Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 204
Filtrar
1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A paucity of research addresses breast cancer screening strategies for women at lower-than-average breast cancer risk. The aim of this study was to examine screening harms and benefits among women aged 50-74 years at lower-than-average breast cancer risk by breast density. METHODS: Three well-established, validated Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Network models were used to estimate the lifetime benefits and harms of different screening scenarios, varying by screening interval (biennial, triennial). Breast cancer deaths averted, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years gained, false-positives, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis were assessed by relative risk (RR) level (0.6, 0.7, 0.85, 1 [average risk]) and breast density category, for US women born in 1970. RESULTS: Screening benefits decreased proportionally with decreasing risk and with lower breast density. False-positives, unnecessary biopsies, and the percentage overdiagnosis also varied substantially by breast density category; false-positives and unnecessary biopsies were highest in the heterogeneously dense category. For women with fatty or scattered fibroglandular breast density and a relative risk of no more than 0.85, the additional deaths averted and life-years gained were small with biennial vs triennial screening. For these groups, undergoing 4 additional screens (screening biennially [13 screens] vs triennially [9 screens]) averted no more than 1 additional breast cancer death and gained no more than 16 life-years and no more than 10 quality-adjusted life-years per 1000 women but resulted in up to 232 more false-positives per 1000 women. CONCLUSION: Triennial screening from age 50 to 74 years may be a reasonable screening strategy for women with lower-than-average breast cancer risk and fatty or scattered fibroglandular breast density.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(3): 655-659, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the most common causes of death and potentially modifiable risk factors in endometrial cancer patients. METHODS: 745 women diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer were enrolled in a population-based study from 1991 to 1994. Participants completed structured interviews about 1 year after diagnosis. Study files were linked with the National Death Index to identify dates and causes of death through 2016. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard rate ratios for cause of death adjusting for age and stage of disease. Hazard ratios were also examined according to comorbidities. RESULTS: Of the 745 women, 450 were deceased after a median of 19.9 years. The two most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease (N = 145, 32%) and any cancer (N = 135, 30%), with only 10% of women dying from endometrial cancer (N = 46). Obesity, diabetes and smoking increased risk of all-cause mortality (HRR 1.77, 95%CI 1.36-2.31; HRR 1.74, 95%CI 1.34-2.27; HRR 1.59, 95%CI 1.16-2.17). Diabetes also increased risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality (HRR 1.98, 95%CI 1.38-3.08), but not endometrial cancer mortality (HRR 0.55, 95%CI 0.21-1.48). Neither obesity nor smoking was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality (HRR 1.46, 95%CI 0.92-2.32; HRR 1.21, 95%CI 0.67-2.18) nor endometrial-cancer specific mortality (HRR 1.81, 95%CI 0.83-3.93; HRR 0.61, 95%CI 0.17-2.15). CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial cancer patients were 3 times more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than endometrial cancer. Obesity, smoking and diabetes increase the risk of death in these patients and are potentially modifiable. Clinical trials should be developed that incorporate counseling regarding these risk factors into survivorship care to determine impact on mortality.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in discriminating indolent from aggressive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We sought to evaluate collagen organization in the DCIS tumor microenvironment in relation to pathologic characteristics and patient outcomes. METHODS: We retrieved fixed tissue specimens for 90 DCIS cases within the population-based Vermont DCIS Cohort. We imaged collagen fibers within 75 µm of the tumor/stromal boundary on hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides using multiphoton microscopy with second-harmonic generation. Automated software quantified collagen fiber length, width, straightness, density, alignment, and angle to the tumor/stroma boundary. Factor analysis identified linear combinations of collagen fiber features representing composite attributes of collagen organization. RESULTS: Multiple collagen features were associated with DCIS grade, necrosis pattern, or periductal fibrosis (P < 0.05). After adjusting for treatments and nuclear grade, risk of recurrence (defined as any second breast cancer diagnosis) was lower among cases with greater collagen fiber width [hazard ratio (HR), 0.57 per one standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.84] and fiber density (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.85), whereas risk was elevated among DCIS cases with higher fiber straightness (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05-2.06) and distance to the nearest two fibers (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.06-2.02). Fiber length, alignment, and fiber angle were not associated with recurrence (P > 0.05). Five composite factors were identified, accounting for 72.4% of the total variability among fibers; three were inversely associated with recurrence (HRs ranging from 0.60 to 0.67; P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple aspects of collagen organization around DCIS lesions are associated with recurrence risk. IMPACT: Collagen organization should be considered in the development of prognostic DCIS biomarker signatures.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the clinical utility of a first-degree breast cancer family history (FH) and polygenic risk score (PRS) to inform screening decisions among women aged 30-50 years. METHOD: Two established breast cancer models evaluated digital mammography screening strategies in the 1985 US birth cohort by risk groups defined by family history and polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313-single nucleotide polymorphism. Strategies varied in initiation age (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) and interval (annual, hybrid, biennial [B], triennial). The benefits, breast cancer deaths averted, life years gained (LYG) and harms, false-positive (FP) mammograms, overdiagnoses, were compared those seen with three established screening guidelines. RESULTS: Women with a breast cancer FH who initiate biennial screening at age 40 years (vs. 50) had a 36% (model range: 29%-40%) increase in LYG and 20% (model range: 16%-24%) more breast cancer deaths averted, but 21% (model range: 17%-23%) more overdiagnoses and 63% (model range: 62%-64%) more false positives. Screening tailored to PRS vs. biennial 50-74 screening had smaller positive effects on LYG (20%) and breast cancer deaths averted (11%) but also smaller increases in overdiagnoses (10%) and false positives (26%). Combined use of FH and PRS vs. B50-74 had the greatest increase in LYG (29%) and breast cancer deaths averted (18%). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that breast cancer family history and polygenic risk could guide screening decisions before age 50 years among women at increased risk for breast cancer, but should consider expected increases in overdiagnoses and false positives.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2048-2056, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity and dense breasts are strong breast cancer risk factors whose prevalences vary by race/ethnicity. The breast cancer population attributable risk proportions (PARP) explained by these factors across racial/ethnic groups are unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data collected from 3,786,802 mammography examinations (1,071,653 women) in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, associated with 21,253 invasive breast cancers during a median of 5.2 years follow-up. HRs for body mass index (BMI) and breast density, adjusted for age and registry were estimated using separate Cox regression models by race/ethnicity (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian) and menopausal status. HRs were combined with observed risk-factor proportions to calculate PARPs for shifting overweight/obese to normal BMI and shifting heterogeneously/extremely dense to scattered fibroglandular densities. RESULTS: The prevalences and HRs for overweight/obesity and heterogeneously/extremely dense breasts varied across races/ethnicities and menopausal status. BMI PARPs were larger for postmenopausal versus premenopausal women (12.0%-28.3% vs. 1.0%-9.9%) and nearly double among postmenopausal Black women (28.3%) than other races/ethnicities (12.0%-15.4%). Breast density PARPs were larger for premenopausal versus postmenopausal women (23.9%-35.0% vs. 13.0%-16.7%) and lower among premenopausal Black women (23.9%) than other races/ethnicities (30.4%-35.0%). Postmenopausal density PARPs were similar across races/ethnicities (13.0%-16.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obesity and dense breasts account for large proportions of breast cancers in White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian women despite large differences in risk-factor distributions. IMPACT: Risk prediction models should consider how race/ethnicity interacts with BMI and breast density. Efforts to reduce BMI could have a large impact on breast cancer risk reduction, particularly among postmenopausal Black women.

7.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(5): 331-341, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveillance with annual mammography and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for female survivors of childhood cancer treated with chest radiation, yet benefits, harms, and costs are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening strategies in childhood cancer survivors. DESIGN: Collaborative simulation modeling using 2 Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network breast cancer models. DATA SOURCES: Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and published data. TARGET POPULATION: Women aged 20 years with a history of chest radiotherapy. TIME HORIZON: Lifetime. PERSPECTIVE: Payer. INTERVENTION: Annual MRI with or without mammography, starting at age 25, 30, or 35 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Breast cancer deaths averted, false-positive screening results, benign biopsy results, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS: Lifetime breast cancer mortality risk without screening was 10% to 11% across models. Compared with no screening, starting at age 25 years, annual mammography with MRI averted the most deaths (56% to 71%) and annual MRI (without mammography) averted 56% to 62%. Both strategies had the most screening tests, false-positive screening results, and benign biopsy results. For an ICER threshold of less than $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, screening beginning at age 30 years was preferred. RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS: Assuming lower screening performance, the benefit of adding mammography to MRI increased in both models, although the conclusions about preferred starting age remained unchanged. LIMITATION: Elevated breast cancer risk was based on survivors diagnosed with childhood cancer between 1970 and 1986. CONCLUSION: Early initiation (at ages 25 to 30 years) of annual breast cancer screening with MRI, with or without mammography, might reduce breast cancer mortality by half or more in survivors of childhood cancer. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: American Cancer Society and National Institutes of Health.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(8): 2628-2636, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and mastectomy have equivalent survival for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), allowing patients to participate in selecting a personalized surgical option; however, this decision-making role can increase patient anxiety. Data evaluating patient satisfaction with their decision to undergo BCS versus mastectomy for the treatment of DCIS are limited. METHODS: Women with DCIS were enrolled in a population-based, state-wide cohort from 1997 to 2006. Participants were surveyed about their satisfaction with their surgical and reconstruction decisions. Quality-of-life (QoL) evaluations were performed with biennial follow-up surveys though 2016. Multivariable logistic regression modeling examined the relationship between type of surgery and reconstruction with patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Overall, 1537 women were surveyed, on average, 2.9 years following DCIS diagnosis. Over 90% reported satisfaction with their treatment decision regardless of surgery type. Women who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction were more likely to report lower levels of satisfaction than women who underwent BCS (odds ratio [OR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-7.51, p < 0.01). However, over 80% of women who underwent mastectomies reported satisfaction with their reconstruction decision. Women without reconstruction had the highest levels of satisfaction, while women with implants were more likely to be dissatisfied (implant + autologous: OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.24-6.24; implant alone: OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.947-8.34, p ≤ 0.01). QoL scores were not associated with differences in surgical or reconstruction satisfaction at 5, 10, and 15 years following DCIS diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Women undergoing surgery for DCIS express satisfaction with their treatment decisions. Following mastectomy, most women are satisfied with their reconstruction decision, including women who did not undergo reconstruction.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(6): 582-589, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is increasingly being used for routine breast cancer screening. We projected the long-term impact and cost-effectiveness of DBT compared to conventional digital mammography (DM) for breast cancer screening in the United States. METHODS: Three Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network breast cancer models simulated US women ages 40 years and older undergoing breast cancer screening with either DBT or DM starting in 2011 and continuing for the lifetime of the cohort. Screening performance estimates were based on observational data; in an alternative scenario, we assumed 4% higher sensitivity for DBT. Analyses used federal payer perspective; costs and utilities were discounted at 3% annually. Outcomes included breast cancer deaths, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), false-positive examinations, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS: Compared to DM, DBT screening resulted in a slight reduction in breast cancer deaths (range across models 0-0.21 per 1000 women), small increase in QALYs (1.97-3.27 per 1000 women), and a 24-28% reduction in false-positive exams (237-268 per 1000 women) relative to DM. ICERs ranged from $195 026 to $270 135 per QALY for DBT relative to DM. When assuming 4% higher DBT sensitivity, ICERs decreased to $130 533-$156 624 per QALY. ICERs were sensitive to DBT costs, decreasing to $78 731 to $168 883 and $52 918 to $118 048 when the additional cost of DBT was reduced to $36 and $26 (from baseline of $56), respectively. CONCLUSION: DBT reduces false-positive exams while achieving similar or slightly improved health benefits. At current reimbursement rates, the additional costs of DBT screening are likely high relative to the benefits gained; however, DBT could be cost-effective at lower screening costs.

11.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(2): 887-895, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Health literacy (HL) and cancer care coordination (CCC) were examined for their relationship to quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors. CCC was hypothesized to have a stronger relationship to QOL for women with lower HL. METHODS: Women (N = 1138) who had completed treatment for Stage 0-III, ductal carcinoma breast cancer between January 2013 and May 2014 at one of eight large medical centers responded to a mailed questionnaire. Responses to questions about survivorship care planning and presence of professional care coordinator were combined to form an index of CCC. An index of HL was also derived. QOL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) scales. RESULTS: 74.3% (N = 845) of patients reported having a health professional coordinate their care during treatment and 78.8% (N = 897) reported receiving survivorship care planning. CCC was classified as none, partial, or high for 7.1%, 32.7%, and 60.2% of the patients, respectively. Except for emotional well-being, the interaction between HL and CCC was significant for all QOL domains (p < .05); the effect of CCC on FACT-B scores was largest for people with lower HL. For the 39.8% of patients with less than high CCC, 111 (27.3%) had a level of HL associated with clinically meaningful lower QOL. CONCLUSIONS: The association between CCC and later QOL is strongest for people who have lower HL. Prioritizing care coordination for patients with lower health literacy may be an effective strategy in a setting of limited resources.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Letramento em Saúde/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobrevivência
12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 96, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long time from exposure to potentially harmful chemicals until breast cancer occurrence poses challenges for designing etiologic studies and for implementing successful prevention programs. Growing evidence from animal and human studies indicates that distinct time periods of heightened susceptibility to endocrine disruptors exist throughout the life course. The influence of environmental chemicals on breast cancer risk may be greater during several windows of susceptibility (WOS) in a woman's life, including prenatal development, puberty, pregnancy, and the menopausal transition. These time windows are considered as specific periods of susceptibility for breast cancer because significant structural and functional changes occur in the mammary gland, as well as alterations in the mammary micro-environment and hormone signaling that may influence risk. Breast cancer research focused on these breast cancer WOS will accelerate understanding of disease etiology and prevention. MAIN TEXT: Despite the plausible heightened mechanistic influences of environmental chemicals on breast cancer risk during time periods of change in the mammary gland's structure and function, most human studies of environmental chemicals are not focused on specific WOS. This article reviews studies conducted over the past few decades that have specifically addressed the effect of environmental chemicals and metals on breast cancer risk during at least one of these WOS. In addition to summarizing the broader evidence-base specific to WOS, we include discussion of the NIH-funded Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (BCERP) which included population-based and basic science research focused on specific WOS to evaluate associations between breast cancer risk and particular classes of endocrine-disrupting chemicals-including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phenols-and metals. We outline ways in which ongoing transdisciplinary BCERP projects incorporate animal research and human epidemiologic studies in close partnership with community organizations and communication scientists to identify research priorities and effectively translate evidence-based findings to the public and policy makers. CONCLUSIONS: An integrative model of breast cancer research is needed to determine the impact and mechanisms of action of endocrine disruptors at different WOS. By focusing on environmental chemical exposure during specific WOS, scientists and their community partners may identify when prevention efforts are likely to be most effective.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Menopausa , Gravidez , Puberdade , Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Breast J ; 25(6): 1241-1244, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270889

RESUMO

We examined factors associated with self-reported use of genetic testing among breast cancer survivors based on a 2015 cross-sectional survey at eight Midwestern sites. Genetic testing was reported in 39% of our 1235 study participants, with higher utilization among those aged <50 and with a triple-negative cancer. Bilateral mastectomy, having relatives with breast cancer, and younger age were associated with increased genetic testing use. Increasing income, in interaction with age, was associated with use of genetic testing among younger but not older patients. Rural residency emerged as a possible barrier for genetic testing among women with triple-negative cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Causalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Estados Unidos
14.
Radiology ; 292(2): 321-328, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184557

RESUMO

Background Risk-based screening in women 40-49 years old has not been evaluated in routine screening mammography practice. Purpose To use a cross-sectional study design to compare the trade-offs of risk-based and age-based screening for women 45 years of age or older to determine short-term outcomes. Materials and Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed by using a database of 20 539 prospectively interpreted consecutive digital screening mammograms in 10 280 average-risk women aged 40-49 years who were screened at an academic medical center between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2013. Two hypothetical screening scenarios were compared: an age-based (≥45 years) scenario versus a risk-based (a 5-year risk of breast cancer greater than that of an average 50-year-old) scenario. Risk factors for risk-based screening included family history, race, age, prior breast biopsy, and breast density. Outcomes included breast cancers detected at mammography, false-positive mammograms, and benign biopsy findings. Short-term outcomes were compared by using the χ2 test. Results The screening population included 71 148 screening mammograms in 24 928 women with a mean age of 55.5 years ± 8.9 (standard deviation) (age range, 40-74 years). In women 40-49 years old, usual care included 50 screening-detected cancers, 1787 false-positive mammograms, and 384 benign biopsy results. The age-based (≥45 years) screening strategy revealed more cancers than did the risk-based strategy (34 [68%] vs 13 [26%] of 50; P < .001), while prompting more false-positive mammograms (899 [50.3%] vs 216 [12.1%] of 1787; P < .001) and benign biopsy results (175 [45.6%] vs 49 [12.8%] of 384; P < .001). The risk-based strategy demonstrated low levels of eligibility (few screenings) in the 40-44-year age group. Differences in outcomes in the 45-49-year age group explained the overall hypothetical screening strategy differences. Conclusion Risk-based screening for women 40-49 years old includes few women in the 40-44-year age range. Significant trade-offs in the 45-49-year age group explain the overall difference between hypothetical screening scenarios, both of which reduce the benefits as well as the harms of mammography for women 40-49 years old. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Joe and Hayward in this issue.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(5): 635-642, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816931

RESUMO

Importance: Breast cancer screening examinations using digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to be associated with decreased false-positive test results and increased breast cancer detection compared with digital mammography (DM). Little is known regarding the size and stage of breast cancer types detected and their association with age and breast density. Objective: To determine whether screening examinations using DBT detect breast cancers that are associated with an improved prognosis and to compare the detection rates by patient age and breast density. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective analysis of prospective cohort data from 3 research centers in the Population-based Research Optimizing Screening Through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium included data of women aged 40 to 74 years who underwent screening examinations using DM and DBT from January 1, 2011, through September 30, 2014. Statistical analysis was performed from November 8, 2017, to August 14, 2018. Exposures: Use of DBT as a supplement to DM at breast cancer screening examination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Recall rate, cancer detection rate, positive predictive value, biopsy rate, and distribution of invasive cancer subtypes. Results: Among 96 269 women (mean [SD] patient age for all examinations, 55.9 [9.0] years), patient age was 56.4 (9.0) years for DM and 54.6 (8.9) years for DBT. Of 180 340 breast cancer screening examinations, 129 369 examinations (71.7%) used DM and 50 971 examinations (28.3%) used DBT. Screening examination with DBT (73 of 99 women [73.7%]) was associated with the detection of smaller, more often node-negative, HER2-negative, invasive cancers compared with DM (276 of 422 women [65.4%]). Screening examination with DBT was also associated with lower recall (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.57-0.72; P < .001) and higher cancer detection (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.89; P = .02) compared with DM for all age groups even when stratified by breast density. The largest increase in cancer detection rate and the greatest shift toward smaller, node-negative invasive cancers detected with DBT was for women aged 40 to 49 years. For women aged 40 to 49 years with nondense breasts, the cancer detection rate for examinations using DBT was 1.70 per 1000 women higher compared with the rate using DM; for women with dense breasts, the cancer detection rate was 2.27 per 1000 women higher for DBT. For these younger women, screening with DBT was associated with only 7 of 28 breast cancers (25.0%) categorized as poor prognosis compared with 19 of 47 breast cancers (40.4%) when screening with DM. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that screening with DBT is associated with increased specificity and an increased proportion of breast cancers detected with better prognosis compared with DM. In the subgroup of women aged 40 to 49 years, routine DBT screening may have a favorable risk-benefit ratio.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 174(1): 227-235, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Long-term disease-free survival patterns following surgical, radiation, and endocrine therapy treatments for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are not well characterized in general US practice. METHODS: We identified 1252 women diagnosed with DCIS in Vermont during 1994-2012 using data from the Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System, a statewide registry of breast imaging and pathology records. Poisson regression and Cox regression with time-varying hazards were used to evaluate disease-free survival among self-selected treatment groups. RESULTS: With 7.8 years median follow-up, 192 cases experienced a second breast cancer diagnosis. For women treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) alone, the annual rate of second events decreased from 3.1% (95% CI 2.2-4.2%) during follow-up years 1-5 to 1.7% (95% CI 0.7-3.5%) after 10 years. In contrast, the annual rate of second events among women treated with BCS plus adjuvant radiation therapy increased from 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.6%) during years 1-5 to 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.7%) after 10 years (P < 0.05 for difference in trend compared to BCS alone). Annual rates of second events also increased over time among women treated with BCS plus adjuvant radiation and endocrine therapy (P = 0.01 for difference in trend compared to BCS alone). The rate of contralateral events increased after 10 years for all groups with adjuvant treatments. The rate of second events did not vary over time among women who underwent ipsilateral mastectomy (P = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term risk of a second event after DCIS varies over time in a manner dependent on initial treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia/métodos , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Vermont
17.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(3): 857-865, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy is the ability to perform basic reading and numerical tasks to function in the healthcare environment. The purpose of this study is to describe how health literacy is related to perceived coordination of care reported by breast cancer patients. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-sponsored "Share Thoughts on Breast Cancer" Study including demographic factors, perceived care coordination and responsiveness of care, and self-reported health literacy obtained from a mailed survey completed by 62% of eligible breast cancer survivors (N = 1221). Multivariable analysis of variance was used to characterize the association between presence of a single healthcare professional that coordinated care ("care coordinator") and perceived care coordination, stratified by health literacy level. RESULTS: Health literacy was classified as low in 24% of patients, medium in 34%, and high in 42%. Women with high health literacy scores were more likely to report non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, private insurance, higher education and income, and fewer comorbidities (all p < 0.001). The presence of a care coordinator was associated with 17.1% higher perceived care coordination scores among women with low health literacy when compared to those without a care coordinator, whereas a coordinator modestly improved perceived care coordination among breast cancer survivors with medium (6.9%) and high (6.2%) health literacy. CONCLUSION: The use of a single designated care coordinator may have a strong influence on care coordination in patients with lower levels of health literacy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Kansas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(3): 647-657, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Higher mortality after a breast cancer diagnosis has been observed among women who are obese. We investigated the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause or breast cancer-specific mortality after a diagnosis of locoregional breast cancer. METHODS: Women diagnosed in 2004 with AJCC Stage I, II, or III breast cancer (n = 5394) were identified from a population-based National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) patterns of care study (POC-BP) drawing from registries in seven U.S. states. Differences in overall and breast cancer-specific mortality were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates, including age- and stage-based subgroup analyses. RESULTS: In women 70 or older, higher BMI was associated with lower overall mortality (HR for a 5 kg/m2 difference in BMI = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.95). There was no significant association between BMI and overall mortality for women under 70. BMI was not associated with breast cancer death in the full sample, but among women with Stage I disease; those in the highest BMI category had significantly higher breast cancer mortality (HR for BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 vs. 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 = 4.74, 95% CI 1.78-12.59). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, greater BMI was not associated with higher overall mortality. Among older women, BMI was inversely related to overall mortality, with a null association among younger women. Higher BMI was associated with breast cancer mortality among women with Stage I disease, but not among women with more advanced disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
19.
J Med Screen ; 25(4): 197-204, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Incidence-based mortality quantifies the distribution of cancer deaths and life-years lost, according to age at detection. We investigated the temporal distribution of the disease burden, and the effect of starting and stopping ages and interval between screening mammography examinations, on incidence-based mortality. METHODS: Incidence-based mortality was estimated using an established breast cancer simulation model, adapted and validated to simulate breast cancer incidence, screening performance, and delivery of therapies in Canada. Ten strategies were examined, with varying starting age (40 or 50), stopping age (69 or 74), and interval (1, 2, 3 years), and "No Screening." Life-years lost were computed as the difference between model predicted time of breast cancer death and that estimated from life tables. RESULTS: Without screening, 70% of the burden in terms of breast cancer deaths extends between ages 45 and 75. The mean of the distribution of ages of detection of breast cancers that will be fatal in an unscreened population is 61.8 years, while the mean age of detection weighted by the number of life-years lost is 55, a downward shift of 6.8 years. Similarly, the mean age of detection for the distribution of life-years gained through screening is lower than that for breast cancer deaths averted. CONCLUSION: Incidence-based mortality predictions from modeling elucidate the age dependence of the breast cancer burden and can provide guidance for optimizing the timing of screening regimens to achieve maximal impact. Of the regimens studied, the greatest lifesaving effect was achieved with annual screening beginning at age 40.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Mamografia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Mortalidade Prematura , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
20.
Mamm Genome ; 29(1-2): 24-37, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487996

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is intimately intertwined with exposure to estrogens. While more than 160 breast cancer risk loci have been identified in humans, genetic interactions with estrogen exposure remain to be established. Strains of rodents exhibit striking differences in their responses to endogenous ovarian estrogens (primarily 17ß-estradiol). Similar genetic variation has been observed for synthetic estrogen agonists (ethinyl estradiol) and environmental chemicals that mimic the actions of estrogens (xenoestrogens). This review of literature highlights the extent of variation in responses to estrogens among strains of rodents and compiles the genetic loci underlying pathogenic effects of excessive estrogen signaling. Genetic linkage studies have identified a total of the 35 quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting responses to 17ß-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol in five different tissues. However, the QTL appear to act in a tissue-specific manner with 9 QTL affecting the incidence or latency of mammary tumors induced by 17ß-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol. Mammary gland development during puberty is also exquisitely sensitive to the actions of endogenous estrogens. Analysis of mammary ductal growth and branching in 43 strains of inbred mice identified 20 QTL. Regions in the human genome orthologous to the mammary development QTL harbor loci associated with breast cancer risk or mammographic density. The data demonstrate extensive genetic variation in regulation of estrogen signaling in rodent mammary tissues that alters susceptibility to tumors. Genetic variants in these pathways may identify a subset of women who are especially sensitive to either endogenous estrogens or environmental xenoestrogens and render them at increased risk of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estrogênios/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estradiol/genética , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...