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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 182: 113119, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004775

RESUMO

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is essential in the optimization of antiretroviral (ARV) treatments. In this work, we describe a new method for the simultaneous quantification of six molecules: the three novel ARV agents dolutegravir (DTG), elvitegravir (ELV) and rilpivirine (RPV), the first integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL) and its major metabolite the raltegravir-ß-d-glucuronide (RAL-GLU), an protease inhibitor darunavir (DRV) and its booster ritonavir (RTV) in human plasma. The drugs were extracted from 100 µL of plasma by a simple method of protein precipitation using acetonitrile. The separation was carried out on a Kinetex phehyl-hexyl column using a phase mobile composed of 55 % of water (0.05 % formic acid,v/v) and 45 % of methanol (0.05 % formic acid,v/v). The flow rate was set at 0.5 mL/min. The calibration ranged from 60 to 15000 ng/mL for DRV, from 20 to 5000 ng/mL for DTG and ELV, from 10 to 2500 ng/mL for RAL, RAL-GLU, RTV and RPV. The proposed method was validated with a good precision (inter- and intra-day CV% inferior to 12.3 %) and a good accuracy (inter- and intra-day bias between -9.9 % and 10 %) for all the analytes. The proposed method is simple, reliable and suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and for pharmacokinetics studies.

2.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 76(1): 61-71, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654149

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a meropenem population pharmacokinetic (PK) model in critically ill children and simulate dosing regimens in order to optimize patient exposure. METHODS: Meropenem plasma concentration was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Meropenem PK was investigated using a non-linear mixed-effect modeling approach. RESULTS: Forty patients with an age of 16.8 (1.4-187.2) months, weight of 9.1 (3.8-59) kg, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 151 (19-440) mL/min/1.73 m2 were included. Eleven patients received continuous replacement renal therapy (CRRT). Concentration-time courses were best described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. Body weight (BW), eGFR, and CRRT were covariates explaining the between-subject variabilities on central/peripheral volume of distribution (V1/V2), inter-compartment clearance (Q), and clearance (CL): V1i = V1pop × (BW/70)1, Qi = Qpop × (BW/70)0.75, V2i = V2pop × (BW/70)1, CLi = (CLpop × (BW/70)0.75) × (eGFR/100)0.378) for patients without CRRT and CLi = (CLpop × (BW/70)0.75) × 0.9 for patients with CRRT, where CLpop, V1pop, Qpop, and V2pop are 6.82 L/h, 40.6 L, 1 L/h, and 9.2 L respectively normalized to a 70-kg subject. Continuous infusion, 60 and 120 mg/kg per day, is the most adequate dosing regimen to attain the target of 50% fT > MIC and 100% fT > MIC for patients infected by bacteria with high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (> 4 mg/L) without risk of accumulation except in children with severe renal failure. CONCLUSION: Continuous infusion allows reaching the fT > MIC targets safely in children with normal or increased renal clearance.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal treatment with lopinavir boosted by ritonavir (LPV/r) is associated with steroidogenic abnormalities. Long-term effects in infants have not been studied. METHODS: Adrenal-hormone profiles were compared at weeks 6 and 26 between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-exposed but uninfected infants randomly assigned at 7 days of life to prophylaxis with LPV/r or lamivudine (3TC) to prevent transmission during breastfeeding. LPV/r in vitro effect on steroidogenesis was assessed in H295R cells. RESULTS: At week 6, 159 frozen plasma samples from Burkina Faso and South Africa were assessed (LPV/r group: n = 92; 3TC group: n = 67) and at week 26, 95 samples from Burkina Faso (LPV/r group: n = 47; 3TC group: n = 48). At week 6, LPV/r-treated infants had a higher median dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level than infants from the 3TC arm: 3.91 versus 1.48 ng/mL (P < .001). Higher DHEA levels (>5 ng/mL) at week 6 were associated with higher 17-OH-pregnenolone (7.78 vs 3.71 ng/mL, P = .0004) and lower testosterone (0.05 vs 1.34 ng/mL, P = .009) levels in LPV/r-exposed children. There was a significant correlation between the DHEA and LPV/r AUC levels (ρ = 0.40, P = .019) and Ctrough (ρ = 0.40, P = .017). At week 26, DHEA levels remained higher in the LPV/r arm: 0.45 versus 0.13 ng/mL (P = .002). Lopinavir, but not ritonavir, inhibited CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activity in H295R cells. CONCLUSIONS: Lopinavir was associated with dose-dependent adrenal dysfunction in infants. The impact of long-term exposure and potential clinical consequences require evaluation.Giving lopinavir to infants during their first year of life induces early, asymptomatic adrenal disruption compatible with the combined inhibition of CYP 21 and CYP 17 enzymes. The impact of prolonged treatment on the adrenal glands may require further attention.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591117

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections are a global burden. Area under the serum concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) ratio is the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter that best predicts vancomycin efficacy. Its therapeutic range is narrow, difficult to achieve because of a wide intersubject variability, especially in children, and is not routinely targeted since the AUC is rarely available. We investigated if an early Bayesian dose adjustment would increase the rate of vancomycin target attainment, in the first 24 hours of treatment (H24), in children.We conducted a single-centre randomized controlled trial in 4 pediatric departments of Necker-Enfants Malades hospital (Paris, France). Patients aged 3 months to 17 years for whom intravenous vancomycin was started were eligible and randomized in a 1:1 ratio: routine care were compared with an early vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (3h after treatment initiation) followed by an early Bayesian dose adjustment using a previously published population-based PK model that included age, bodyweight and serum creatinine as covariates. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients of each group achieving vancomycin therapeutic range at H24, defined by AUC0-24/MIC≥400 and AUC0-24 ≤800mg-h/L.Ninety-nine patients were enrolled: 49 were randomized to the Bayesian group and 50 to the control group. Modified intention-to-treat analysis included 82 patients: 85% of Bayesian group patients achieved H24 vancomycin target versus 57% of control group patients (p=0.007) with no difference regarding iatrogenic events. Early Bayesian dose adjustment increased the proportion of children achieving vancomycin target at H24, which may improve clinical outcomes of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625621

RESUMO

Prednisone is an anti-inflammatory drug widely used in internal medicine and rheumatology, but dosing remains empirical. The active metabolite of prednisone is free prednisolone. The aim of this work was to build a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model that can predict free prednisolone concentrations in patients with inflammatory/immunologic conditions.A total of 107 patients from the department of internal medicine of Cochin hospital provided 343 observations. Blood samples drawn for biological analyses were used for drug determination. Total plasma prednisolone concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the data were modelled using Monolix. The pharmacokinetics was ascribed a one-compartment open model with three transit compartments standing for the absorption and metabolism process. The model used predicts free concentrations that served to derive total concentrations given published binding constants. Only size parameters influenced the pharmacokinetics. Free prednisolone CLU /F and VU /F, scaled allometrically on lean body weight, were, respectively, 26.7 L/h and 94.3 L for 50 kg LBW. CLU /F interindividual variability was 0.20. The additive and proportional residual variabilities were, respectively, 4.3 µg/L and 0.20. The results point out some dosing issues, that is the possibility of under- or over-dosage in thin or overweight patients respectively.

7.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 116: 18-25, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of study characteristics on the score of the pragmatism/explanatory continuum of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in nursing journals using the PRagmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS)-2 tool. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: RCTs concerning five themes of nursing care indexed in the PubMed and CINAHL databases published from 2002 to 2005 and 2012 to 2015 were selected by title/abstract. A sample of 400 was randomly selected and evaluated with the PRECIS-2 tool and reading grid. RESULTS: The median PRECIS score was 32 of a possible 45 [28; 36] corresponding to a medium level of pragmatism. Studies with "medication" as an intervention had a more explanatory PRECIS score than studies with other intervention types (P = 0.015). Studies with "placebo" and "no usual care" as comparators had a more explanatory PRECIS score (P = 0.0027). The pragmatism/explanatory level was unaffected by impact factor (P = 0.42), h-index of the first and last author (P = 0.27 and P = 0.25, respectively), funding (P = 0.32), blinding (P = 0.41), sample size (P = 0.22), and time (P = 0.11). CONCLUSION: This study highlights the pragmatism/explanatory level of nursing RCTs, the impact of the field of the article, and the comparator type on the pragmatism of these studies. Further studies are needed to confirm the astonishing result that blinding resulted in no significant difference in the PRECIS score.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216868, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To access the long term relationship between efavirenz plasma concentrations and evolution of HIV RNA loads and CD4 cell counts in children. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from HIV-infected children on first line efavirenz-containing regimen. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed to describe the evolution of HIV RNA load and CD4 cell count (efficacy outcomes) in relation to efavirenz plasma concentration. Individual CYP2B6 516 G>T genotype data were not available for this analysis. A score (ISEFV) quantifying the effect of efavirenz concentrations on the long-term HIV replication was calculated from efavirenz concentrations and PD parameters and, a value of ISEFV below which HIV replication is likely not suppressed was determined. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of the risk of viral replication with ISEFV, and with efavirenz mid-dose concentration(C12). RESULTS: At treatment initiation, median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 8 years (5 to 10), body weight 17 kg (14 to 23), HIV RNA load 5.1 log10 copies/mL (4.6 to 5.4), and CD4 cell count 71 cells/mm3. A model of PK-PD viral dynamics assuming that efavirenz decreases the rate of infected host cells adequately described the relationship of interest. After adjusting for age, baseline HIV RNA load and CD4 cell counts an ISEFV <85% was significantly associated with a higher risk of viral replication (p-value <0.001) while no significant association was observed with C12 <1.0 mg/L. CONCLUSION: The ISEFV score was a good predictor of viral replication in children on efavirenz-based treatment.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1/fisiologia , Reconstituição Imune , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/farmacocinética , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Replicação Viral/imunologia
10.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 33(6): 670-678, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013357

RESUMO

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug that reduces surgical blood loss and death due to bleeding after trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. One key issue for treatment success is early administration. While usually given intravenously, oral and intramuscular use would be useful in specific circumstances. Therefore, an understanding of TXA pharmacokinetics when given via different routes is valuable. The aim of this study was to perform an individual participant data meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies with TXA given to healthy volunteers via different routes. We searched the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Elsevier Science Direct and J-STAGE. Individual subject data were extracted when available, otherwise arithmetic means were used. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed effect modelling. Seven studies were included in the analysis with data from 10 patients for the IV route, six patients for the IM route and 114 patients for the oral route. The pharmacokinetics was ascribed to a two-compartment model, and the main covariate was allometrically scaled bodyweight. Oral and IM bioavailabilities were 46 and 105%, respectively. For a 70 kg bodyweight, the population estimates were 7.6 L/h for clearance, 17.9 L for the volume of the central compartment, 2.5 L/h for the diffusional clearance and 16.6 L for the peripheral volume of distribution. Larger well-designed studies are needed to describe the pharmacokinetics of TXA when given IM or as an oral solution before these can be recommended as alternatives to IV.

11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(4): 481-486, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir, an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI), is a major antiretroviral agent for HIV infection. Its use is promising, especially in low- and middle-income countries, because of a high resistance barrier and a good safety profile. Very recently, a World Health Organization safety signal has been raised regarding neural tube defects after the first-trimester exposure. Furthermore, to date, the experience is limited regarding the use of the other InSTI drugs (raltegravir and elvitegravir) during pregnancy. Our objective is to analyze the safety of InSTI drugs in pregnant women. SETTING: Nation-wide database cohort analysis. METHODS: We evaluated the risk of major birth defects according to EUROCAT classification in pregnant women, which had had a first-trimester exposure to dolutegravir, raltegravir, or elvitegravir. RESULTS: We found a major birth defect rate of 1.9% in the general population between 2012 and 2016. As InSTI drugs are not used as first-line therapy in pregnant women, we found a very low exposure in this population. Among 49, 240, and 70 pregnancy outcomes exposed to dolutegravir, raltegravir, and elvitegravir, respectively, during the first trimester, there were 2, 3, and 1 major birth defects, respectively. There was no case of neural tube defect. CONCLUSIONS: Drug exposure to InSTI is limited in our nation-wide database. Nevertheless, our data do not support a pharmacovigilance signal on neural tube defects in women exposed to dolutegravir, raltegravir or elvitegravir during pregnancy. Owing to a small number of pregnancy outcomes, these results need to be confirmed with further studies.

12.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(5): 496-504, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug prescriptions are usual during pregnancy, however, women and their fetuses still remain an orphan population with regard to drugs efficacy and safety. Most xenobiotics diffuse through the placenta and some of them can alter fetus development resulting in structural abnormalities, growth or functional deficiencies. METHODS: To summarize the different methodologies developed towards the prediction of fetal drug exposure. RESULTS: Neonatal cord blood concentration is the most specific measurement of the transplacental drug transfer at the end of pregnancy. Using the cord blood and mother drug concentrations altogether, drug exchanges between the mother and fetus can be modeled and quantified via a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Thereafter, it is possible to estimate the fetus exposure and the fetus-to-mother exposure ratio. However, the prediction of placental transfer before any administration to pregnant women is desirable. Animal studies remain difficult to interpret due to structural and functional inter-species placenta differences. The ex-vivo perfusion of the human placental cotyledon is the method of reference to study the human placental transfer of drugs because it is thought to mimic the functional placental tissue. However, extrapolation of data to in vivo situation remains difficult. Some research groups have extensively worked on physiologically based models (PBPK) to predict fetal drug exposure and showed very encouraging results. CONCLUSION: PBPK models appeared to be a very promising tool in order to predict fetal drug exposure in-silico. However, these models mainly picture the end of pregnancy and knowledge regarding both, development of the placental permeability and transporters is strongly needed.

13.
Resuscitation ; 138: 222-232, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early prognostication is a major challenge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). AIMS: We hypothesized that a genome-wide analysis of blood gene expression could offer new prognostic tools and lines of research. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from an ancillary study of the clinical trial NCT00999583 that tested the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) after OHCA. Blood samples were collected in comatose survivors of OHCA at hospital admission and 1 and 3 days after resuscitation. Gene expression profiles were analyzed (Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 BeadChip; >34,000 genes). Patients were classified into two categories representing neurological favorable outcome (cerebral performance category [CPC] = 1-2) vs unfavorable outcome (CPC > 2) at Day 60 after OHCA. Differential and functional enrichment analyses were performed to compare transcriptomic profiles between these two categories. RESULTS: Among the 69 enrolled patients, 33 and 36 patients were treated or not by EPO, respectively. Among them, 42% had a favorable neurological outcome in both groups. EPO did not affect the transcriptomic response at Day-0 and 1 after OHCA. In contrast, 76 transcripts differed at Day-0 between patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. This signature persisted at Day-1 after OHCA. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a down-regulation of adaptive immunity with concomitant up-regulation of innate immunity and inflammation in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. The transcription of many genes of the HLA family was decreased in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. Concomitantly, neutrophil activation and inflammation were observed. Up-stream regulators analysis showed the implication of numerous factors involved in cell cycle and damages. A logistic regression including a set of genes allowed a reliable prediction of the clinical outcomes (specificity = 88%; Hit Rate = 83%). CONCLUSIONS: A transcriptomic signature involving a counterbalance between adaptive and innate immune responses is able to predict neurological outcome very early after hospital admission after OHCA. This deserves confirmation in a larger population.

14.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(5): e4506, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743308

RESUMO

Levofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin are four fluoroquinolones used in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of fluoroquinolones is concentration dependent. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring in daily clinical practice is warranted to ensure the therapy's efficacy and prevent bacterial resistance. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method using high-pressure liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector for simultaneous quantification of these four fluoroquinolones in human plasma. A 50 µL aliquot of plasma was precipitated by 200 µL of methanol using gatifloxacin as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex XB-C18 column using a mobile phase composed of a mixture of orthophosphoric acid 0.4% (v/v), acetonitrile and methanol at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Dual UV wavelength mode was used, with levofloxacin and moxifloxacin monitored at 293 nm, and pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin monitored at 280 nm. The calibration was linear over the ranges of 0.125-25 mg/L for levofloxacin, 0.1-20mg/L for moxifloxacin and 0.05-10 mg/L for both pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Inter- and intra-day trueness and precision were <13% for all the compounds under study. The proposed method was simple, reliable, cost-effective and suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring or pharmacokinetics studies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(3): 246-254, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results of genetic have led to off-label glibenclamide treatment in patients with neonatal diabetes (NDM) because of potassium channel mutations. No pediatric form of glibenclamide was available. Glibenclamide was designated an orphan drug designation for NDM and a suspension was developed. As a part of the pediatric plan investigation, we assessed its acceptability, efficiency, and safety. METHODS: In this Phase II, prospective, non-randomized, single-center study, patient received glibenclamide tablets for 1 month then the suspension for 3 months. We assessed acceptability using hedonic scales and patient questionnaires, effectiveness using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) assays and safety based on hypo and hyperglycemia, and other adverse events. RESULTS: We included 10 patients (0.1-16.2 years, 6 < 5 years) were included. Younger patients preferred the suspension and older the tablets. All parents were satisfied with the ease of suspension administration. The parents of 5 of 6 younger children preferred the suspension over the tablets and kept it. Switching from tablets to suspension did not affect the excellent metabolic control (median HbA1c change, -0.40%, [-1.3% to 0.5%] P = 0.08). Median frequencies of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were less than 5% of routine blood glucose assays and were similar with both dosage forms. Two patients each experienced one episode of hypoglycemia below 35 mg/dL highlighting the need for dosage titration when switching from tablets to suspension. Transient and non-severe abdominal pain or diarrhea occurred in three patients. None of the patients discontinued the treatment. CONCLUSION: The glibenclamide oral suspension Amglidia, the first anti-diabetic drug specifically developed for pediatric patients, is acceptable, effective, and safe in patients with NDM (NCT02375828). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Glibentek in Patients with Neonatal Diabetes Secondary to Mutations in K + -ATP Channels, clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02375828, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02375828.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/congênito , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Glibureto/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glibureto/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Suspensões , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 58(2): 223-233, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill children frequently display observed alterations of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, leading to a reduction in ß-lactam concentrations. This study aimed to develop a PK population model for piperacillin in order to optimize individual dosing regimens. METHODS: All children aged ≤ 18 years, weighing more than 2.5 kg, and receiving piperacillin infusions were included in this study. Piperacillin was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography, and PK were described using the non-linear mixed-effect modeling software MONOLIX. Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize dosing regimens in order to attain two PK targets: 50% fT>MIC and 100% fT>MIC. RESULTS: We included 50 children with a median (range) postnatal age of 2.3 years (0.1-18), body weight (BW) of 11.9 kg (2.7-50), Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 (PELOD-2) severity score of 4 (0-16), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 142 mL.min-1.1.73 m-2 (29-675). A one-compartment model with first-order elimination adequately described the data. Median (range) values for piperacillin clearance (CL) and volume of distribution were 3 L.h-1 (0.71-10) and 0.33 L.kg-1 (0.21-0.86), respectively. BW was integrated with the allometric relationship. eGFR and PELOD-2 severity score were the covariates explaining between-subject variability in CL and volume, respectively. According to the simulations, extended and continuous infusion provided the highest probability of reaching the target of 50% fT>MIC and 100% fT>MIC for normal and augmented renal clearance, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike standard intermittent piperacillin dosing regimens, extended and continuous infusion allows the PK targets to be reached, for children with normal or augmented renal clearance. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02539407).

17.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(2): 362-373, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate whether pre and perinatal education of pregnant women would reduce childhood overweight. METHODS: Four French centers included women at ≤21 gestational weeks (GWs) with body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 before pregnancy. Patients were randomized to a control group (routine care including at least one dietary visit) or an intervention group (2 individuals (26 and 30 GW) and 4 group sessions (21, 28, 35 GW, 2 months postpartum)) aimed at educating the future mother regarding infant and maternal nutrition. The primary objective was to reduce post-natal excessive weight gain in the infant from birth to 2 years (NCT00804765). This project was funded by a grant from the National Programme for Hospital Research (PHRC-2007 French Ministry of Health). RESULTS: We included 275 women (BMI: 32.5 kg/m2). The rate of post-natal excessive weight gain was similar in the intervention (n = 132) and control (n = 136) groups by intention to treat (ITT: 59.1% vs 60.3% respectively, p = 0.84) in available data (AD, n = 206) and by per-protocol analysis (PP, n = 177). Two years after delivery, normalization of maternal BMI and number of infants with BMI < 19 kg/m2 were not significantly different in the interventional group in ITT and in the control group. Although not significantly different in ITT, normalization of maternal BMI was more frequent in AD (n = 149: 12.9% vs 3.8%, p = 0.04) and 2-year-old infant BMIs were less likely to be >19 kg/m2 in the intervention group in AD (n = 204: 0% vs 6.8%, p = 0.014) and PP (n = 176: 0% vs 6.4%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: An education and nutritional counseling program for overweight women, starting after 3 months of gestation, did not significantly change post-natal excessive weight gain of infants or prevent overweight in mothers and children 2 years after delivery.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez , Educação Pré-Natal , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
18.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 59(3): 406-417, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412268

RESUMO

Valproate is an old-generation antiepileptic drug often used in children. The pharmacokinetics of valproate are noteworthy for a large and difficult to predict interindividual variability in measured serum concentrations and for saturable protein binding. A model-based approach to personalize valproate treatment could be relevant in pediatric patients. The aims of this study were to review all published valproate population pharmacokinetic models in children and assess them by external validation to determine their predictive performance. Through simulations with the best model, we evaluated dosing regimen. A validation data set included valproate serum concentrations assayed during routine therapeutic drug monitoring of epileptic children. We applied to our population 11 published pediatric population pharmacokinetic models. For each model, predictive performance was assessed by external validation, using bias and precision calculations as well as goodness-of-fit plots. Dose simulations were conducted with the best predictive model to evaluate dosing regimen. The validation data set contained 178 valproate concentrations ranging from 13.4 to 128 mg/L from 114 patients. The best model exhibited a mean prediction error of 6.6 mg/L and a root mean squared error of 25.1 mg/L, with no model misspecification evidenced by visual predictive check. In our cohort, half the patients had a trough concentration <50 mg/L. Simulations suggested increasing doses, especially for children ≤40 kg. External evaluation of published valproate pharmacokinetic models enabled us to identify a suitable model for simulations and Bayesian forecasting. Dosing regimen should be adjusted to weight, with decreasing doses with increasing weight.

19.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 48(6): 1014-1018, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of clinical response of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to etanercept (ETN) with ETN levels, and the presence of anti-drug antibodies to ETN (ADAb). METHODS: Prospective study of JIA patients under 18 years old. Clinical and pharmacological data were collected at two visits. JIA clinical inactivity and activity were assessed according to the Wallace criteria and to the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS). ETN and ADAb serum levels assessments were determined using ELISA-based assays. RESULTS: 126 patients were enrolled. The median duration of ETN treatment at inclusion was 569 days (range 53-2340). ADAb were undetectable (<10 ng/ml) in 171/218 (78%) samples and were > 25 ng/mL in 2/218 samples. No significant relationship between ETN concentration and the clinical inactivity status and JIA activity was found using either univariate logistic regression or multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted on one individual descriptors, time since diagnosis, time of sampling, use of corticosteroids or methotrexate and classification of JIA. No correlation was found between the remission status and the detection of ADAb. CONCLUSION: This study did not demonstrate any correlation between JIA activity and circulating ETN levels in a large population of patients with JIA previously treated with ETN for at least 1.5 months. As described for adults, our study confirms that ETN is marginally immunogenic in pediatric patients. These results do not support the clinical usefulness of a monitoring of ADAb or ETN concentrations for the management of this group of JIA patients if they fail to achieve clinical inactive disease.

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