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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445043

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition. This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60-80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins. A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 µg/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (-3.13 µg/mg (-5.54, -0.71), p-value = 0.016 and -3.03 µg/mg (-5.62, -0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/urina , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Tartaratos/urina , Vinho , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340911

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Quantification of cardiovascular risk has been based on scores such as Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR, SCORE or Life's Simple 7 (LS7). In vitro, animal, and randomized clinical studies have shown that polyphenols may provide benefits to the vascular system and reduce the inflammatory response. However, some clinical-epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results. Our aim was to assess the possible association between intake of the various polyphenol classes and established cardiovascular scores. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 PREDIMED-Plus study participants. Food polyphenol content was estimated by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, adjusted for total energy intake according to the residual method. The association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular risk was tested using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Total polyphenol and flavonoid intake were directly and significantly associated only with the LS7 scale. Intake of lignans was directly and significantly associated with SCORE and LS7 scales, stilbene intake with SCORE, and phenolic acid intake with Framingham and Framingham-REGICOR scores. Other polyphenol classes were associated in a protective and significant manner in Framingham, SCORE and LS7 scores. In women, intake of all the polyphenol classes, except phenolic acids, showed a protective trend in the results of the Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR scores and LS7 scale. CONCLUSIONS: An inverse association was found between consumption of the 'other polyphenols' class and, especially among women, with estimated cardiovascular risk. The results were similar to those of Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR and LS7 (after eliminating the diet component) and differed from those of SCORE, but the predictors included were limited in the latter case.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209273

RESUMO

The menopausal transition can be a challenging period for women's health and a trigger of uncomfortable symptoms. Beer is the main food source of isoxanthohumol, a precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, the strongest phytoestrogen identified to date. As phytoestrogens are reported to reduce perimenopausal symptoms, we evaluated if a daily moderate consumption of beer with (AB) and without alcohol (NAB) could improve menopausal symptoms and modify cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 37 postmenopausal women were enrolled in a parallel controlled intervention trial and assigned to three study groups: 16 were administered AB (330 mL/day), 7 NAB (660 mL/day), and 14 were in the control group. After a 6-month follow-up of the 34 participants who finished the trial, both interventions (AB and NAB) significantly reduced the severity of the menopause-related symptoms (p-value AB vs. Control: 0.009; p-value NAB vs. Control: 0.033). Moreover, AB had a beneficial net effect on psychological menopausal discomforts compared to the control group. As the sex hormone profile did not differ significantly between the study groups, the effects of both types of beers (AB and NAB) are attributed to the non-alcoholic fraction of beer. Furthermore, moderate NAB consumption improved the lipid profile and decreased blood pressure in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Etanol/análise , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Antropometria , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Cromatografia Líquida , Climatério/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Flavanonas/análise , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(17): e2100363, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273124

RESUMO

SCOPE: Plasma fatty acids (FAs) are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study is to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and plasma FAs and their subtypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma FAs are assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of 240 subjects from the PREDIMED-Plus study. Participants are categorized into four groups of fruit, vegetable, and fat intake according to the food frequency questionnaire. Plasma FA analysis is performed using gas chromatography. Associations between FAs and F&V consumption are adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), total energy intake, and alcohol consumption. Plasma saturated FAs are lower in groups with high F&V consumption (-1.20 mg cL-1 [95% CI: [-2.22, -0.18], p-value = 0.021), especially when fat intake is high (-1.74 mg cL-1 [95% CI: [-3.41, -0.06], p-value = 0.042). Total FAs and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs tend to be lower in high consumers of F&V only in the high-fat intake groups. CONCLUSIONS: F&V consumption is associated with lower plasma saturated FAs when fat intake is high. These findings suggest that F&V consumption may have different associations with plasma FAs depending on their subtype and on the extent of fat intake.

5.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(6): 1702-1713, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Total fruit consumption is important for cardiovascular disease prevention, but also the variety and form in which is consumed. The aim of the study was to assess the associations between total fruit, subgroups of fruits based on their color and fruit juices consumption with different cardiometabolic parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 6633 elderly participants (aged 55-75 years) with metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study were included in this analysis. Fruit and fruit juice consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between exposure variables (total fruit, subgroups based on the color, and fruit juices) and different cardiometabolic risk factors. Individuals in the highest category of total fruit consumption (≥3 servings/d) had lower waist circumference (WC) (ß = -1.04 cm; 95%CI:-1.81, -0.26), fasting glucose levels (ß = -2.41 mg/dL; 95%CI(-4.19, -0.63) and LDL-cholesterol (ß = -4.11 mg/dL; 95%CI:-6.93, -1.36), but, unexpectedly, higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (ß = 1.84 mmHg; 95%CI: 0.37, 3.30) and diastolic BP (ß = 1.69 mmHg; 95%CI:0.83, 2.56) when compared to those in the lowest category of consumption (<1 servings/d). Participants consuming ≥1 serving/day of total fruit juice had lower WC (ß = -0.92 cm; 95%CI:-1.56, -0.27) and glucose levels (ß = -1.59 mg/dL; 95%CI:-2.95, -0.23) than those consuming <1 serving/month. The associations with cardiometabolic risk factors differed according to the color of fruits. CONCLUSION: Fruit consumption is associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors in Mediterranean elders with metabolic syndrome. The associations regarding BP levels could be attributed, at least partially, to reverse causality bias inherent to the cross-sectional design of the study.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frutas , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Cor , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Circunferência da Cintura
6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802859

RESUMO

Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent to which high fat intake may contribute to increased carotenoid plasma concentrations is still unclear. The objective was to examine the degree to which the consumption of different amounts of both carotenoid-rich foods and fats is associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations within a Mediterranean lifestyle context (subsample from the PREDIMED-Plus study baseline) where consumption of F&V and fat is high. The study population was categorized into four groups according to their self-reported consumption of F&V and fat. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma samples and analyzed by HPLC-UV-VIS-QqQ-MS/MS. Carotenoid systemic concentrations were greater in high consumers of F&V than in low consumers of these foods (+3.04 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.90, 5.17), p-value = 0.005), but circulating concentrations seemed to decrease when total fat intake was very high (-2.69 µmol/L (-5.54; 0.16), p-value = 0.064). High consumption of F&V is associated with greater systemic levels of total carotenoids, in particular when fat intake is low-to-moderate rather than very high.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567733

RESUMO

There is little information on the dietary modulation of thrombosis-related risk factors such as platelet count. We aimed to assess the effects of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on platelet count and related outcomes in an older population at high cardiovascular risk. In participants of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study, we assessed whether an intervention with a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts, relative to a low-fat control diet, modulated platelet count (n = 4189), the risk of developing thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia (n = 3086), and the association between these alterations and all-cause mortality (median follow-up time: 3.0 years). Although platelet count increased over time (+0.98·109 units/L·year [95% confidence interval: 0.12; 1.84]), MedDiet interventions moderated this increase, particularly in individuals with near-high baseline count (both MedDiets combined: -3.20·109 units/L·year [-5.81; -0.59]). Thrombocytopenia incidence was lower in the MedDiet interventions (incidence rates: 2.23% in control diet, 0.91% in MedDiets combined; hazard ratio: 0.44 [0.23; 0.83]). Finally, thrombocytopenia was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 4.71 [2.69; 8.24]), but this relationship was attenuated in those allocated to MedDiet (p-interaction = 0.018). In brief, MedDiet maintained platelet counts within a healthy range and attenuated platelet-related mortality in older adults at high cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Contagem de Plaquetas , Trombocitopenia/prevenção & controle , Trombocitose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade , Trombocitose/etiologia , Trombocitose/mortalidade
8.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352771

RESUMO

Our aim is to assess whether following a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) decreases the risk of initiating antithrombotic therapies and the cardiovascular risk associated with its use in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We evaluate whether participants of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study allocated to a MedDiet enriched in extra-virgin olive oil or nuts (versus a low-fat control intervention) disclose differences in the risk of initiation of: (1) vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors (acenocumarol/warfarin; n = 6772); (2) acetylsalicylic acid as antiplatelet agent (n = 5662); and (3) other antiplatelet drugs (cilostazol/clopidogrel/dipyridamole/ditazol/ticlopidine/triflusal; n = 6768). We also assess whether MedDiet modifies the association between the antithrombotic drug baseline use and incident cardiovascular events. The MedDiet intervention enriched with extra-virgin olive oil decreased the risk of initiating the use of vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors relative to control diet (HR: 0.68 [0.46-0.998]). Their use was also more strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in participants not allocated to MedDiet interventions (HRcontrol diet: 4.22 [1.92-9.30], HRMedDiets: 1.71 [0.83-3.52], p-interaction = 0.052). In conclusion, in an older population at high cardiovascular risk, following a MedDiet decreases the initiation of antithrombotic therapies and the risk of suffering major cardiovascular events among users of vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nozes , Azeite de Oliva , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971874

RESUMO

Plant-based foods are the main source of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, a large family of compounds with highly diverse chemical structures [...].


Assuntos
Dieta , Promoção da Saúde , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos
10.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(20): e2000350, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918853

RESUMO

SCOPE: To assess whether following a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) improves atherothrombosis biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 358 random volunteers from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial, the 1-year effects on atherothrombosis markers of an intervention with MedDiet, enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet-VOO; n = 120) or nuts (MedDiet-Nuts; n = 119) versus a low-fat control diet (n = 119), and whether large increments in MedDiet adherence (≥3 score points, versus compliance decreases) and intake changes in key food items are associated with 1-year differences in biomarkers. Differences are observed between 1-year changes in the MedDiet-VOO intervention and control diet on the activity of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) (+7.5% [95% confidence interval: 0.17; 14.8]) and HDL-bound α1 -antitrypsin levels (-6.1% [-11.8; -0.29]), and between the MedDiet-Nuts intervention and the control arm on non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (-9.3% [-18.1; -0.53]). Large MedDiet adherence increments are associated with less fibrinogen (-9.5% [-18.3; -0.60]) and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (-16.7% [-31.7; -1.74]). Increases in nut, fruit, vegetable, and fatty fish consumption, and decreases in processed meat intake are linked to enhancements in biomarkers. CONCLUSION: MedDiet improves atherothrombosis biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk individuals.

11.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867219

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that binge drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to non-desirable outcomes, which have become a serious threat to public health. However, the bioactive compounds in some alcohol-containing beverages might mitigate the negative effects of alcohol. In beer, the variety and concentration of bioactive compounds in the non-alcoholic fraction suggests that its consumption at moderate levels may not only be harmless but could also positively contribute to an improvement of certain physiological states and be also useful in the prevention of different chronic diseases. The present review focuses on the effects of non-alcoholic components of beer on abdominal fat, osteoporosis, and body hydration in women, conditions selected for their relevance to health and aging. Although beer drinking is commonly believed to cause abdominal fat deposition, the available literature indicates this outcome is inconsistent in women. Additionally, the non-alcoholic beer fraction might improve bone health in postmenopausal women, and the effects of beer on body hydration, although still unconfirmed seem promising. Most of the health benefits of beer are due to its bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols, which are the most studied. As alcohol-free beer also contains these compounds, it may well offer a healthy alternative to beer consumers.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerveja , Minerais/farmacologia , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerveja/efeitos adversos , Cerveja/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose , Pós-Menopausa , Adulto Jovem
12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987732

RESUMO

(1) Background: Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in adults, but few have provided information about adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urinary total polyphenol excretion (TPE) and CVRFs in adolescents. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 1194 Spanish adolescents from the SI! (Salud Integral) program. TPE in urine samples was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, after solid-phase extraction, and categorized into quartiles. The association between TPE and CVRFs was estimated using mixed-effect linear regression and a structural equation model (SEM). (3) Results: Linear regression showed negative associations among the highest quartile of TPE and body fat percentage (B = -1.75, p-value = <0.001), triglycerides (TG) (B = -17.68, p-value = <0.001), total cholesterol (TC) (B = -8.66, p-value = 0.002), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C) (B = -4.09, p-value = 0.008) in boys, after adjusting for all confounder variables. Negative associations between TPE quartiles and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and TC were also found in girls. Moreover, a structural equation model revealed that TPE was directly associated with body composition and blood glucose and indirectly associated with blood pressure, TG, LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in boys. (4) Conclusions: Higher concentrations of TPE were associated with a better profile of cardiovascular health, especially in boys, while in girls, the association was not as strong.

13.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824177

RESUMO

Dietary phytoestrogens are bioactive compounds with estrogenic activity. With the growing popularity of plant-based diets, the intake of phytoestrogen-rich legumes (especially soy) and legume-derived foods has increased. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests these compounds may have an effect on hormones and health, although the results of human trials are unclear. The effects of dietary phytoestrogens depend on the exposure (phytoestrogen type, matrix, concentration, and bioavailability), ethnicity, hormone levels (related to age, sex, and physiological condition), and health status of the consumer. In this review, we have summarized the results of human studies on dietary phytoestrogens with the aim of assessing the possible hormone-dependent outcomes and health effects of their consumption throughout a lifespan, focusing on pregnancy, childhood, adulthood, and the premenopausal and postmenopausal stages. In pregnant women, an improvement of insulin metabolism has been reported in only one study. Sex hormone alterations have been found in the late stages of childhood, and goitrogenic effects in children with hypothyroidism. In premenopausal and postmenopausal women, the reported impacts on hormones are inconsistent, although beneficial goitrogenic effects and improved glycemic control and cardiovascular risk markers have been described in postmenopausal individuals. In adult men, different authors report goitrogenic effects and a reduction of insulin in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. Further carefully designed studies are warranted to better elucidate the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on the endocrine system at different life stages.


Assuntos
Dieta , Hormônios/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Isoflavonas/efeitos adversos , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fitoestrógenos/efeitos adversos , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Pré-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja , Verduras
14.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143308

RESUMO

Dietary polyphenol intake is associated with improvement of metabolic disturbances. The aims of the present study are to describe dietary polyphenol intake in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to examine the association between polyphenol intake and the components of MetS. This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 men and women included in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea-Plus) study. The polyphenol content of foods was estimated from the Phenol-Explorer 3.6 database. The mean of total polyphenol intake was 846 ± 318 mg/day. Except for stilbenes, women had higher polyphenol intake than men. Total polyphenol intake was higher in older participants (>70 years of age) compared to their younger counterparts. Participants with body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m2 reported lower total polyphenol, flavonoid, and stilbene intake than those with lower BMI. Total polyphenol intake was not associated with a better profile concerning MetS components, except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), although stilbenes, lignans, and other polyphenols showed an inverse association with blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides. A direct association with HDL-c was found for all subclasses except lignans and phenolic acids. To conclude, in participants with MetS, higher intake of several polyphenol subclasses was associated with a better profile of MetS components, especially HDL-c.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(5): 1842-1851, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802495

RESUMO

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a key component of the Mediterranean diet, has aroused interest in recent years due to its health properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an appropriate tool for the accurate quantification of minor compounds in complex food matrices, such as polyphenols in olive oil. Flavonoids, lignans, secoiridoids and phenolic acids and alcohols in EVOO have been identified and quantified by NMR. This review provides an overview of the major developments in the structural elucidation of polyphenol compounds in EVOO. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Polifenóis/química , Flavonoides/química , Iridoides/química , Lignanas/química
18.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717390

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moving towards healthier diets, namely, diets rich in bioactive compounds, could decrease the odds of suffering T2D. However, those individuals with high body mass index (BMI) may have altered absorption or metabolism of some nutrients and dietary components, including polyphenols. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether high intakes of some classes of polyphenols are associated with T2D in a population with metabolic syndrome and how these associations depend on BMI and sex. This baseline cross-sectional analysis includes 6633 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Polyphenol intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Cox regression models with constant time at risk and robust variance estimators were used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for polyphenol intake and T2D prevalence using the lowest quartile as the reference group. Analyses were stratified by sex and BMI groups (overweight and obese) to evaluate potential effect modification. Catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxybenzoic acids, and lignans were inversely associated with T2D. Hydroxycinnamic acids were directly related in men. These associations were different depending on sex and BMI, that is, women and overweight obtained stronger inverse associations.

19.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717653

RESUMO

The role of gut microbiota in human health has been investigated extensively in recent years. The association of dysbiosis, detrimental changes in the colonic population, with several health conditions has led to the development of pro-, pre- and symbiotic foods. If not absorbed in the small intestine or secreted in bile, polyphenols and other food components can reach the large intestine where they are susceptible to modification by the microbial population, resulting in molecules with potentially beneficial health effects. This review provides an overview of studies that have detected and/or quantified microbial phenolic metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography as the separation technique, followed by detection through mass spectrometry. Both in vitro experimental studies and human clinical trials are covered. Although many of the microbial phenolic metabolites (MPM) reported in in vitro studies were identified in human samples, further research is needed to associate them with clinical health outcomes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Polifenóis , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais , Flavonoides , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Estilbenos
20.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561533

RESUMO

Previous studies on the association between dietary habits and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adolescents have generated conflicting results. The aim of this study was to describe dietary patterns (DP) in a large sample of Spanish adolescents and to assess their cross-sectional relationship with CVRF. In total, 1324 adolescents aged 12.5 ± 0.4 years (51.6% boys) from 24 secondary schools completed a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. DPs were derived by cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels were assessed. Linear mixed models were applied to estimate the association between DPs and CVRF. Three DP-related clusters were obtained: Processed (29.2%); Traditional (39.1%); and Healthy (31.7%). Analogous patterns were obtained in the PCA. No overall differences in CVRF were observed between clusters except for z-BMI and z-FMI values, total cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol, with the Processed cluster showing the lowest mean values. However, differences were small. In conclusion, the overall association between DPs, as assessed by two different methods, and most analyzed CVRF was weak and not clinically relevant in a large sample of adolescents. Prospective analysis may help to disentangle the direction of these associations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha/epidemiologia
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