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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008067, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antitrypanosomal treatment with Benznidazole (BZ) or Nifurtimox may be recommended for patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD) to reduce the onset or progression of symptoms. However, such treatment has limited efficacy and high level of toxic effects. In addition, the current cure biomarker (serology conversion) precludes any treatment assessment unless a prolonged follow-up is arranged. PCR is thus the most useful, alternative surrogate marker for evaluating responses to treatment. The aim of this study is to describe the usefulness of real-time PCR in monitoring BZ treatment within a large cohort of chronic CD cases in Barcelona. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 370 chronic CD patients were monitored with real-time PCR post-BZ treatment. The median follow-up was 4 years (IQR 2.2-5.3y), with a median of 3 clinical visits (IQR 2-4). Only 8 patients (2.2%) presented with at least one incident of positive real-time PCR after treatment and were therefore considered as treatment failure. Four of those failure patients had completed full course treatment, whereas the remaining cases had defaulted with a statistical difference between both groups (p = 0.02). Half of the failure patients had undergone less than 4 years of follow-up monitoring all presented with parasitemia before treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BZ treatment failure was highly infrequent in our cohort. BZ discontinuation was a risk factor for positive real-time PCR results during clinical follow-up. Regular testing with real-time PCR during follow-up allows for early detection of treatment failure in patients with chronic CD.

2.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide information regarding the prevalence of strongyloidiasis among migrants coming from Strongyloides stercoralis-endemic areas who reside in Spain. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies showing prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among migrants from Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia and Oceania who reside in Spain. We included articles published until 30 April 2019 without language restriction. The keywords used for the search included 'Strongyloides stercoralis', 'strongyloidiasis', 'Spain', 'screening' and 'migrants'. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included in the review and meta-analysis, comprising 12 386 screened people. Eleven studies (7020 patients) evaluated the presence of S. stercoralis infection only through investigation of larvae in faeces, showing an overall prevalence of 1% (95%CI 1-1%). Thirteen studies (5366 patients) used a serological test, showing an overall prevalence of 14% (95%CI 11-17%). Strongyloidiasis seroprevalence was 20% (95%CI 15-24%) among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, 14% (95%CI 10-18%) among those from Latin America and 8% (95%CI 5-11%) among migrants from North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Migrants coming from strongyloidiasis-endemic areas living in Spain had a high S. stercoralis infection prevalence, particularly those from sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. This population should be screened using serology as the most sensitive test for S. stercoralis infection. This could be easily implemented at primary care level.

3.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101460, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide. We analysed active and latent TB infections (LTBI) from the Spanish Network for the Study of Imported Infectious Diseases by Travellers and Immigrants (+REDIVI). METHODS: Observational, retrospective, multicentre study of TB and LTBI registered in the +REDIVI network from October 2009 to December 2016. RESULTS: Of 1008 cases of LTBI, 884 (87.7%) were immigrants; 93 (4.5%), immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFR); 2 (0.9%), VFR-travellers; and 29 (1.1%), travellers. Absolute (N = 157 vs. N = 75) and relative (12.5% vs. 5.9%) frequency decreased over the study period (p = 0.003). Median time to diagnosis was 24.6 months (females 50.3 vs males 11.9; p < 0.001). Of 448 TB cases, 405 (90.4%) were in immigrants; 30 (6.7%), VFR-immigrants; 6 (1.3%), VFR-travellers; and 7 (1.6%), travellers. Median time to diagnosis was 62.5 months (females 86.6 vs males 70.1; p = 0.0075). There were 8 multidrug resistant TB cases and 1 extensively drug resistant case of TB, all in immigrants. CONCLUSION: TB was frequently diagnosed more than 5 years after arrival in Spain. Screening programmes for TB and LTBI in immigrants should be considered beyond this time point. Women showed a higher diagnostic delay for both latent and active TB.

4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007399, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported strongyloidiasis is increasingly being diagnosed in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with imported strongyloidiasis in Spain. METHODOLOGY: This is an observational retrospective study that included all patients diagnosed of strongyloidiasis registered in the +REDIVI Collaborative Network from 2009 to 2017. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical information was collected from the +REDIVI database, and extra information regarding microbiological techniques, treatment and follow-up was requested to participant centers. FINDINGS: Overall, 1245 cases were included. Most of them were immigrants (66.9%), and South America was the most frequent area of origin. Detection of larvae in stool samples was observed in 21.9% of the patients, and serological tests allowed making the diagnosis in the rest of the cases. Eosinophilia was present in 82.2% of cases. Treatment with ivermectin (compared with albendazole) was the most strongly associated factor to achieve the cure (OR 2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Given the long latency of the infection and the risk of developing a severe presentation, screening of S. stercoralis infection should be mandatory in patients coming from or had traveling to endemic areas, especially in those with immunosuppressant conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , América do Sul , Espanha/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloides stercoralis/fisiologia , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 29: 51-57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous growth of mobile populations has influenced the global epidemiology of infectious diseases, including chronic and acute viral hepatitis. METHOD: A prospective observational multicentre study was performed in a Spanish network of imported infections. Viral hepatitis cases from January 2009 to September 2017 were included. RESULTS: Of 14,546 records, 723 (4.97%) had imported viral hepatitis, including 48 (6.64%) acute cases and 675 (93.36%) chronic cases. Of the 48 acute cases, 31 were travellers and immigrants returning from visiting friends or relatives (VFR), while 19 (61%) were acute Hepatitis A or Hepatitis B. Only 18.2% of VFR immigrants and 35% of travellers received pre-travel advice. Acute hepatitis was more frequent in VFR immigrants (AOR 2.59, CI95% 1.20-5.60) and travellers (AOR 2.83, CI95% 1.46-5.50) than immigrants. Of the 675 Chronic cases, 570 were immigrants, and 439 (77%) had chronic Hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis was more frequent in immigrants (AOR 20.22, CI95% 11.64-35.13) and VFR immigrants (AOR 11.12, CI95% 6.20-19.94) than travellers. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic viral hepatitis was typical of immigrants, acute viral hepatitis was common among travellers, and VFR immigrants had mixed risk. Improving pre-travel consultation and screening of immigrants may contribute to preventing new cases of viral hepatitis and avoiding community transmission.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressão/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(11): e0006917, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loa loa infection is endemic in limited areas of West-Central Africa. Loiasis has been associated with excess mortality, but clinical studies on its treatment are scant, particularly outside endemic areas, due to the rarity of cases diagnosed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With this retrospective TropNet (European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health) study, we aimed at outlining the treatment schedules followed by different reference centers for tropical medicine across Europe. We gathered information about 238 cases of loiasis, 165 of which had follow up data. The regimens followed by the different centers were heterogeneous. The drugs most frequently administered were: diethylcarbamazine alone (74/165, 45.1%), ivermectin alone (41/165, 25%), albendazole + ivermectin (21/164, 11.6%), ivermectin + diethylcarbamazine (16/165, 9.7%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The management of loiasis substantially differs across specialized travel clinics in Europe. These discrepancies could be due to different local protocols as well as to (un)availability of the drugs. An harmonization of clinical protocols for the treatment of loiasis would be suggested across reference centers for tropical medicine in Europe.


Assuntos
Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Loa/efeitos dos fármacos , Loíase/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dietilcarbamazina/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Loa/fisiologia , Loíase/parasitologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viagem , Medicina Tropical , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006272, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a globally distributed nematode that causes diverse clinical symptoms in humans. Spain, once considered an endemic country, has experienced a recent increase in imported cases. The introduction of serology helps diagnosis and is currently replacing microbiological techniques in some settings, but its sensitivity is variable and can be low in immunocompromised patients. Diagnosis can only be confirmed by identification of larvae. Often, this "gold standard" can only be achieved in severe cases, such as disseminated S.stercoralis infection, or S.stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome, where parasite load is high. In addition, these clinical presentations are not well-defined. Our aim is to describe severe cases of S.stercoralis, their epidemiological profile, and their clinical details. METHODS: An observational retrospective study of disseminated S.stercoralis infection, or hyperinfection syndrome. Inclusion criteria: aged over 18, with a diagnosis of disseminated S.stercoralis infection, or hyperinfection syndrome, confirmed by visualization of larvae. Patients were identified through revision of clinical records for the period 2000-2015, in collaboration with eight reference centers throughout Spain. RESULTS: From the period 2000-2015, eighteen cases were identified, 66.7% of which were male, with a median age of 40 (range 21-70). Most of them were foreigners (94.4%), mainly from Latin America (82.3%) or Western Africa (17.6%). Only one autochthonous case was identified, from 2006. Immunosuppressive conditions were present in fourteen (77%) patients, mainly due steroids use and to retroviral coinfections (four HIV, two HTLV). Transplant preceded the clinical presentation in four of them. Other comorbidities were coinfection with HBV, Trypanosoma cruzi, Mycobacterium leprae or Aspergillus spp. All presented with digestive disorders, with 55.6% also presenting malaise. 44.4% of cases had fever, 27.8% skin complaints, and 16.7% respiratory or neurological disorders. One patient presented anemia, and one other nephrotic syndrome. Diagnosis was confirmed by identification of larvae in fresh stool samples (n = 16; 88.9%), concentration techniques (n = 6; 33.3%), larval culture (n = 5; 29.4%), or digestive biopsies (n = 8; 44%). S.stercoralis forms were identified during necropsy in one case. In addition, ten (55%) had a positive serology. All the cases were treated with ivermectin, six (33%) also received albendazole and one case received thiabendazole followed by ivermectin. All needed inpatient management, involving a mean hospitalization stay of 25 days (range 1-164). Two cases received intensive care and eventually died. CONCLUSIONS: Only eighteen cases of disseminated S.stercoralis infection/hyperinfection syndrome were identified from the 15-year period, most of which were considered to have been imported cases. Among those, immunosuppression was frequent, and mortality due to S.stercoralis was lower than previously described.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Strongyloides stercoralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Estrongiloidíase/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Comorbidade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Trop Med Int Health ; 23(1): 92-100, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand Zika virus (ZIKV) dynamics in fluids of infected individuals and the risk of sexual transmission. METHODS: Prospective study at two centres in Spain. Patients with probable or confirmed diagnosis of ZIKV infection were clinically followed up, and fluid samples were collected from saliva, serum, urine and semen or vaginal secretion following the study protocol. Non-traveller-sexual partners were offered to participate. RESULTS: From January 2016 to December 2016, we included a total of 11 traveller patients and six sexual contacts. Six patients were male, with a median age of 38 years (IQR 30-45). We performed 61 RT-PCR determinations, seven of which were positive. Positive results were retrieved from serum, urine, semen and vaginal tract. One of four women tested positive for ZIKV RNA in vaginal swabs collected during the first 45 days after symptoms onset. Clearance occurred between day 37 and day 69 after symptoms onset. One of five men tested positive for ZIKV RNA in semen collected during the first 45 days after symptoms onset. Clearance occurred between day 23 and 107 after symptoms onset. Six patients had sexual relations during the defined period. All tested patients were negative for ZIKV infection by serological testing. CONCLUSION: ZIKV shedding persistence in genital fluids occurs in a significant number of symptomatic patients after visiting an endemic area. We did not find any ZIKV seroconversion among the three male contacts who were investigated. Diagnostic algorithms may be updated to include genital tract fluid specimens in the diagnostic process.


Assuntos
RNA Viral/análise , Sêmen/virologia , Viagem , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
10.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(10): 617-623, dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169560

RESUMO

Algunas enfermedades infecciosas han adquirido más relevancia por el aumento de los movimientos poblacionales. La eosinofilia es un hallazgo frecuente en inmigrantes y en viajeros. Una de las causas más frecuentes de eosinofilia es la infección por helmintos y algunos protozoos intestinales. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las características epidemiológicas de los casos con eosinofilia y su asociación con la presencia de parásitos en la red de datos REDIVI. Se trata de un estudio observacional multicéntrico prospectivo, donde se incluyen los casos diagnosticados de eosinofilia registrados en la Red cooperativa para el estudio de las infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes (+REDIVI) desde enero de 2009 hasta diciembre de 2012. Se registraron en la red un total de 5.255 episodios durante el periodo de estudio, y la eosinofilia fue un hallazgo en el 8,1 al 31,3% de los casos (dependiendo del tipo migratorio). Fueron hombres el 60,2%, con una mediana de 31,0años, inmigrantes el 72,4% y asintomáticos el 81,2%. Los parásitos más frecuentemente identificados fueron S.stercoralis(34,4%), Schistosoma sp. (11,0%) y uncinarias (8,6%). Existía asociación entre eosinofilia y presencia de parásitos para todos los helmintos (excepto para larva migrans cutánea). La sintomatología y la duración del viaje no determinaron significativamente la presencia de eosinofilia. Ante una eosinofilia en una persona que ha vivido en zonas endémicas de helmintiasis es aconsejable realizar estudios dirigidos para su diagnóstico, independientemente del tipo migratorio, la duración de la estancia o la presencia de sintomatología (AU)


The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travelers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicenter prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travelers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Viajante , Fatores de Risco , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Protocolos Clínicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Eosinofilia/microbiologia , Medicina de Viagem/normas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia
11.
Malar J ; 16(1): 407, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is a frequent diagnosis in travellers and migrants. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with imported malaria within a Spanish collaborative network registering imported diseases (+REDIVI). In addition, the possible association between malaria and type of case, gender, age or area of exposure was explored. METHODS: Cases of imported malaria were identified among all cases registered in the +REDIVI database during the period October 2009-October 2016. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics were analysed. RESULTS: In total, 11,816 cases of imported infectious diseases were registered in +REDIVI's database between October 2009 and October 2016. Immigrants seen for the first time after migration accounted for 60.2% of cases, 21.0% of patients were travellers, and 18.8% were travellers/immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). There were 850 cases of malaria (850/11,816, 7.2%). Malaria was significantly more frequent in men than in women (56.8% vs 43.2%) and in VFR-immigrants (52.6%) as compared to travellers (21.3%), immigrants (20.7%) and VFR-travellers (5.4%) (p < 0.001). Although this data was not available for most patients with malaria, only a minority (29/217, 13.4%) mentioned correct anti-malarial prophylaxis. Sub-Saharan Africa was found to be the most common region of acquisition of malaria. Most common reason for consultation after travel was a febrile syndrome although an important proportion of immigrants were asymptomatic and presented only for health screening (27.3%). Around 5% of travellers presented with severe malaria. The most prevalent species of Plasmodium diagnosed was Plasmodium falciparum (81.5%). Malaria due to Plasmodium ovale/Plasmodium vivax was frequent among travellers (17%) and nearly 5% of all malaria cases in immigrants were caused by Plasmodium malariae. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria was among the five most frequent diagnoses registered in +REDIVI's database. Some significant differences were found in the distribution of malaria according to gender, type of case, species. Among all malaria cases, the most frequent diagnosis was P. falciparum infection in VFR-immigrant men.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Viagem
12.
J Travel Med ; 24(5)2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931128

RESUMO

Background: Understanding and detecting imported diseases is a priority in the prevention and management of prevalent and emergent infectious diseases acquired abroad. The +Redivi network measures the burden of imported infections in Spain and is essential for closing the gap in travel medicine. Methods: Demographic characteristics, travel information, syndromes and confirmed travel-related diagnoses were registered in a standardised online database. Results: A total of 10 767 cases of imported infectious diseases were registered between October 2009 and December 2015. Of these, 60.8% of cases were immigrants seen for the first time after arrival, 20.6% were travellers, and 18.4% were individuals visiting friends and relatives (VFR [immigrants and travellers]). The median time between arrival and medical consultation was 5.5 years for immigrants, 2.0 weeks for travellers, 3.1 weeks for VFR-travellers and 11.4 for VFR-immigrants. The most prevalent diagnoses were Chagas disease in immigrants and nonspecific acute diarrhoea in travellers. Malaria by P. falciparum was one of the most prevalent diagnoses among VFR. More than half the travellers saw a physician before travelling, although one-third of those for whom antimalarial medication was indicated did not take their medication correctly. As for VFR, only 10.4% of VFR-immigrants and 32.5% of VFR-travellers sought pre-travel advice. Only 23 and 21%, respectively, of those for whom antimalarial prophylaxis was indicated took the medication properly. Conclusions : +Redivi provides a clear picture of the prevalence of imported infectious diseases among travellers and immigrants in Spain. The data collected could be used to improve everyday health care provided to travellers and immigrants after travel, to guide pre-travel consultations and to monitor the potential occurrence of tropical or exotic infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/etiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(2): 567-574, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722637

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and the infection is frequently found in travelers and migrants. The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health conducted a sentinel surveillance study on imported schistosomiasis between 1997 and 2010. This report summarizes epidemiological and clinical data from 1,465 cases of imported schistosomiasis. Direct pathogen detection and serology were the main diagnostic tools applied. Of these, 486 (33%) cases were identified among European travelers, 231 (16%) among long-term expatriates, and 748 (51%) among non-European immigrants. Overall, only 18.6% of travelers had received pretravel advice; 95% of infections were acquired in the African region. On species level, Schistosoma mansoni was identified in 570 (39%) and Schistosoma haematobium in 318 (22%) cases; 57.5% of patients were symptomatic. Acute symptoms were reported in 27% of patients leading to earlier presentation within 3 months. Praziquantel was used in all patients to treat schistosomiasis. Many infections were detected in asymptomatic patients. In 47.4% of asymptomatic patients infection was detected by microscopy and in 39% by serology or antigen testing. Schistosomiasis remains a frequent infection in travelers and migrants to Europe. Travelers should be made aware of the risk of schistosomiasis infection when traveling to sub-Saharan Africa. Posttravel consultations particularly for returning expatriates are useful given the high potential for detecting asymptomatic infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Infect Dis ; 215(6): 946-953, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453841

RESUMO

Background: There is little evidence regarding the management of refractory giardiasis after treatment with nitroimidazoles. This study estimates the proportion of persistent giardiasis in 3 hospitals in Barcelona, describes associated risk factors and genotype, and evaluates the efficacy rate of quinacrine in those with persistent giardiasis. Methods: A clinical, prospective, observational study was conducted in patients with giardiasis treated with nitroimidazoles. Those with persistent giardiasis were provided quinacrine. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a fragment of tpi and bg genes. Results: Seventy-seven patients were recruited and treated with nitroimidazoles, and in 14 of 71 (20%) of patients followed up, Giardia persisted. Refractory giardiasis was associated with malaise (P = .007) and anorexia (P = .02), with previous giardiasis (P = .03), and with previous antibiotic (P = .02) or antiparasitic(P = .04) use. Quinacrine had an effectiveness rate of 100% in refractory giardiasis (n = 13; 95% confidence interval = 75-100). Molecular characterization showed that 17 (25%) Giardia isolates belonged to assemblage A, and 31 (43%) belonged to assemblage B. In refractory giardiasis, assemblage A and B were found responsible in 4 and 6 cases, respectively. Conclusions: Almost 20% of patients presented persistent giardiasis, belonging to both assemblages A and B, after nitroimidazole. Short course of quinacrine was effective in treating refractory cases. Further controlled studies should evaluate its efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Quinacrina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/efeitos dos fármacos , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Quinacrina/efeitos adversos , Espanha , Viagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 35(10): 617-623, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032297

RESUMO

The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travellers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicentre prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travellers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Viagem , África/etnologia , Américas/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Helmintíase/sangue , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Protozoários/sangue , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(2): 355-357, 2017 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27895270

RESUMO

Finding Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in human feces is exceptional and there are few prevalence data available. True infection occurs after accidental ingestion of ants containing metacercariae and spurious infection through the consumption of infected animal liver. Differential diagnosis between true and pseudo-infections is performed through stool examination after a diet free of liver. In addition, microscopy can help to differentiate the type of infection. We report six cases, all from sub-Saharan Africa, detection of this fluke at the Tropical Medicine Unit Vall d'Hebron-Drassanes (Barcelona, Spain). Dicrocoelium dendriticum transit eggs were visualized in five cases and there were no subsequent visualizations after diet, which reinforces that all these cases were false parasitism. In one case, few embryonated eggs were observed and the patient was treated for a possible true parasitism. There is a need to investigate the prevalence of D. dendriticum in our country focusing on the distinction between true and spurious infections.


Assuntos
Dicrocelíase/diagnóstico , Dicrocoelium , Adulto , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Mali/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/etnologia , Senegal/etnologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34 Suppl 3: 25-31, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27474244

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(supl.3): 25-31, jul. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170851

RESUMO

Las enfermedades parasitarias pueden suponer un importante problema de salud en individuos provenientes de zonas de alta endemicidad, por lo que deben descartarse adecuadamente. Generalmente son asintomáticas, pero en situaciones favorables se pueden reactivar y producir manifestaciones clínicas y/o complicaciones. Aunque no muy frecuentemente, existe también la posibilidad de transmisión en el país de acogida. El diagnóstico precoz, mediante protocolos de cribado adecuados, permitirá un tratamiento específico que beneficie tanto al individuo como a la comunidad. Estas técnicas serán seleccionadas según criterios geoepidemiológicos como el origen del paciente, la ruta migratoria o el tiempo transcurrido fuera del área endémica; pero también deben considerarse otros factores como su sensibilidad y especificidad, la experiencia en su implementación y su disponibilidad. Dada su alta prevalencia y considerando estos criterios, deben descartarse las parasitosis intestinales mediante estudio coproparasitológico. Por su potencial gravedad, es aconsejable el cribado de la malaria utilizando técnicas muy sensibles como la PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa). El cribado serológico de la enfermedad de Chagas está indicado en todos los inmigrantes de origen latinoamericano, excepto en aquellos procedentes de las islas del Caribe. Otras parasitosis importantes, como la filariasis y la esquistosomiasis urinaria, serán descartadas mediante examen microscópico. El objetivo de este trabajo es la revisión de las distintas técnicas de cribado de enfermedades parasitarias y su indicación dentro de los protocolos de atención a la población inmigrante asintomática (AU)


Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções Assintomáticas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico
19.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 108-113, feb. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-148624

RESUMO

Introduction: The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. Results: A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV− (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV− travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P = .001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P < .001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P = .078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV− travelers the main diagnoses were “healthy” (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). Conclusions: The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening (AU)


Introducción: La mejoría en el pronóstico de la infección por el VIH, sumada al incremento de los viajes y la inmigración, han aumentado la frecuencia del binomio viajero-VIH+. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la epidemiología y hallazgos clínicos de los viajeros VIH+ en comparación con los VIH-. Métodos: Estudio observacional y prospectivo, de los viajeros e inmigrantes viajeros que se desplazan para visitar familiares y amigos (VFR) incluidos en la red +REDIVI (enero-2009; octubre-2014). +REDIVI es una red nacional que recopila información sobre infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes en 21 centros mediante un protocolo estandarizado de recogida de datos. Resultados: Se identificaron 3.464 viajeros: 72 VIH+ (2,1%) y 3.392 VIH− (98%). Los VIH+ en contraste con los VIH−, eran mayores (40 vs. 34 años; p = 0,001), predominantemente VFR (79,7% vs 44,4%. p < 0,001), y solicitan menos consejo pre-viaje (27% vs 37%. p = 0,078). Los destinos predominantes para ambos grupos fueron África Subsahariana y Latinoamérica. Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes al retorno del viaje fueron la fiebre, solicitar un examen de salud, molestias gastrointestinales, y anomalías en los resultados de laboratorio (principalmente eosinofilia y anemia) los cuales variaron según el grupo. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes en los VIH+ fueron la malaria (38,8%), nuevo diagnóstico de VIH (25%) y parasitosis intestinales (19,4%), mientras que en los sujetos VIH− los principales diagnósticos fueron “sano” (17,9%), parásitos intestinales (17,3%) y malaria (14%). Conclusiones: El perfil más común del viajero VIH+ atendido en +Redivi es el de un inmigrante VFR que no solicita consejo pre-viaje y hace viajes de alto riesgo. Esto puede suponer un mayor riesgo de adquisición de infecciones relacionadas con el viaje, las cuales en un viajero VIH+ pueden tener un efecto deletéreo adicional. La consulta tras el viaje es una buena oportunidad para el cribado de la infección por VIH (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Saúde do Viajante , Estudos Prospectivos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
20.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34(2): 108-13, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26021187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. METHODS: An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. RESULTS: A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV- (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV- travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P=.001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P<.001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P=.078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV- travelers the main diagnoses were "healthy" (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco
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