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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715591

RESUMO

Thermally stable organic diradicals with a triplet ground state along with large singlet-triplet energy gap have significant potential for advanced technological applications. A series of phenylene-bridged diradicals with oxoverdazyl and nitronyl nitroxide units were synthesized via a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of the corresponding iodoverdazyls with a nitronyl nitroxide-2-ide gold(I) complex with high yields (up to 82%). The synthesized diradicals exhibit high stability and do not decompose in an inert atmosphere up to 180 °C. The magnetic properties of prepared phenylene-coupled diradicals were investigated and magneto-structural correlations were established. For the studied diradicals, both substantial antiferromagnetic (D E ST ¼ -64 cm -1 ) and ferromagnetic (D E ST ³ 25 and 100 cm -1 ) intramolecular exchange interactions were observed. The sign of the exchange interaction is determined both by the bridging moiety ( para - or meta -phenylene) and by the type of oxoverdazyl block ( C -linked or N -linked). Upon crystallization, diradicals with the triplet ground state form unique one-dimensional exchange-coupled chains with strong intra- and weak inter-diradical ferromagnetic coupling.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(38): 13271-13275, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322814

RESUMO

Precise nanoscale distance measurements by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy play a crucial role in structural studies of biomolecules. The properties of the spin labels used in this approach determine the sensitivity limits, attainable distances, and proximity to biological conditions. Herein, we propose and validate the use of photoexcited fullerenes as spin labels for pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR distance measurements. Hyperpolarization and the narrower spectrum of fullerenes compared to other triplets (e.g., porphyrins) boost the sensitivity, and superior relaxation properties allow PD EPR measurements up to a near-room temperature. This approach is demonstrated using fullerene-nitroxide and fullerene-triarylmethyl pairs, as well as a supramolecular complex of fullerene with nitroxide-labeled protein. Photoexcited triplet fullerenes can be considered as new spin labels with outstanding spectroscopic properties for future structural studies of biomolecules.

3.
J Org Chem ; 84(2): 963-972, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583695

RESUMO

The first example of phenylation of fluorobenzonitriles with the sodium salt of a benzonitrile radical anion in liquid ammonia is presented. The reaction regioselectivity corresponds to the ortho- and para-fluorine atom substitution in fluorobenzonitrile with the phenyl moiety of the benzonitrile radical anion and affords 2- and 4-cyanobiphenyls in 40-90% yields. 3-Methoxybenzonitrile as well as 1-cyanonaphthalene radical anions were also successfully subjected to this interaction forming 3'-methoxycyanobiphenyls and (1-naphthyl)benzonitriles, respectively. The radical anion acts as an ipso-C-nucleophile with consequent loss of the cyano group. The revealed new type of radical anion reactivity opens up the prospect of developing a general approach to fluorinated cyanobisarenes on the basis of an interaction of the cyanoarene radical anion with fluorinated substrates activated to aromatic nucleophilic substitution.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(21): 14740-14752, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774909

RESUMO

Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are important for a variety of applications and designs, and the shapes of GQDs rely on the energy of their boundaries. Presently, many methods have been developed for the preparation of GQDs with the required boundaries, shapes and edge terminations. However, research on the properties of GQDs and their applications is limited due to the unavailability of these compounds in pure form. In the present computational study, the standard enthalpy of formation, the standard enthalpy of formation of edges and the standard enthalpy of hydrogenation are studied for hexagonal GQDs with purely zigzag and armchair edges in non-passivated and H-passivated forms using the semiempirical quantum chemistry method pm7. The standard enthalpy of formation of the edge is found to remain constant for GQDs studied in the range of 1 to 6 nm, and the enthalpies of edge C atoms are 32.4 and 35.5 kcal mol-1 for armchair and zigzag edges, respectively. In contrast to some literature data, the standard enthalpy of formation of hydrogenated edges is far from zero, and the values are 7.3 and 8.0 kcal mol-1 C for armchair and zigzag edges, respectively. The standard enthalpy of hydrogenation is found to be -10.2 and -9.72 eV nm-1 for the armchair and zigzag edges, respectively.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(22): 5587-5592, 2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087205

RESUMO

Molecular magnets Cu(hfac)2LR exhibit an unusual type of photoinduced magnetostructural switching in exchange-coupled copper(II)-nitroxide clusters. Such photoswitching from strongly coupled to weakly coupled spin state (SS → WS) was recently found to be ultrafast, thus enhancing the interest in these systems and the scope of their potential applications. However, to date such SS → WS photoswitching was demonstrated only at cryogenic temperatures, being limited by the absence of suitable SS states and short relaxation times at T > 100 K. In this work we selected model compound Cu(hfac)2Liso-Pr residing in the mixed SS/WS state at room temperature and investigated it using femtosecond optical spectroscopy. Photoinduced spin dynamics was detected, and an ultrafast SS → WS photoswitching was for the first time demonstrated at room temperature, constituting an important milestone in the development of copper(II)-nitroxide molecular magnets for practical purposes.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 46(38): 13108-13117, 2017 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944812

RESUMO

Molecular magnets based on copper(ii) ions and stable nitroxide radicals exhibit promising switchable behavior triggered by a number of external stimuli; however, their spin-state-correlated optical properties vital for photoinduced switching have not been profoundly investigated to date. Herein, the electronic absorption spectra of single crystals of three representatives of this unique family are studied experimentally and theoretically in the visible and near-IR regions. We established that the color of the complexes is mainly determined by optical properties of the nitroxide radicals, whereas the Cu(hfac)2 fragment contributes to the near-IR range with the intensity smaller by an order of magnitude. The thermochromism of these complexes evident upon thermal spin state switching is mainly caused by a spectral shift of the absorption bands of the nitroxides. The vibrational progression observed in the visible range for single crystals as well as for solutions of pure nitroxides is well reproduced by DFT calculations, where the C-C stretching mode governs the observed progression. The analysis of the spectra of single crystals in the near-IR region reveals changes in the energy and in the intensity of the copper(ii) d-d transitions, which are well reproduced by SOC-NEVPT2 calculations and owe to the flip of the Jahn-Teller axis in the coordination environment of copper. Further strategies for designing bidirectional magnetic photoswitches using these appealing compounds are discussed.

7.
J Org Chem ; 82(8): 4179-4185, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358985

RESUMO

A 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-3-oxide-1-oxyl (1) lithium derivative was found to react with perfluorobenzonitrile (2) substituting its para-fluorine atom to form 2-(4-cyanotetrafluorophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-oxide-1-oxyl (3), a new nitronyl nitroxide containing a multifunctional framework of strong electron-withdrawing nature. This result shows the possibility of obtaining multifunctional nitronyl nitroxides via the interaction of paramagnetic lithium derivatives as C-nucleophiles with polyfluoroarenes activated for nucleophilic substitution. The reaction regioselectivity is supported by the data of quantum-chemical calculations, which also show that the reaction follows a concerted pathway without formation of an intermediate. Reduction of nitronyl nitroxide 3 in system NaNO2-AcOH yielded corresponding iminonitroxide 4. Characterization of persistent radicals 3 and 4 obtained by the SNF synthetic strategy includes X-ray crystal structures, electron spin resonance data, and static magnetic-susceptibility measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis of both nitronyl nitroxide and iminonitroxide revealed a complete match of the parameters of their crystal lattices.

8.
Chemistry ; 22(41): 14598-604, 2016 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27539325

RESUMO

It was shown that dipole-stabilized paramagnetic carbanion lithiated 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-oxyl 3-oxide can be attached in a nucleophilic manner to either isolated or conjugated aldonitrones of the 2,5-dihydroimidazole 3-oxide and 2H-imidazole 1-oxide series to afford adducts the subsequent oxidation of which leads to polyfunctional mono- and diradicals. According to XRD, at least two polymorphic modifications can be formed during crystallization of the resulting paramagnetic compounds, and for each of them, geometric parameters of the molecules are similar. An EPR spectrum of the diradical in frozen toluene has a complicated lineshape, which can be fairly well reproduced by using X-ray diffraction structural analysis and the following set of parameters: D=14.9 mT, E=1.7 mT; tensor a((14) N)=[0.260 0.260 1.625] mT, two equivalent tensors for the nitronyl nitroxide moiety a((14) N)=[0.198 0.198 0.700] mT, and g≈2.007. According to our DFT and ab initio calculations, the intramolecular exchange in the diradical is very weak and most likely ferromagnetic.

9.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 12: 1577-84, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559409

RESUMO

A convenient one-pot approach to alkylcyanobiaryls is described. The method is based on biaryl cross-coupling between the sodium salt of the terephthalonitrile dianion and a neutral aromatic nitrile in liquid ammonia, and successive alkylation of the long-lived anionic intermediate with alkyl bromides. The reaction is compatible with benzonitriles that contain methyl, methoxy and phenyl groups, fluorine atoms, and a 1-cyanonaphthalene residue. The variety of ω-substituted alkyl bromides, including an extra bromine atom, a double bond, cyano and ester groups, as well as a 1,3-dioxane fragment are suitable as alkylation reagents.

10.
Polym Chem ; 7(42): 6490-6499, 2016 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989533

RESUMO

Recently, new applications of trityl-nitroxide biradicals were proposed. In the present study, attachment of a trityl radical to alkoxyamines was performed for the first time. The rate constants kd of C-ON bond homolysis in these alkoxyamines were measured and found to be equal to those for alkoxyamines without trityl. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the products of alkoxyamine homolysis (trityl-TEMPO and trityl-SG1 biradicals) were recorded, and the corresponding exchange interactions were estimated. The decomposition of trityl-alkoxyamine showed more than an 80% yield of biradicals, meaning that the C-ON bond homolysis is the main reaction. The suitability of these labelled initiators/controllers for polymerisation was exemplified by means of successful nitroxide-mediated polymerisation (NMP) of styrene. Thus, this is the first report of a spin-labelled alkoxyamine suitable for NMP.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(40): 10636-40, 2014 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25138683

RESUMO

Molecular compounds with photoswitchable magnetic properties have been intensively investigated over the last decades due to their prospective applications in nanoelectronics, sensing and magnetic data storage. The family of copper-nitroxide-based molecular magnets represents a new promising type of photoswitchable compounds. We report the first study of these appealing systems using femtosecond optical spectroscopy. We unveil the mechanism of ultrafast (<50 fs) spin state photoswitching and establish its principal differences compared to other photoswitchable magnets. On this basis, we propose potential advantages of copper-nitroxide-based molecular magnets for the future design of ultrafast magnetic materials.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(28): 10132-8, 2014 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24960618

RESUMO

Most photoswitchable molecular magnets exhibit thermally induced switching, as is typical of spin crossover (SCO), valence tautomerism and SCO-like phenomena. We report a rare case of a copper-nitroxide based molecular magnet Cu(hfac)2L(i-Pr) that does not exhibit quantitative SCO-like behavior in the temperature range of its chemical stability (2-350 K); however, it can be switched to a metastable thermally inaccessible spin state via visible/near-IR light at cryogenic temperatures. By means of photogeneration, unique information on this otherwise unobservable spin state has been obtained using steady-state Q-band (34 GHz) and time-resolved W-band (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In particular, we have found that the electronic structure and relaxation properties of the photoinduced state in Cu(hfac)2L(i-Pr) are very similar to those in its sister compound Cu(hfac)2L(n-Pr) that is thermally switchable and has been exhaustively characterized by many analytical methods, previously. The first observation of photoswitchable behavior in a thermally unswitchable copper-nitroxide based molecular magnet Cu(hfac)2L(i-Pr) paves the way for photoswitching applications of this and similar compounds in the remarkably broad temperature range of 2-350 K.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 53(2): 802-9, 2014 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24364815

RESUMO

Metal complexation reactions of N-t-butyl-N-oxidanyl-2-amino(nitronyl nitroxide) diradical (1) with M(hfac)2 (M: Mn or Cu) were investigated. These reactions were found to be very sensitive to the type of metal ion employed. Complex [Mn(hfac)2·1], consisting of Mn(hfac)2 and diradical 1, was readily prepared by mixing the components. However, the reaction of Cu(hfac)2 with 1 or N-t-butyl-N-oxidanyl-2-amino(iminonitroxide) diradical (2) involved the reduction of the diradical to the N-t-butyl-N-oxidanide-2-amino(iminonitroxide) radical anion (3) and finally produced the polymer-chain complex [Cu2(hfac)2·32·Cu(hfac)2]n. The structures of these complexes were elucidated by X-ray analysis, and their magnetic properties were investigated in detail. The temperature dependence of χpT (χp: magnetic susceptibility) for [Mn(hfac)2·1] exhibited a strong antiferromagnetic interaction (H = -2JS1·S2, J/kB = -217 K) between the Mn(II) spin (S = 5/2) and the diradical 1 spin (S = 1). However, the χpT-T plots for [Cu2(hfac)2·32·Cu(hfac)2]n indicated the presence of several magnetic interactions: a large ferromagnetic interaction (J/kB = 510 K) between iminonitroxide 3 and the imino-coordinating Cu(II) atom, a moderately large ferromagnetic interaction (J/kB = 58 K) between the iminonitroxide and (iminonitroxide oxygen)-coordinating Cu(hfac)2, and a weak antiferromagnetic interaction (J/kB = -1.4 K) between the two Cu(hfac)-3 moieties within a Cu2O2 square.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(33): 8065-72, 2013 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23895219

RESUMO

The ESR spectrum of compact nitroxide (NO)-substituted nitronyl nitroxide (NN) triplet diradical N-tert-butyl-N-oxidanyl-2-amino-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-3-oxide-1-oxyl (1) was recorded in solid argon matrix at 15 K. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters of 1 were derived from the recorded ESR spectrum: |D| = 0.0248 cm(-1) and E = 0.0025 cm(-1). Quantum chemical calculations have been performed using DFT and multiconfigurational ab initio (CAS) methods in order to establish equilibrium geometries of the conformational isomers resulting from twisted conformations of NO and NN moieties. The ZFS parameters of 1 were calculated at these levels of theory to test validity of the calculated structures. The calculation results were analyzed using the measured ZFS parameters and magnetic and structural data from the previous studies (Suzuki, S.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 15908; Tretyakov, E. V.; et al. Russ. Chem. Bull. 2011, 60, 2608). It was found that the ab initio method is most successful for accurate predictions of molecular and magnetic parameters. Diradical 1 has only one stable enantiomeric pair in pseudoeclipsed conformations. The two chiral isomers exist in racemic crystals 1 and in solid matrices with molecular parameters close to those attributed to a free molecule. The analysis of the spin density distribution suggests that one unpaired electron occupies NO group at the equilibrium geometry, whereas the torsion of NO group governs the spin density distribution of the second unpaired electron on a conjugated fragment in NN group. The increase in planarity by torsion of NO group enhances the trimethylenemethane-type properties and, therefore, gives rise to larger ferromagnetic exchange interaction. More planar equilibrium geometry and greater (three times) exchange interaction constant J were predicted for hypothetical diradical 1a, where bulky tert-butyl group is replaced by a methyl group in the nitroxide fragment.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(30): 6483-8, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23806031

RESUMO

We report the study of light-induced magnetostructural anomalies in a polymer chain complex of Cu(hfac)2 (hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate) with an unusual acyclic tert-butylpyrazolylnitroxide radical (Ltert(Me)) using EPR. This complex ([Cu(hfac)2Ltert(Me)]n) belongs to the family of thermo- and photoswitchable molecular magnets "breathing crystals". Compared to previously studied breathing crystals with nitronyl nitroxides, [Cu(hfac)2Ltert(Me)]n shows much weaker absorption bands in the visible spectral region and therefore is superior for optical manipulation of the spin states. Illumination with light (λ ≈ 540 nm) at cryogenic temperatures leads to formation of a metastable weakly coupled spin state, which relaxes to the ground strongly coupled spin state on a time scale of hours. These phenomena are in many aspects similar to the light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) well-known for spin-crossover compounds. Remarkably, the photoinduced spin state in [Cu(hfac)2Ltert(Me)]n is metastable at temperatures up to TLIESST ≈ 60 K, which is a significant improvement compared to that of previously studied breathing crystals with nitronyl nitroxides (TLIESST ≈ 20 K). We describe LIESST-like behavior observed in [Cu(hfac)2Ltert(Me)]n and discuss possible reasons for the increased stability of the photoinduced spin state.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(39): 16319-26, 2012 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22963168

RESUMO

Molecular magnets Cu(hfac)(2)L(R) represent a new type of photoswitchable materials based on exchange-coupled clusters of copper(II) with stable nitroxide radicals. It was found recently that the photoinduced spin state of these compounds is metastable on the time scale of hours at cryogenic temperatures, similar to the light-induced excited spin state trapping phenomenon well-known for many spin-crossover compounds. Our previous studies have shown that electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in continuous wave (CW) mode allows for studying the light-induced spin state conversion and relaxation in the Cu(hfac)(2)L(R) family. However, light-induced spin dynamics in these compounds has not been studied on the sub-second time scale so far. In this work we report the first time-resolved (TR) EPR study of light-induced spin state switching and relaxation in Cu(hfac)(2)L(R) with nanosecond temporal resolution. To enhance spectral resolution we used high-frequency TR EPR at W-band (94 GHz). We first discuss the peculiarities of applying TR EPR to the solid-phase compounds Cu(hfac)(2)L(R) at low (liquid helium) temperatures and approaches developed for photoswitching/relaxation studies. Then we analyze the kinetics of the excited spin state at T = 5-21 K. It has been found that the photoinduced spin state is formed at time delays shorter than 100 ns. It has also been found that the observed relaxation of the excited state is exponential on the nanosecond time scale, with the decay rate depending linearly on temperature. We propose and discuss possible mechanisms of these processes and correlate them with previously obtained CW EPR data.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 51(17): 9385-94, 2012 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22892007

RESUMO

Breathing crystals based on polymer-chain complexes of Cu(hfac)(2) with nitroxides exhibit thermally and light-induced magnetostructural anomalies in many aspects similar to a spin crossover. In the present work, we report the synthesis and investigation of a new family of Cu(hfac)(2) complexes with tert-butylpyrazolylnitroxides and their nonradical structural analogues. The complexes with paramagnetic ligands clearly exhibit structural rearrangements in the copper(II) coordination units and accompanying magnetic phenomena characteristic for breathing crystals. Contrary to that, their structural analogues with diamagnetic ligands do not undergo rearrangements in the copper(II) coordination environments. This confirms experimentally the crucial role of paramagnetic ligands and exchange interactions between them and copper(II) ions for the origin of magnetostructural anomalies in this family of molecular magnets.

18.
J Org Chem ; 74(7): 2870-2, 2009 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19253969

RESUMO

We show that the S(N)(H) approach opens up new possibilities in the synthesis of hetaryl-substituted nitronyl nitroxides. The reaction of 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-3-oxide-1-oxyl lithium salt with pyridine-, pyrimidine-, pyrazine-, isoquinoline-, phthalazine-, quinoxaline-, and 1,2,4-triazine-N-oxides readily gives rise to the corresponding paramagnetic hetarenes. The reaction of this salt with quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide enabled the synthesis of the first nitronyl nitroxide biradical with two spin-labeled fragments in the vicinal positions of the heteroaromatic cycle; the persistent biradicals of this type were not known earlier. The characterizations of all persistent radicals obtained by S(N)(H) synthetic strategy include X-ray crystal structures, EPR investigation, and static magnetic susceptibility measurements.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 126(9): 2807-19, 2004 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14995198

RESUMO

This contribution reports the design and synthesis of a series of spin-labeled charge acceptors to produce three-spin systems of "radical ion/biradical ion" type in X-irradiated alkane liquids. This opens the way to study spin triads in experimental conditions, in which short-lived radical ion pairs are conventionally studied, thus offering optically detected techniques such as magneto-resonance OD ESR and level-crossing MARY spectroscopy. The structure of the synthesized 2-imidazoline-1-oxyl derivatives is A-Sp-R, where A is a positive or negative charge acceptor, R is a stable radical, and Sp is a hydrocarbon bridge. The set of 20+ compounds represent a convenient tool to construct experimental three-spin systems with various properties, e.g. with the "third" spin introduced into one or the other partner of the radical ion pair. The degree of exchange coupling between the two paramagnetic fragments in the biradical ion has been demonstrated to strongly depend on the type of the radical fragment R and the structure of the bridge Sp. As a result, a series of acceptors with systematically reduced exchange interaction has been synthesized, and optimal systems for the observation of low magnetic field effect have been found. In the most favorable case, an OD ESR signal from a spin triad living as short as ca. 100 ns has been registered as a single unresolved line. The exchange integral for this biradical anion (9) was estimated from OD ESR and ESR experiments to be ca. 10(3) G by the order of magnitude, which is much greater than the hyperfine couplings in the biradical ion but much smaller than the thermal energy kT.

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