Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53
Filtrar
1.
World J Surg ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) provides surgical care in fragile states, which are more vulnerable to conflict. The primary objective of this study was to compare the indications for operative intervention in surgical projects in fragile states during periods of active conflict (CON) and non-conflict (NON-CON). In addition, risk factors for non-obstetric and obstetric operative mortality were identified. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of MSF surgical projects in fragile states January 1, 2008-December 31, 2017. Variables considered in the analysis include age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiology physical status, emergency status, re-intervention status, indication for surgical intervention, and conflict/non-conflict time period. RESULTS: There were 30 surgical projects in 13 fragile states with 87,968 surgical interventions in 68,667 patients. Obstetric needs were the most common indication for surgical intervention (n = 28,060, 31.9%) but were more common during NON-CON (n = 23,142, 35.7%) compared to CON periods (n = 4,918, 21.2%, p < 0.001). Trauma was more common during CON (42.0%) compared to NON-CON (23.0%) periods (p < 0.001). Non-obstetric operative mortality was similar during CON (0.2%) compared to NON-CON (0.2%, p = 0.920), but obstetric operative mortality was higher (0.5%) during CON compared to NON-CON (0.2%, p < 0.001) periods. Risk factors for obstetric and non-obstetric mortality included age ≥ 30 years, ASA greater than 1, and emergency intervention. CONCLUSION: Humanitarian surgeons working in fragile states should be prepared to treat a range of surgical needs including trauma and obstetrics during conflict and non-conflict periods. The mortality in obstetric patients was higher during conflict periods, and further research to understand ways to protect this vulnerable group is needed.

2.
World J Surg ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Populations at risk during humanitarian crises can suffer traumatic injuries or have medical conditions that result in the need for limb amputation (LA). The objectives of this study were to describe the indications for and associations with LA during and after humanitarian crises in surgical projects supported by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). METHODS: MSF-Operational Center Brussels data from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2017, were analyzed. Surgical projects were classified into (annual) periods of crises and post-crises. Indications were classified into trauma (intentional and unintentional) and non-trauma (medical). Associations with LA were also reported. RESULTS: MSF-OCB performed 936 amputations in 17 countries over the 10-year study period. 706 (75%) patients were male and the median age was 27 years (interquartile range 17-41 years). Six hundred and twenty-one (66%) LA were performed during crisis periods, 501 (53%) during conflict and 119 (13%) post-natural disaster. There were 316 (34%) LA in post-crisis periods. Overall, trauma was the predominant indication (n = 756, 81%) and accounted for significantly more LA (n = 577, 94%) in crisis compared to post-crisis periods (n = 179, 57%) (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Our study suggests that populations at risk for humanitarian crises are still vulnerable to traumatic LA. Appropriate operative and post-operative LA management in the humanitarian setting must be provided, including rehabilitation and options for prosthetic devices.

3.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2020(8): omaa061, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793365

RESUMO

Hippopotamus is one of the most-loved animals in Africa, yet it is aggressive and dangerous. The co-existence of humans in close proximity to their natural habitat increases the probability of human injury. Hippopotamus attacks have long been recognized to cause serious injuries, but its magnitude and burden are still unknown. The medical literature is very scarce when it comes to documenting hippopotamus bite injuries and their outcomes. We present a cohort of 11 patients who suffered hippopotamus bite injuries in Burundi. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series reporting on the clinical presentation, injury patterns and surgical outcomes of hippopotamus bites. The results show a high incidence of wound infections, amputations and permanent disability among other complications. Hippopotamus-inflicted injuries should, therefore, be triaged as major trauma rather than just 'mammalian bites'.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e034891, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent to which different categories of anaesthesia provider are used in humanitarian surgical projects and to explore the volume and nature of their surgical workload. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis using 10 years (2008-2017) of routine case-level data linked with routine programme-level data from surgical projects run exclusively by Médecins Sans Frontières-Operational Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB). SETTING: Projects were in contexts of natural disaster (ND, entire expatriate team deployed by MSF-OCB), active conflict (AC) and stable healthcare gaps (HG). In AC and HG settings, MSF-OCB support pre-existing local facilities. Hospital facilities ranged from basic health centres with surgical capabilities to tertiary referral centres. PARTICIPANTS: The full dataset included 178 814 surgical cases. These were categorised by most senior anaesthetic provider for the project, according to qualification: specialist physician anaesthesiologists, qualified nurse anaesthetists and uncertified anaesthesia providers. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Volume and nature of surgical workload of different anaesthesia providers. RESULTS: Full routine data were available for 173 084 cases (96.8%): 2518 in ND, 42 225 in AC, 126 936 in HG. Anaesthesia was predominantly led by physician anaesthesiologists (100% in ND, 66% in AC and HG), then nurse anaesthetists (19% in AC and HG) or uncertified anaesthesia providers (15% in AC and HG). Across all settings and provider groups, patients were mostly healthy young adults (median age range 24-27 years), with predominantly females in HG contexts, and males in AC contexts. Overall intra-operative mortality was 0.2%. CONCLUSION: Our findings contribute to existing knowledge of the nature of anaesthetic provision in humanitarian settings, while demonstrating the value of high-quality, routine data collection at scale in this sector. Further evaluation of perioperative outcomes associated with different models of humanitarian anaesthetic provision is required.

5.
J Surg Educ ; 77(1): 131-137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: General surgical training in Australia has undergone considerable change in recent years with less exposure to other areas of surgery. General surgeons from many high-income countries have played important roles in assisting with the provision of surgical care in low- and middle-income countries during sudden-onset disasters (SODs) as part of emergency medical teams (EMTs). It is not known if contemporary Australian general surgeons are receiving the broad surgical training required for work in EMTs. DESIGN: Logbook data on the surgical procedures performed by Australian general surgical trainees were obtained from General Surgeons Australia (GSA) for the time period February 2008 to February 2017. Surgical procedures performed by Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) surgeons during 5 projects in 3 SODs (the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the 2013 Philippines typhoon and the 2015 Nepal earthquake) were obtained from previously published data for 6 months following each disaster. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was carried out at the University of Sydney with input from MSF Operational Centre Brussels and GSA. RESULTS: Australian general surgical trainees performed a mean of 2107 surgical procedures (excluding endoscopy) during their training (10 6-month rotations). Common procedures included abdominal wall hernia repairs (268, 12.7%), cholecystectomies (247, 11.8%), and specialist colorectal procedures (242, 11.5%). MSF surgeons performed a total of 3542 surgical procedures across the 5 projects analyzed. Common procedures included Caesarean sections (443, 12.5%), wound debridement (1115, 31.5%), and other trauma-related procedures (472, 13.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Australian general surgical trainees receive exposure to both essential and advanced general surgery but lack exposure to specialty procedures including the obstetric and orthopedic procedures commonly performed by MSF surgeons after SODs. Further training in these areas would likely be beneficial for general surgeons prior to deployment with an EMT.

6.
JAMA Surg ; 155(2): 114-121, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722004

RESUMO

Importance: Armed conflict in the 21st century poses new challenges to a humanitarian surgical response, including changing security requirements, access to patients, and communities in need, limited deployable surgical assets, resource constraints, and the requirement to address both traumatic injuries as well as emergency surgical needs of the population. At the same time, recent improvements in trauma care and systems have reduced injury-related mortality. This combination of new challenges and medical capabilities warrants reconsideration of long-standing humanitarian surgery protocols. Objective: To describe a consensus framework for surgical care designed to respond to this emerging need. Design, Setting, and Participants: An international group of 35 representatives from humanitarian agencies, US military, and academic trauma programs was invited to the Stanford Humanitarian Surgical Response in Conflict Working Group to engage in a structured process to review extant trauma protocols and make recommendations for revision. Main Outcomes and Measures: The working group's method adapted core elements of a modified Delphi process combined with consensus development conference from August 3 to August 5, 2018. Results: Lessons from civilian and military trauma systems as well as recent battlefield experiences in humanitarian settings were integrated into a tiered continuum of response from point of injury through rehabilitation. The framework addresses the security and medical requirements as well as ethical and legal principles that guide humanitarian action. The consensus framework includes trained, lay first responders; far-forward resuscitation/stabilization centers; rapid damage control surgical access; and definitive care facilities. The system also includes nontrauma surgical care, injury prevention, quality improvement, data collection, and predeployment training requirements. Conclusions and Relevance: Evidence suggests that modern trauma systems save lives. However, the requirements of providing this standard of care in insecure conflict settings places new burdens on humanitarian systems that must provide both emergency and trauma surgical care. This consensus framework integrates advances in trauma care and surgical systems in response to a changing security environment. It is possible to reduce disparities and improve the standard of care in these settings.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/organização & administração , Socorro em Desastres/organização & administração , Guerra , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Congressos como Assunto , Consenso , Coleta de Dados , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Técnica Delfos , Emergências , Socorristas/educação , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Socorro em Desastres/normas , Medidas de Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
7.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(10): 2088-2093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839370

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The overwhelming burden of pediatric surgical need in humanitarian settings has prompted mutual interest between humanitarian organizations and pediatric surgeons. To assess adequate fit, we correlated pediatric surgery fellowship case mix and load with acute pediatric surgical relief efforts in conflict and disaster zones. METHODS: We reviewed pediatric (age < 18) cases logged by the Médecins Sans Frontières Operational Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB) from a previously validated and published database spanning 2008-2014 and cases performed by American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) pediatric surgery graduates from 2008 to 2018. Non-operative management for trauma, endoscopic procedures, and basic wound care were excluded as they were not tracked in either dataset. ACGME procedures were classified under 1 of 32 MSF pediatric surgery procedure categories and compared using chi-squared tests. RESULTS: ACGME fellows performed procedures in 44% of tracked MSF-OCB categories. Major MSF-OCB pediatric cases were comprised of 62% general surgery, 23% orthopedic surgery, 9% obstetrical surgery, 3% plastic/reconstructive surgery, 2% urogynecologic surgery, and 1% specialty surgery. In comparison, fellows' cases were 95% general surgery, 0% orthopedic surgery, 0% obstetrical surgery, 5% urogynecologic surgery, and 1% specialty surgery. Fellows more frequently performed abdominal, thoracic, other general surgical, urology/gynecologic, and specialty procedures, but performed fewer wound and burn procedures (all p < 0.05). Fellows received no experience in Cesarean section or open fracture repair. Fellows performed a greater proportion of surgeries for congenital conditions (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: While ACGME pediatric surgical trainees receive significant training in general and urogynecologic surgical techniques, they lack sufficient case load for orthopedic and obstetrical care - a common need among children in humanitarian settings. Trainees and program directors should evaluate the fellow's role and scope in a global surgery rotation or provide advanced preparation to fill these gaps. Upon graduation, pediatric surgeons interested in humanitarian missions should seek out additional orthopedic and obstetrical training, or select missions that do not require such skillsets. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

8.
BMC Emerg Med ; 19(1): 56, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding is an important cause of death in trauma victims. In 2010, the CRASH-2 study, a multicentre randomized control trial on the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration to trauma patients with suspected significant bleeding, reported a decreased mortality in randomized patients compared to placebo. Currently, no evidence on the use of TXA in humanitarian, low-resource settings is available. We aimed to measure the hospital outcomes of adult patients with severe traumatic bleeding in the Médecins Sans Frontières Tabarre Trauma Centre in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, before and after the implementation of a Massive Haemorrhage protocol including systematic early administration of TXA. METHODS: Patients admitted over comparable periods of four months (December2015- March2016 and December2016 - March2017) before and after the implementation of the Massive Haemorrhage protocol were investigated. Included patients had blunt or penetrating trauma, a South Africa Triage Score ≥ 7, were aged 18-65 years and were admitted within 3 h from the traumatic event. Measured outcomes were hospital mortality and early mortality rates, in-hospital time to discharge and time to discharge from intensive care unit. RESULTS: One-hundred and sixteen patients met inclusion criteria. Patients treated after the introduction of the Massive Haemorrhage protocol had about 70% less chance of death during hospitalization compared to the group "before" (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95%confidence interval 0.1-0.8). They also had a significantly shorter hospital length of stay (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing a Massive Haemorrhage protocol including early administration of TXA was associated with the reduced mortality and hospital stay of severe adult blunt and penetrating trauma patients in a context with poor resources and limited availability of blood products.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Triagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
World J Surg ; 43(9): 2123-2130, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of literature describing type of injury and care for females in conflicts. This study aimed to describe the injury pattern and outcome in terms of surgery and mortality for female patients presenting to Médecins Sans Frontières Trauma Centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan, and compare them with males. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively analysed patient data from 17,916 patients treated at the emergency department in Kunduz between January and September 2015, before its destruction by aerial bombing in October the same year. Routinely collected data on patient characteristics, injury patterns, triage category, time to arrival and outcome were retrieved and analysed. Comparative analyses were conducted using logistic regression. RESULTS: Females constituted 23.6% of patients. Burns and back injuries were more common among females (1.4% and 3.3%) than among males (0.6% and 2.0%). In contrast, open wounds and thoracic injuries were more common among males (10.1% and 0.6%) than among females (5.2% and 0.2%). Females were less likely to undergo surgery (OR 0.60, CI 0.528-0.688), and this remained significant after adjustment for age, nature of injury, triage category, multiple injuries and delay to arrival (OR 0.80, CI 0.690-0.926). Females also had lower unadjusted odds of mortality (OR 0.49, CI 0.277-0.874), but this was not significant in the adjusted analysis (OR 0.81, CI 0.446-1.453). CONCLUSION: Our main findings suggest that females seeking care at Kunduz Trauma Centre arrived later, had different injury patterns and were less likely to undergo surgery as compared to males.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Conflitos Armados , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Missões Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delays in arrival and treatment at health facilities lead to negative health outcomes. Individual and external factors could be associated with these delays. This study aimed to assess common factors associated with arrival and treatment delays in the emergency departments (ED) of three hospitals in humanitarian settings. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study based on routine data collected from three MSF-supported hospitals in Afghanistan, Haiti and Sierra Leone. We calculated the proportion of consultations with delay in arrival (>24 hours) and in treatment (based on target time according to triage categories). We used a multinomial logistic regression model (MLR) to analyse the association between age, sex, hospital and diagnosis (trauma and non-trauma) with these delays. RESULTS: We included 95,025 consultations. Males represented 65.2%, Delay in arrival was present in 27.8% of cases and delay in treatment in 27.2%. The MLR showed higher risk of delay in arrival for females (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3), children <5 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.4-1.5), patients attending to Gondama (OR 30.0, 95% CI 25.6-35.3) and non-trauma cases (OR 4.7, 95% CI 4.4-4.8). A higher risk of delay in treatment was observed for females (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1), children <5 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.1), patients attending to Martissant (OR 14.6, 95% CI 13.9-15.4) and non-trauma cases (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Women, children <5 and non-trauma cases suffered most from delays. These delays could relate to educational and cultural barriers, and severity perception of the disease. Treatment delay could be due to insufficient resources with consequent overcrowding, and severity perception from medical staff for non-trauma patients. Extended community outreach, health promotion and support to community health workers could improve emergency care in humanitarian settings.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tratamento de Emergência , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Idoso , Altruísmo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Haiti , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Serra Leoa , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
World J Surg ; 43(4): 973-977, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humanitarian medical organizations provide surgical care for a broad range of conditions including general surgical (GS), obstetric and gynecologic (OBGYN), orthopedic (ORTHO), and urologic (URO) conditions in unstable contexts. The most common humanitarian operation is cesarean section. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of South African general surgeons who had operative experience and current competency in GS, OBGYN, ORTHO, and URO humanitarian operations in order to evaluate their potential for working in humanitarian disasters. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional online survey of South African general surgeons administered from November 2017-July 2018. Rotations in OBGYN, ORTHO, and URO were quantified. Experience and competency in eighteen humanitarian operations were queried. RESULTS: There were 154 SA general surgeon participants. Prior to starting general surgery (GS) residency, 129 (83%) had OBGYN, 125 (81%) ORTHO, and 84 (54%) URO experience. Experience and competency in humanitarian procedures by specialty included: 96% experience and 95% competency for GS, 71% experience and 51% competency for OBGYN, 77% experience and 66% competency for ORTHO, and 86% experience and 81% competency for URO. 82% reported training, and 51% competency in cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: SA general surgeons are potentially well suited for humanitarian surgery. This study has shown that most SA general surgeons received training in OBGYN, ORTHO, and URO prior to residency and many maintain competence in the corresponding humanitarian operations. Other low- to middle-income countries may also have broad-based surgery training, and the potential for their surgeons to offer humanitarian assistance should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Cirurgiões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Ginecologia/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Obstetrícia/educação , Ortopedia/educação , Socorro em Desastres , África do Sul , Urologia/educação
12.
World J Surg ; 42(1): 32-39, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective humanitarian surgeons require skills in general surgery, OB/GYN, orthopedics, and urology. With increasing specialization, it is unclear whether US general surgery residents are receiving exposure to these disparate fields. We sought to assess the preparedness of graduating American surgical residents for humanitarian deployment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed cases performed by American College of Graduate Medical Education general surgery graduates from 2009 to 2015 and cases performed at select Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) facilities from 2008 to 2012. Cases were categorized by specialty (general surgery, orthopedics, OB/GYN, urology) and compared with Chi-squared testing. Non-operative care including basic wound and drain care was excluded from both data sets. RESULTS: US general surgery residents performed 41.3% MSF relevant general surgery cases, 1.9% orthopedic cases, 0.1% OB/GYN cases, and 0.3% urology cases; the remaining 56.4% of cases exceeded the standard MSF scope of care. In comparison, MSF cases were 30.1% general surgery, 21.2% orthopedics, 46.8% OB/GYN, and 1.9% urology. US residents performed fewer OB/GYN cases (p < 0.01) and fewer orthopedic cases (p < 0.01). Differences in general surgery and urology caseloads were not statistically significant. Key procedures in which residents lacked experience included cesarean sections, hysterectomies, and external bony fixation. CONCLUSION: Current US surgical training is poorly aligned with typical MSF surgical caseloads, particularly in OB/GYN and orthopedics. New mechanisms for obtaining relevant surgical skills should be developed to better prepare American surgical trainees interested in humanitarian work.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/normas , Socorro em Desastres , Altruísmo , Instituições de Caridade , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/normas , Humanos , Missões Médicas , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/educação , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/normas , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Especialização , Estados Unidos
13.
Surgery ; 162(2): 366-376, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Armed conflict increasingly involves civilian populations, and health care needs may be immense. We hypothesized that sex disparities may exist among persons receiving operative care in conflict zones and sought to describe predictors of disparity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of operative interventions performed between 2008 and 2014 at Médecins Sans Frontières Operation Center Brussels conflict projects. A Médecins Sans Frontières Operation Center Brussels conflict project was defined as a program established in response to human conflict, war, or social unrest. Intervention- and country-level variables were evaluated. For multivariate analysis, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used with random-effect modeling to account for clustering and population differences in conflict zones. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2014, 49,715 interventions were performed in conflict zones by Médecins Sans Frontières Operation Center Brussels. Median patient age was 24 years (range: 1-105 years), and 34,436 (69%) were men. Patient-level variables associated with decreased interventions on women included: American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = .003), degree of urgency (P = .02), mechanism (P < .0001), and a country's predominant religion (P = .006). Men were 1.7 times more likely to have an operative intervention in a predominantly Muslim country (P = .006). CONCLUSION: Conflict is an unfortunate consequence of humanity in a world with limited resources. For most operative interventions performed in conflict zones, men were more commonly represented. Predominant religion was the greatest predictor of increased disparity between sexes, irrespective of the number of patients presenting as a result of traumatic injury. It is critical to understand what factors may underlie this disparity to ensure equitable and appropriate care for all patients in an already tragic situation.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int Health ; 8(6): 390-397, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma is a leading cause of death and represents a major problem in developing countries where access to good quality emergency care is limited. Médecins Sans Frontières delivered a standard package of care in two trauma emergency departments (EDs) in different violence settings: Kunduz, Afghanistan, and Tabarre, Haiti. This study aims to assess whether this standard package resulted in similar performance in these very different contexts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using routine programme data, comparing patient characteristics and outcomes in two EDs over the course of 2014. RESULTS: 31 158 patients presented to the EDs: 22 076 in Kunduz and 9082 in Tabarre. Patient characteristics, such as delay in presentation (29.6% over 24 h in Kunduz, compared to 8.4% in Tabarre), triage score, and morbidity pattern differed significantly between settings. Nevertheless, both EDs showed an excellent performance, demonstrating low proportions of mortality (0.1% for both settings) and left without being seen (1.3% for both settings), and acceptable triage performance. Physicians' maximum working capacity was exceeded in both centres, and mainly during rush hours. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports for the first time the plausibility of using the same ED package in different settings. Mapping of patient attendance is essential for planning of human resources needs.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , População Urbana , Violência , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Tardio , Emergências , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Médicos , Triagem , Carga de Trabalho , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
15.
Trials ; 17(1): 542, 2016 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27842565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower extremity trauma during earthquakes accounts for the largest burden of disaster-related injuries. Insufficient pain management is common in resource-limited disaster settings, and regional anesthesia (RA) may reduce pain in injured patients beyond current standards of care. To date, no controlled trials have been conducted to evaluate the use of RA for pain management in a disaster setting. METHODS/DESIGN: The Regional Anesthesia for Painful Injuries after Disasters (RAPID) study aims to evaluate whether regional anesthesia (RA), either with or without ultrasound (US) guidance, can reduce pain from earthquake-related lower limb injuries in a disaster setting. The proposed study is a blinded, randomized controlled equivalence trial among earthquake victims with serious lower extremity injuries in a resource-limited setting. After obtaining informed consent, study participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 allocation to either: standard care (parenteral morphine at 0.1 mg/kg); standard care plus a landmark-guided fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB); or standard care plus an US-guided femoral nerve block. General practice humanitarian response providers who have undergone a focused training in RA will perform nerve blocks with 20 ml 0.5 % levobupivacaine. US sham activities will be used in the standard care and FICB arms and a normal saline injection will be given to the control group to blind both participants and nonresearch team providers. The primary outcome measure will be the summed pain intensity difference calculated using a standard 11-point Numerical Rating Scale reported by patients over 24 h of follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will include overall analgesic requirements, adverse events, and participant satisfaction. DISCUSSION: Given the high burden of lower extremity injuries in the aftermath of earthquakes and the currently limited treatment options, research into adjuvant interventions for pain management of these injuries is necessary. While anecdotal reports on the use of RA for patients injured during earthquakes exist, no controlled studies have been undertaken. If demonstrated to be effective in a disaster setting, RA has the potential to significantly assist in reducing both acute suffering and long-term complications for survivors of earthquake trauma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02698228 ), registered on 16 February 2016.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos , Desastres , Traumatismos da Perna/fisiopatologia , Manejo da Dor , Terremotos , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
16.
Int Health ; 8(6): 381-389, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Afghanistan, Médecins Sans Frontières provided specialised trauma care in Kunduz Trauma Centre (KTC), including physiotherapy. In this study, we describe the development of an adapted functional score for patient outcome monitoring, and document the rehabilitation care provided and patient outcomes in relation to this functional score. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study was done, including all patients admitted in the KTC inpatient department (IPD) between January and June 2015. The adapted functional score was collected at four points in time: admission and discharge from both IPD and outpatient department (OPD). RESULTS: Out of the 1528 admitted patients, 92.3% (n = 1410) received at least one physiotherapy session. A total of 1022 patients sustained either lower limb fracture, upper limb fracture, traumatic brain injury or multiple injury. Among them, 966 patients received physiotherapy in IPD, of whom 596 (61.7%) received IPD sessions within 2 days of admission; 696 patients received physiotherapy in OPD. Functional independence increased over time; among patients having a functional score taken at admission and discharge from IPD, 32.2% (172/535) were independent at discharge, and among patients having a functional score at OPD admission and discharge, 79% (75/95) were independent at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of physiotherapy was feasible in this humanitarian setting, and the tailored functional score appeared to be relevant.


Assuntos
Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Altruísmo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Fraturas Ósseas/reabilitação , Cooperação Internacional , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Centros de Traumatologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Anesthesiology ; 125(4): 814-5, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649432
18.
Surgery ; 160(5): 1414-1421, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27407057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On October 3, 2015, a United States airstrike hit Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) Trauma Centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan. Our aim was to describe the care provided and estimate the health burden averted by surgical care at the hospital. We also report the benefit rendered by the Trauma Centre to the health of the local population prior to its destruction. METHODS: All operations performed in an operating theater at the Trauma Centre from its opening on August 30, 2011, to August 31, 2015, were described. Disability-adjusted life years averted by operative care over the same period were estimated. RESULTS: The Trauma Centre performed 13,970 operations, which included 17,928 procedures for 6,685 patients. The median age of patients who required operative intervention was 21 years (interquartile range 12-34 years). More than 85% of patients were men (12,034 patients; 86%). Of the 6,685 patients who required operative care, 4,387 suffered unintentional, non-violence-related injuries (66%), while 2,276 suffered violence-related injuries (34%). The perioperative death rate at the facility decreased from 7.2 deaths per 1,000 operations in 2011 to 1.3 deaths in 2015 (P = .03). More than 154,250 disability-adjusted life years were averted by operative care (95% confidence interval 153,042-155,465). CONCLUSION: The health burden averted by the surgical care provided at the Trauma Centre was large; it is critically felt by those still living in the region. Access to essential trauma care for all victims of armed conflict is a human right; as directed by International Humanitarian Law, we must guarantee special protection for the wounded, sick, and medical personnel and facilities during war.


Assuntos
Missões Médicas/organização & administração , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Anesthesiology ; 124(3): 561-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26881395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthesia is integral to improving surgical care in low-resource settings. Anesthesia providers who work in these areas should be familiar with the particularities associated with providing care in these settings, including the types and outcomes of commonly performed anesthetic procedures. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of anesthetic procedures performed at Médecins Sans Frontières facilities from July 2008 to June 2014. The authors collected data on patient demographics, procedural characteristics, and patient outcome. The factors associated with perioperative mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: Over the 6-yr period, 75,536 anesthetics were provided to adult patients. The most common anesthesia techniques were spinal anesthesia (45.56%) and general anesthesia without intubation (33.85%). Overall perioperative mortality was 0.25%. Emergent procedures (0.41%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.86; 95% CI, 2.14 to 115.58), specialized surgeries (2.74%; AOR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.27 to 11.47), and surgical duration more than 6 h (9.76%; AOR, 4.02; 95% CI, 1.09 to 14.88) were associated with higher odds of mortality than elective surgeries, minor surgeries, and surgical duration less than 1 h, respectively. Compared with general anesthesia with intubation, spinal anesthesia, regional anesthesia, and general anesthesia without intubation were associated with lower perioperative mortality rates of 0.04% (AOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.18), 0.06% (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.92), and 0.14% (AOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.45), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of anesthetics can be carried out safely in resource-limited settings. Providers need to be aware of the potential risks and the outcomes associated with anesthesia administration in these settings.


Assuntos
Anestesia/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Missões Médicas/economia , Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Médicos/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia/métodos , Anestesia/tendências , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Missões Médicas/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Médicos/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA