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1.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 15353702221090181, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473361

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus affecting the world population. Early detection has become one of the most successful strategies to alleviate the epidemic and pandemic of this contagious coronavirus. Surveillance testing programs have been initiated in many countries worldwide to prevent the outbreak of COVID-19. In this study, we demonstrated that our previously established clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas12a-based assay could detect variants of concern during 2021 in Thailand, including Alpha, Beta, and Delta strains as well as Omicron strain in early 2022. In combination with the newly designed saliva collection funnel, we established a safe, simple, economical, and efficient self-collection protocol for the COVID-19 screening process. We successfully utilized the assay in an active case finding with a total number of 578 asymptomatic participants to detect the SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples. We finally demonstrated that the validation and evaluation in a large-scale setting could provide valuable information and elaborate the practicality of the test in real-world settings. Our optimized protocol yielded effective results with high sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy (96.86%). In addition, this study demonstrates COVID-19 active case findings in low-resource settings, which would be feasible and attractive for surveillance and outbreak prevention in the future.

2.
JGH Open ; 6(3): 205-212, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355669

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) leads to multi-organ failure related to high mortality rates. This study aimed to gather epidemiological data and validate a scoring system to predict mortality in ACLF. Methods: This retrospective cohort study collected data from multicenter tertiary care hospitals in Thailand. A total of 638 hospitalized patients (acute decompensated liver disease [ADLD], 292 patients; ACLF, 346 patients) from January 2019 to June 2020 were enrolled in this study. We compared the mortality rate at days 30 and 90 between patients with ADLD and ACLF. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) and other existing scoring systems were compared among patients with ACLF. Results: The incidence of patients with ACLF was 54%. The main cause of chronic liver disease was alcohol (38%), with sepsis (50%) as the most common precipitating factor. ACLF with coagulopathy (AUROC 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.64), metabolic acidosis (AUROC 0.58, 95% CI: 0.52-0.64), and high aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (AUROC 0.59, 95% CI: 0.53-0.66) were associated with high 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality rate of patients with acute decompensation and patients with ACLF was 46 and 58%, respectively. Respiratory system (P = 0.001) failure was the major end result in ACLF and constituted a significant factor to predict mortality. The AUROC of CLIF-SOFA score was superior to that of the other predicted score (AUROC 0.64, 95% CI: 0.585-0.704). Conclusion: Patients with ACLF with more organ failure and high CLIF-SOFA score were associated with high short-term mortality. Future studies should include an ACLF prospective registry to confirm these finding.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4913, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318425

RESUMO

There is an urgent need of non-invasive tests (NITs) for monitoring treatment response and disease progression in chronic liver disease. Liver stiffness (LS) evaluated by transient elastography (TE), shear wave elastography (SWE), and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and serum markers e.g. APRI and FIB-4 scores were assessed at baseline and the 1-year follow-up. In all, 89 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with sustained virological response and 93 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients were included. There was a significantly strong correlation among imaging techniques. Using MRE as the reference standard, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves for TE, SWE, APRI, and FIB-4 in detecting stage1-4 fibrosis were 0.88-0.95, 0.87-0.96, 0.83-0.89, and 0.79-0.92, respectively. In chronic HCV patients, the values of TE, SWE, MRE, APRI and FIB-4 significantly decreased from baseline to the 1-year follow-up. Liver steatosis did not significantly change over time. In NAFLD, compared to obese patients, non-obese patients had less LS and steatosis at baseline, and these values did not show significant changes at the 1-year follow-up. Our study suggests that the current NITs have a good correlation and accuracy in monitoring the treatment outcomes in patients with chronic liver diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 156, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate population-based data are required concerning the rate, economic impact, and long-term outcome from acute on chronic liver failures (ACLF) in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to discover time trends for the epidemiology, economic burden, and mortality of ACLF in Thailand. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, population-based, cohort study which involved all hospitalized patients with cirrhosis in Thailand during the period between 2009 and 2013, with data from the National Health Security Office. ACLF was defined by two or more extrahepatic organ failures in patients with cirrhosis. Primary outcomes were trends in hospitalizations, hospital costs, together with inpatient mortality. RESULTS: The number of ACLF hospitalizations in Thailand doubled between 3185 in 2009 and 7666 in 2013. The average cost of each ACLF hospitalization was 3.5-fold higher than for cirrhosis ($ 1893 versus $ 519). The hospital is paid using a diagnosis-related group (DRG) payment system that is only 15% of the average treatment costs ($ 286 from $ 1893). The in-hospital fatality rate was 51% for ACLF while the additional fatality rate was 85% up to 1 year. The ACLF organ failure trends indicated sepsis with septic shock and renal failure as the majority proportion. Age, the number and types of organ failure and male sex were predictors of ACLF death. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cirrhosis and ACLF both represent substantial and increasing health and economic burdens for Thailand. These data can assist national health care policy stakeholders to target high-risk patients with cirrhosis for care.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Fardo do Cuidador , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Tailândia/epidemiologia
5.
Hepatol Int ; 16(1): 171-182, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is considered a main prognostic event in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We analyzed the 28-day and 90-day mortality in ACLF patients with or without underlying cirrhosis enrolled in the ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database. METHODS: A total of 1,621 patients were prospectively enrolled and 637 (39.3%) of these patients had cirrhosis. Baseline characteristics, complications and mortality were compared between patients with and without cirrhosis. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was more common in cirrhosis than non-cirrhosis (66.4% vs. 44.2%, p < 0.0001), while non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/cryptogenic CLD (10.9% vs 5.8%, p < 0.0001) and chronic HBV reactivation (18.8% vs 11.8%, p < 0.0001) were more common in non-cirrhosis. Only 0.8% of patients underwent liver transplantation. Overall, 28-day and 90-day mortality rates were 39.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis had a greater chance of survival compared to those without cirrhosis both at 28-day (HR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.36-0.63, p < 0.0001) and 90-day (HR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.72, p < 0.0001), respectively. In alcohol CLD, non-cirrhosis patients had a higher 28-day (49.9% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.001) and 90-day (58.4% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001) mortality rate than cirrhosis patients. ACLF patients with cirrhosis had longer mean survival than non-cirrhosis patients (25.5 vs. 18.8 days at 28-day and 65.2 vs. 41.2 days at 90-day). Exaggerated systemic inflammation might be the reason why non-cirrhosis patients had a poorer prognosis than those with cirrhosis after ACLF had occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The 28-day and 90-day mortality rates of ACLF patients without cirrhosis were significantly higher than those with cirrhosis in alcoholic CLD. The presence of cirrhosis and its stage should be evaluated at baseline to guide for management. Thai Clinical Trials Registry, TCTR20191226002.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Prognóstico
6.
Metabolism ; 126: 154911, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) population is non-obese. Prior studies reporting the severity of NAFLD amongst non-obese patients were heterogenous. Our study, using data from the largest biopsy-proven NAFLD international registry within Asia, aims to characterize the demographic, metabolic and histological differences between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients. METHODS: 1812 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients across nine countries in Asia assessed between 2006 and 2019 were pooled into a curated clinical registry. Demographic, metabolic and histological differences between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients were evaluated. The performance of Fibrosis-4 index for liver fibrosis (FIB-4) and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) to identify advanced liver disease across the varying obesity subgroups was compared. A random forest analysis was performed to identify novel predictors of fibrosis and steatohepatitis in non-obese patients. FINDINGS: One-fifth (21.6%) of NAFLD patients were non-obese. Non-obese NAFLD patients had lower proportions of NASH (50.5% vs 56.5%, p = 0.033) and advanced fibrosis (14.0% vs 18.7%, p = 0.033). Metabolic syndrome in non-obese individuals was associated with NASH (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.54, p = 0.047) and advanced fibrosis (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.99-3.54, p = 0.051). FIB-4 performed better than the NFS score (AUROC 81.5% vs 73.7%, p < 0.001) when classifying patients with F2-4 fibrosis amongst non-obese NAFLD patients. Haemoglobin, GGT, waist circumference and cholesterol are additional variables found on random forest analysis useful for identifying non-obese NAFLD patients with advanced liver disease. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of non-obese NAFLD patients has NASH or advanced fibrosis. FIB-4, compared to NFS better identifies non-obese NAFLD patients with advanced liver disease. Serum GGT, cholesterol, haemoglobin and waist circumference, which are neither components of NFS nor FIB-4, are important biomarkers for advanced liver disease in non-obese patients.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Adulto , Ásia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(6): 939-946, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966657

RESUMO

Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new term from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is a positive diagnosis based on histopathology, imaging, or blood biomarkers. MAFLD is one of the common causes of liver dysfunction worldwide, likely due to the increase in metabolic syndrome as well as the high burden of disease and its relationship to other extrahepatic conditions. However, effective pharmacological therapeutic agents are still lacking; current management largely focuses on weight reduction and lifestyle modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the updated evidence of novel therapies targeting different pathogenetic pathways in MAFLD.

8.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the use of EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) of solid liver mass (SLM) for pathology is limited. METHODS: To prove superiority of the diagnostic rate of the newly designed modified Menghini-type needle with a beveled side-slot near the needle tip with slot cutting edge directed 20-gauge antegrade bevel (group A) over the original 22-gauge reverse bevel (group B) for EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) of solid liver mass (SLM) in a prospective crossover randomized controlled trial. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic accuracy rate of the 52 passes was 86.5% (45/52) and of group A versus B were 88.5% (23/26) versus 84.6% (22/26), respectively, p = 0.858. Tissue adequacy levels of both groups were not significantly different (grade A: B: C = 18:6:2 versus 16:7:3), p = 0.839). Grading of blood contamination of both groups was not significantly different. However, it was found that the group-A needles could biopsy tissue of significantly longer length than that of the group B; 1.3 cm (SD = 0.76) versus 0.8 cm (SD = 0.54); p = 0.007. CONCLUSION: The use of EUS-FNB of SLM is highly effective with similar levels of efficacy and number of adverse events between both types of needles. THE TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Thai Clinical Trial Registration No. TCTR2018081002.

9.
Hepatol Int ; 15(6): 1376-1388, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a rapidly progressive illness with high short-term mortality. Timely liver transplant (LT) may improve survival. We evaluated various indices for assessment of the severity of liver failure and their application for eligibility and timing of living donor LT (LDLT). METHODS: Altogether 1021 patients were analyzed for the severity and organ failure at admission to determine transplant eligibility and 28 day survival with or without transplant. RESULTS: The ACLF cohort [mean age 44 ± 12.2 years, males 81%) was of sick patients; 55% willing for LT at admission, though 63% of them were ineligible due to sepsis or organ failure. On day 4, recovery in sepsis and/or organ failure led to an improvement in transplant eligibility from 37% at baseline to 63.7%. Delay in LT up to 7 days led to a higher incidence of multiorgan failure (p < 0.01) contributing to 23% of the first week and 55% of all-cause 28-day mortality. In a matched cohort analysis, the actuarial survival with LT (n = 41) and conditional survival in the absence of transplant (n = 191) were comparable, when the condition, i.e., transplant was adjusted. The comparison curve showed differentiation in survival beyond 7 days (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ACLF is a rapidly progressive disease and risk stratification within the first week of hospitalization is needed. 'Emergent LT' should be defined in the first week in the ACLF patients; the transplant window for improving survival in a live donor setting.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Hepatol Int ; 15(3): 531-567, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240318

RESUMO

Budd Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a diverse disease with regard to the site of obstruction, the predisposing thrombophilic disorders and clinical presentation across the Asia-Pacific region. The hepatic vein ostial stenosis and short segment thrombosis are common in some parts of Asia-Pacific region, while membranous obstruction of the vena cava is common in some and complete thrombosis of hepatic veins in others. Prevalence of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other thrombophilic disorders in BCS varies from region to region and with different sites of obstruction. This heterogeneity also raises several issues and dilemmas in evaluation and approach to management of a patient with BCS. The opportunity to recanalize hepatic vein in patients with hepatic vein ostial stenosis or inferior vena cava stenting or pasty among those membranous obstruction of the vena cava is a unique opportunity in the Asia-Pacific region to restore hepatic outflow closely mimicking physiology. In order to address these issues arising out of the diversity as well as the unique features in the region, the Asia Pacific Association for Study of Liver has formulated these guidelines for clinicians.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Budd-Chiari , Síndrome de Budd-Chiari/terapia , Consenso , Veias Hepáticas , Humanos , Veia Cava Inferior
11.
Hepatol Int ; 15(4): 970-982, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the dynamics of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and ammonia estimation in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients due to a paucity of evidence. METHODS: ACLF patients recruited from the APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) were followed up till 30 days, death or transplantation, whichever earlier. Clinical details, including dynamic grades of HE and laboratory data, including ammonia levels, were serially noted. RESULTS: Of the 3009 ACLF patients, 1315 (43.7%) had HE at presentation; grades I-II in 981 (74.6%) and grades III-IV in 334 (25.4%) patients. The independent predictors of HE at baseline were higher age, systemic inflammatory response, elevated ammonia levels, serum protein, sepsis and MELD score (p < 0.05; each). The progressive course of HE was noted in 10.0% of patients without HE and 8.2% of patients with HE at baseline, respectively. Independent predictors of progressive course of HE were AARC score (≥ 9) and ammonia levels (≥ 85 µmol/L) (p < 0.05; each) at baseline. A final grade of HE was achieved within 7 days in 70% of patients and those with final grades III-IV had the worst survival (8.9%). Ammonia levels were a significant predictor of HE occurrence, higher HE grades and 30-day mortality (p < 0.05; each). The dynamic increase in the ammonia levels over 7 days could predict nonsurvivors and progression of HE (p < 0.05; each). Ammonia, HE grade, SIRS, bilirubin, INR, creatinine, lactate and age were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality in ACLF patients. CONCLUSIONS: HE in ACLF is common and is associated with systemic inflammation, poor liver functions and high disease severity. Ammonia levels are associated with the presence, severity, progression of HE and mortality in ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Encefalopatia Hepática , Amônia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Hepatol Int ; 15(3): 753-765, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple predictive models of mortality exist for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients that often create confusion during decision-making. We studied the natural history and evaluated the performance of prognostic models in ACLF patients. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of ACLF patients from APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) was analyzed for 30-day outcomes. The models evaluated at days 0, 4, and 7 of presentation for 30-day mortality were: AARC (model and score), CLIF-C (ACLF score, and OF score), NACSELD-ACLF (model and binary), SOFA, APACHE-II, MELD, MELD-Lactate, and CTP. Evaluation parameters were discrimination (c-indices), calibration [accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV)], Akaike/Bayesian Information Criteria (AIC/BIC), Nagelkerke-R2, relative prediction errors, and odds ratios. RESULTS: Thirty-day survival of the cohort (n = 2864) was 64.9% and was lowest for final-AARC-grade-III (32.8%) ACLF. Performance parameters of all models were best at day 7 than at day 4 or day 0 (p < 0.05 for C-indices of all models except NACSELD-ACLF). On comparison, day-7 AARC model had the numerically highest c-index 0.872, best accuracy 84.0%, PPV 87.8%, R2 0.609 and lower prediction errors by 10-50%. Day-7 NACSELD-ACLF-binary was the simple model (minimum AIC/BIC 12/17) with the highest odds (8.859) and sensitivity (100%) but with a lower PPV (70%) for mortality. Patients with day-7 AARC score > 12 had the lowest 30-day survival (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: APASL-ACLF is often a progressive disease, and models assessed up to day 7 of presentation reliably predict 30-day mortality. Day-7 AARC model is a statistically robust tool for classifying risk of death and accurately predicting 30-day outcomes with relatively lower prediction errors. Day-7 AARC score > 12 may be used as a futility criterion in APASL-ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , APACHE , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
13.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 135, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been recognised as a significant form of chronic liver disease and a common cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in a considerable financial burden on healthcare resources. Currently, there is no information regarding the economic burden of NASH in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of NASH in Thailand as a lesson learned for LMICs. METHODS: To estimate the healthcare costs and prevalence of NASH with significant fibrosis (fibrosis stage ≥ 2) in the general Thai population, an eleven-state lifetime horizon Markov model with 1-year cycle length was performed. The model comprised Thai population aged 18 years and older. The cohort size was based on Thailand Official Statistic Registration Systems. The incidence of NASH, transitional probabilities, and costs-of-illness were based on previously published literature, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The age-specific prevalence of NASH was based on Thai NASH registry data. Costs were expressed in 2019 US Dollars ($). As we undertook analysis from the payer perspective, only direct medical costs were included. All future costs were discounted at an annual rate of 3%. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: The estimated total number of patients with significant NASH was 2.9 million cases in 2019, based on a NASH prevalence of 5.74%. The total lifetime cost of significant NASH was $15.2 billion ($5,147 per case), representing approximately 3% of the 2019 GDP of Thailand. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the lifetime costs of significant NASH varied from $11.4 billion to $18.2 billion. CONCLUSIONS: The economic burden associated with NASH is substantial in Thailand. This prompts clinicians and policy makers to consider strategies for NASH prevention and management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adolescente , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
14.
Hepatol Int ; 15(2): 258-282, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641080

RESUMO

Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury mimics acute and chronic liver disease. It is under recognized and underrecognised because of the lack of pathognomonic diagnostic serological markers. Its consequences may vary from being asymptomatic to self-limiting illness to severe liver injury leading to acute liver failure. Its incidence is likely to be more common in Asia than other parts of the world, mainly because of hepatotoxicity resulting from the treatment of tuberculosis disease and the ubiquitous use of traditional and complimentary medicines in Asian countries. This APASL consensus guidelines on DILI is a concise account of the various aspects including current evidence-based information on DILI with special emphasis on DILI due to antituberculosis agents and traditional and complementary medicine use in Asia.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ásia/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Hepática Aguda
15.
PeerJ ; 9: e10709, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Replacement of vitamin D (VD) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) before viral eradication has demonstrated a protective effect on serum markers associated with hepatic fibrogenesis. We therefore hypothesized that VD may facilitate further fibrosis amelioration following curative treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between February 2018 and August 2018. Patients with CHC and VD deficiency were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive ergicalciferol or placebo over 6 weeks. Biochemical analysis indicators, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), fibrogenic markers [(transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1)], and fibrolytic markers [matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and amino terminal type III procollagen peptide (P3NP)], were assessed at baseline and at 6 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D was analyzed by a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum hepatic fibrogenesis markers were measured using a quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with CHC and VD deficiency were randomly assigned to VD (n = 37) and placebo (n = 38) groups. At the end of the study, the mean serum 25(OH)D level had risen to a normal level in the VD group, but was still deficient in the placebo group (41.8 ±   9.1 vs. 18.1 ±  4.6 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Upon restoration of the VD level, there were no significant mean differences in the change from baseline for TGF-ß1 (-0.6 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (95% CI) [-2.8-1.7]), p = 0.63), TIMP-1 (-5.5 ng/mL (95% CI [-26.4 -15.3]), p = 0.60), MMP-9 (122.9 ng/mL (95% CI [-69.0 -314.8]), p = 0.21), and P3NP (-0.1 ng/mL (95% CI [-2.4 -2.2]), p = 0.92) between the VD and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Short-term VD supplementation after DAA treatment in patients with CHC does not improve serum fibrogenesis markers and may not expedite the residual liver fibrosis healing process. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term effect of VD supplementation on hepatic fibrosis regression.

16.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 10, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gold standard for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is liver biopsy. Various noninvasive modalities, e.g., ultrasonography, elastography and clinical predictive scores, have been used as alternatives to liver biopsy, with limited performance. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) models have been developed and integrated into noninvasive diagnostic tools to improve their performance. METHODS: We systematically searched for studies on AI-assisted diagnosis of liver fibrosis and NAFLD on MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve was generated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the AI-assisted system. Subgroup analyses by diagnostic modalities, population and AI classifiers were performed. RESULTS: We included 19 studies reporting the performances of AI-assisted ultrasonography, elastrography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical parameters for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and steatosis. For the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and DOR were 0.78 (0.71-0.85), 0.89 (0.81-0.94), 0.72 (0.58-0.83), 0.92 (0.88-0.94) and 31.58 (11.84-84.25), respectively, for cirrhosis; 0.86 (0.80-0.90), 0.87 (0.80-0.92), 0.85 (0.75-0.91), 0.88 (0.82-0.92) and 37.79 (16.01-89.19), respectively; for advanced fibrosis; and 0.86 (0.78-0.92), 0.81 (0.77-0.84), 0.88 (0.80-0.93), 0.77 (0.58-0.89) and 26.79 (14.47-49.62), respectively, for significant fibrosis. Subgroup analyses showed significant differences in performance for the diagnosis of fibrosis among different modalities. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and DOR were 0.97 (0.76-1.00), 0.91 (0.78-0.97), 0.95 (0.87-0.98), 0.93 (0.80-0.98) and 191.52 (38.82-944.81), respectively, for the diagnosis of liver steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: AI-assisted systems have promising potential for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and NAFLD. Validations of their performances are warranted before implementing these AI-assisted systems in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020183295).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Inteligência Artificial , Biópsia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Curva ROC
17.
Surg Endosc ; 35(5): 2119-2125, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) provides both diagnosis and treatment in overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the rebleeding rate after DBE. METHODS: This retrospective review was conducted between January 2006 and July 2018, 166 patients with overt OGIB who underwent DBE were enrolled. Therapeutic intervention was defined as endoscopic treatment, embolization, or surgery. Primary outcome was rebleeding rate after DBE. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on their DBE; (1) positive DBE requiring therapeutic intervention (G1), (2) positive DBE without therapeutic intervention required (G2) and (3) negative DBE (G3). Cumulative incidence of rebleeding was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression was used to assess the association of DBE with rebleeding risk. This study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (41%) were categorized in G1, 34 patients (20%) in G2 and 64 patients (39%) in G3. Overall rebleeding occurred in 24 patients (15%). The cumulative incidence of rebleeding for G1 was the lowest. The 1-year and 2-year cumulative probability of developing rebleeding after DBE in G1 were 3.5% and 3.5%, 8.2% and 14.0% in G2, and 18.2% and 20.6% in G3, respectively (p = 0.02). After adjusting for bleeding severity and comorbidities, patients with positive DBE requiring therapeutic intervention had a significantly lower rate of rebleeding when compared with patients who did not receive intervention (hazard ratio 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.90). CONCLUSION: DBE-guided therapeutic intervention was associated with a lower risk of rebleeding when compared with those with negative and positive DBE without therapeutic intervention. One-fifth of patients with overt OGIB had false negative after DBE.


Assuntos
Enteroscopia de Duplo Balão/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Enteroscopia de Duplo Balão/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 14: 17562848211062807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to rise. Non-invasive diagnostic modalities including ultrasonography and clinical scoring systems have been proposed as alternatives to liver biopsy but with limited performance. Artificial intelligence (AI) is currently being integrated with conventional diagnostic methods in the hopes of performance improvements. We aimed to estimate the performance of AI-assisted systems for diagnosing NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and liver fibrosis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify studies integrating AI in the diagnosis of NAFLD, NASH, and liver fibrosis. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. Meta-analysis of 13 studies showed that AI significantly improved the diagnosis of NAFLD, NASH and liver fibrosis. AI-assisted ultrasonography had excellent performance for diagnosing NAFLD, with a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-0.99), 0.98 (95% CI: 0.89-1.00), 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.00), and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.88-0.98), respectively. The performance of AI-assisted ultrasonography was better than AI-assisted clinical data sets for the identification of NAFLD, which provided a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.82), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.74-0.88), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60-0.86), and 0.82 (0.74-0.87), respectively. The area under the curves were 0.98 and 0.85 for AI-assisted ultrasonography and AI-assisted clinical data sets, respectively. AI-integrated clinical data sets had a pooled sensitivity, specificity of 0.80 (95%CI: 0.75-0.85), 0.69 (95%CI: 0.53-0.82) for identifying NASH, as well as 0.99-1.00 and 0.76-1.00 for diagnosing liver fibrosis stage F1-F4, respectively. CONCLUSION: AI-supported systems provide promising performance improvements for diagnosing NAFLD, NASH, and identifying liver fibrosis among NAFLD patients. Prospective trials with direct comparisons between AI-assisted modalities and conventional methods are warranted before real-world implementation. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42021230391).

19.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 346, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (VD) is important in hepatic fibrogenesis in animal models and human studies. VD deficiency is associated with liver fibrosis progression. Metabolic dysfunction of the liver, as an intermediate organ for VD metabolism, contributes partly to this deficiency. We hypothesized that improving hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients after eradication with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) would increase 25-hydroxyVD [25(OH)VD] levels. METHODS: Eighty CHC patients (17 chronic hepatitis, and 63 cirrhosis) were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, hepatitis C viral load (VL), genotypes, liver enzymes and liver stiffness measurements (LSM) were assessed at baseline. Blood samples for 25(OH)VD and the procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (P3NP) were collected at baseline, 24 and 48 weeks. LSMs were re-evaluated at 48 weeks. Serum 25(OH)VD levels < 30 ng/mL were defined as VD insufficiency/deficiency. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Among 80 patients, the mean age was 57.7 ± 10.5 years, and 52.5% were men. The mean VL was 6.1 ± 0.7 logIU/mL with genotype 1 predominance (55%). All patients achieved sustained virological response. The alanine aminotransferase levels decreased from 79.9 ± 53.3 U/L at baseline to 25.7 ± 17.2 and 22.3 ± 11.0 U/L at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean LSM decreased from 19.2 ± 15.3 to 11.7 ± 8.0 kPa at 48 weeks (p < 0.001). The P3NP levels decreased from 43.6 ± 22.0 ng/mL before treatment to 35.7 ± 21.1 and 29.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively (p < 0.001). The proportions of VD insufficiency/deficiency were 72.5%, 91.3%, and 86.5% at baseline, 24 and 48 weeks, respectively. The 25(OH)VD levels decreased from 26.3 ± 10.7 ng/mL at baseline to 20.8 ± 8.1 and 20.8 ± 8.5 ng/mL at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Curative treatment with DAA attenuated the liver stiffness and inflammation but did not improve VD levels. Over 80% of patients remained VD insufficient/deficient. Whether VD replacement during and after DAA therapy can improve hepatic fibrosis remains unclear. Trial registration The Thai Clinical Trial Registry as TCTR20161025001 (31 October 2016). http://www.clinicaltrials.in.th/index.php?tp=regtrials&menu=trialsearch&smenu=fulltext&task=search&task2=view1&id=2136 .


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Vitamina D
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(33): 4983-4995, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver injury in patients with dengue infection is common. Most patients have mild and transient hepatitis. Acute liver failure (ALF) in dengue infection is rare but results in an extremely poor prognosis. AIM: To identify prognostic predictors of ALF and death in patients with dengue-induced severe hepatitis (DISH). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 2311 serologically confirmed adolescent and adult dengue patients who were hospitalized during a 12-year study period (between 2007 and 2019) at the university hospital of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Patients with DISH [n = 134 (5.80%)], defined as a baseline transaminase > 10 times the normal reference cut-off level, and DISH with subsequent ALF as defined by the American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases 2011 criteria [n = 17 (0.74%)], were included. Predictors of ALF and in-hospital death were identified using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 151 dengue-infected patients with severe liver injury or ALF, 51% were female, with a mean age of 27.9 ± 14.5 years. Capillary leakage syndrome (CLS) occurred in 68.2% (n = 103) of DISH and 100% of ALF patients. The mortality rate was low in DISH patients (0.8%) but was remarkably high if ALF developed (58.8%). In univariate analysis, age, sex, hematocrit, white blood count, atypical lymphocyte count, platelet count, international normalized ratio (INR), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, creatinine, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, presence of liver comorbidity and presence of CLS were identified as potential prognostic parameters for ALF or death. In multivariate analysis, the MELD score remained the only predictor of ALF with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.5; P = < 0.001]. An initial MELD score ≥ 15 was associated with ALF from DISH with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of 0.91, 88.2% sensitivity and 87.3% specificity. Regarding mortality prediction, the deterioration of liver function to ALF was the most significant factor related to death in DISH patients (aOR 108.5, 95%CI: 5.5-2145.4, P = 0.002). Other independent factors associated with death included baseline INR (aOR 10.4, 95%CI: 2.6-40.5, P = 0.001). An INR ≥ 1.5 predicted death from DISH with an AUROC of 0.83 (81.8% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity). CONCLUSION: The MELD score is the best predictor of ALF in DISH patients, a complication from dengue that is associated with high mortality. The presence of ALF and the baseline INR level are independent markers of death in DISH patients.


Assuntos
Dengue , Doença Hepática Terminal , Hepatite , Falência Hepática Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
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