1222, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613329

RESUMO

In solving the P-gp and BCRP transporter-mediated efflux issue in a series of benzofuran-derived pan-genotypic palm site inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS5B replicase, it was found that close attention to physicochemical properties was essential. In these compounds, where both molecular weight (MW >579) and TPSA (>110 Å2) were high, attenuation of polar surface area together with weakening of hydrogen bond acceptor strength of the molecule provided a higher intrinsic membrane permeability and more desirable Caco-2 parameters, as demonstrated by trifluoroacetamide 11 and the benchmark N-ethylamino analog 12. In addition, the tendency of these inhibitors to form intramolecular hydrogen bonds potentially contributes favorably to the improved membrane permeability and absorption. The functional group minimization that resolved the efflux problem simultaneously maintained potent inhibitory activity toward a gt-2 HCV replicon due to a switching of the role of substituents in interacting with the Gln414 binding pocket, as observed in gt-2a NS5B/inhibitor complex cocrystal structures, thus increasing the efficiency of the optimization. Noteworthy, a novel intermolecular S=O···C=O n → π* type interaction between the ligand sulfonamide oxygen atom and the carbonyl moiety of the side chain of Gln414 was observed. The insights from these structure-property studies and crystallography information provided a direction for optimization in a campaign to identify second generation pan-genotypic NS5B inhibitors.

6.
Medchemcomm ; 8(4): 796-806, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108798

RESUMO

The development of a series of novel 7-azabenzofurans exhibiting pan-genotype inhibition of HCV NS5B polymerase via binding to the primer grip site is presented. Many challenges, including poor oral bioavailability, high clearance, bioactivation, high human serum shift, and metabolic stability were encountered and overcome through SAR studies. This work culminated in the selection of BMS-986139 (43) as a preclinical candidate.

7.
J Med Chem ; 59(17): 8042-60, 2016 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27564532

RESUMO

The discovery of a back-up to the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitor asunaprevir (2) is described. The objective of this work was the identification of a drug with antiviral properties and toxicology parameters similar to 2, but with a preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) profile that was predictive of once-daily dosing. Critical to this discovery process was the employment of an ex vivo cardiovascular (CV) model which served to identify compounds that, like 2, were free of the CV liabilities that resulted in the discontinuation of BMS-605339 (1) from clinical trials. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) at each of the structural subsites in 2 were explored with substantial improvement in PK through modifications at the P1 site, while potency gains were found with small, but rationally designed structural changes to P4. Additional modifications at P3 were required to optimize the CV profile, and these combined SARs led to the discovery of BMS-890068 (29).


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Oligopeptídeos/química , Sulfonamidas/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cães , Esquema de Medicação , Farmacorresistência Viral , Hepacivirus/genética , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligopeptídeos/farmacocinética , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Replicon , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
8.
Anal Biochem ; 501: 56-65, 2016 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26874021

RESUMO

Kynurenine aminotransferases convert kynurenine to kynurenic acid and play an important role in the tryptophan degradation pathway. Kynurenic acid levels in brain have been hypothesized to be linked to a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Kynurenine aminotransferase II (KATII) has proven to be a key modulator of kynurenic acid levels in brain and, thus, is an attractive target to treat CNS diseases. A sensitive, high-throughput, label-free RapidFire mass spectrometry assay has been developed for human KATII. Unlike other assays, this method is directly applicable to KATII enzymes from different animal species, which allows us to select proper animal model(s) to evaluate human KATII inhibitors. We also established a coupled fluorescence assay for human KATII. The short assay time and kinetic capability of the fluorescence assay provide a useful tool for orthogonal inhibitor validation and mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Transaminases/antagonistas & inibidores , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Transaminases/metabolismo
9.
J Biol Chem ; 290(17): 11061-74, 2015 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25762719

RESUMO

Inhibition of signal transduction downstream of the IL-23 receptor represents an intriguing approach to the treatment of autoimmunity. Using a chemogenomics approach marrying kinome-wide inhibitory profiles of a compound library with the cellular activity against an IL-23-stimulated transcriptional response in T lymphocytes, a class of inhibitors was identified that bind to and stabilize the pseudokinase domain of the Janus kinase tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), resulting in blockade of receptor-mediated activation of the adjacent catalytic domain. These Tyk2 pseudokinase domain stabilizers were also shown to inhibit Tyk2-dependent signaling through the Type I interferon receptor but not Tyk2-independent signaling and transcriptional cellular assays, including stimulation through the receptors for IL-2 (JAK1- and JAK3-dependent) and thrombopoietin (JAK2-dependent), demonstrating the high functional selectivity of this approach. A crystal structure of the pseudokinase domain liganded with a representative example showed the compound bound to a site analogous to the ATP-binding site in catalytic kinases with features consistent with high ligand selectivity. The results support a model where the pseudokinase domain regulates activation of the catalytic domain by forming receptor-regulated inhibitory interactions. Tyk2 pseudokinase stabilizers, therefore, represent a novel approach to the design of potent and selective agents for the treatment of autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/enzimologia , TYK2 Quinase/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estabilidade Enzimática , Humanos , Janus Quinase 1/genética , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Receptores de Interleucina-2/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética , Receptores de Trombopoetina/metabolismo , TYK2 Quinase/genética
10.
J Med Chem ; 57(5): 1730-52, 2014 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24564672

RESUMO

The discovery of asunaprevir (BMS-650032, 24) is described. This tripeptidic acylsulfonamide inhibitor of the NS3/4A enzyme is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. The discovery of 24 was enabled by employing an isolated rabbit heart model to screen for the cardiovascular (CV) liabilities (changes to HR and SNRT) that were responsible for the discontinuation of an earlier lead from this chemical series, BMS-605339 (1), from clinical trials. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) developed with respect to CV effects established that small structural changes to the P2* subsite of the molecule had a significant impact on the CV profile of a given compound. The antiviral activity, preclincial PK profile, and toxicology studies in rat and dog supported clinical development of BMS-650032 (24).


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/química , Cães , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/sangue , Isoquinolinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteases/sangue , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Coelhos , Ratos , Sulfonamidas/sangue , Sulfonamidas/química
11.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr ; D64(Pt 7): 705-10, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18566506

RESUMO

The crystal structure of unphosphorylated p38alpha MAP kinase complexed with a representative pyrrolotriazine-based inhibitor led to the elucidation of the high-affinity binding mode of this class of compounds at the ATP-binding site. The ligand binds in an extended conformation, with one end interacting with the adenine-pocket hinge region, including a hydrogen bond from the carboxyl O atom of Met109. The other end of the ligand interacts with the hydrophobic pocket of the binding site and with the backbone N atom of Asp168 in the DFG activation loop. Addition of an extended benzylmorpholine group forces the DFG loop to flip out of position and allows the ligand to make additional interactions with the protein.


Assuntos
Anilidas/química , Benzamidas/química , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirróis/química , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica
12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(8): 2739-44, 2008 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18364256

RESUMO

A novel series of compounds based on the pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine ring system have been identified as potent p38 alpha MAP kinase inhibitors. The synthesis, structure-activity relationships (SAR), and in vivo activity of selected analogs from this class of inhibitors are reported. Additional studies based on X-ray co-crystallography have revealed that one of the potent inhibitors from this series binds to the DFG-out conformation of the p38 alpha enzyme.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirróis/química , Triazinas/síntese química , Triazinas/farmacologia , Amidas/química , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazinas/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
13.
J Biol Chem ; 280(12): 11704-12, 2005 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15634672

RESUMO

The protein product of an essential gene of unknown function from Streptococcus pneumoniae was expressed and purified for screening in the ThermoFluor affinity screening assay. This assay can detect ligand binding to proteins of unknown function. The recombinant protein was found to be in a dimeric, native-like folded state and to unfold cooperatively. ThermoFluor was used to screen the protein against a library of 3000 compounds that were specifically selected to provide information about possible biological functions. The results of this screen identified pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate as equilibrium binding ligands (K(d) approximately 50 pM, K(d) approximately 2.5 microM, respectively), consistent with an enzymatic cofactor function. Several nucleotides and nucleotide sugars were also identified as ligands of this protein. Sequence comparison with two enzymes of known structure but relatively low overall sequence homology established that several key residues directly involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding were strictly conserved. Screening a collection of generic drugs and natural products identified the antifungal compound canescin A as an irreversible covalent modifier of the enzyme. Our investigation of this protein indicates that its probable biological role is that of a nucleoside diphospho-keto-sugar aminotransferase, although the preferred keto-sugar substrate remains unknown. These experiments demonstrate the utility of a generic affinity-based ligand binding technology in decrypting possible biological functions of a protein, an approach that is both independent of and complementary to existing genomic and proteomic technologies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Genes Essenciais/fisiologia , Açúcares de Nucleosídeo Difosfato/metabolismo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Transaminases/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Benzopiranos/metabolismo , Dimerização , Furanos/metabolismo , Ligantes , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo , Piridoxamina/metabolismo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/enzimologia
14.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 410(2): 307-16, 2003 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12573291

RESUMO

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE) is the enzyme responsible for beta-site cleavage of APP, leading to the formation of the amyloid-beta peptide that is thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, BACE is an attractive pharmacological target, and numerous research groups have begun searching for potent and selective inhibitors of this enzyme as a potential mechanism for therapeutic intervention in AD. The mature enzyme is composed of a globular catalytic domain that is N-linked glycosylated in mammalian cells, a single transmembrane helix that anchors the enzyme to an intracellular membrane, and a short C-terminal domain that extends outside the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane. Here we have compared the substrate and active site-directed inhibitor binding properties of several recombinant constructs of human BACE. The constructs studied here address the importance of catalytic domain glycosylation state, inclusion of domains other than the catalytic domain, and incorporation into a membrane bilayer on the interactions of the enzyme active site with peptidic ligands. We find no significant differences in ligand binding properties among these various constructs. These data demonstrate that the nonglycosylated, soluble catalytic domain of BACE faithfully reflects the ligand binding properties of the full-length mature enzyme in its natural membrane environment. Thus, the use of the nonglycosylated, soluble catalytic domain of BACE is appropriate for studies aimed at understanding the determinants of ligand recognition by the enzyme active site.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Células CHO , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cricetinae , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Drosophila , Endopeptidases , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Ligantes , Luz , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Espalhamento de Radiação , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Med Chem ; 45(11): 2127-30, 2002 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12014950

RESUMO

Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a key enzyme that is involved in the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides. Novel 2-aminooxazoles were synthesized and tested for inhibition of IMPDH catalytic activity. Multiple analogues based on this chemotype were found to inhibit IMPDH with low nanomolar potency. One of the analogues (compound 23) showed excellent in vivo activity in the inhibition of antibody production in mice and in the adjuvant induced arthritis model in rats.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , IMP Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Morfolinas/síntese química , Ácido Micofenólico/análogos & derivados , Oxazóis/síntese química , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Morfolinas/química , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Oxazóis/química , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 12(9): 1323-6, 2002 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11965381

RESUMO

A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase is described. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are presented.


Assuntos
Diamida/química , Diamida/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , IMP Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Catálise , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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