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1.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(2): 186-190, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brazil is the world's biggest consumer of crack cocaine, and dependence is a major public health issue. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of potentially harmful adulterants present in hair samples from Brazilian patients with crack cocaine dependence. METHOD: We evaluated adulterants in hair samples extracted by convenience from 100 patients admitted at the 48 hour-observation unit of Centro de Referência de Álcool, Tabaco e Outras Drogas (CRATOD), Brazil's largest center for addiction treatment. A cross-sectional analysis was performed with the data obtained. RESULTS: Adulterants were found in 97% of the analyzed hair samples. The most prevalent adulterant was lidocaine (92%), followed by phenacetin (69%) and levamisole (31%). CONCLUSION: Adulterants were widely prevalent in hair samples from crack users treated at CRATOD: at least one adulterant was present in virtually all the hair samples collected. This points to a need to monitor adverse effects in the clinical setting in order to provide this high-risk group of patients with prompt and effective care related to the acute and chronic complications associated with these adulterants.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Cocaína Crack/análise , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Cabelo/química , Levamisol/análise , Lidocaína/análise , Fenacetina/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 13(2): 187-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285793

RESUMO

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, painless and easy-to use-technology. It can be used in depression, schizophrenia and other neurological disorders. There are no studies about longer usage protocols regarding the ideal duration and weekly frequency of tDCS. Objective: to study the use of tDCS twice a week for longer periods to improve memory in elderly with MCI. Methods: a randomized double-blind controlled trial of anodal tDCS on cognition of 58 elderly aged over 60 years was conducted. A current of 2.0 mA was applied for 30 minutes for 10 sessions, twice a week. The anode was placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLFC). Subjects were evaluated before and after 10 sessions by the following tests: CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making, Semantic Verbal Fluency (Animals), Boston naming, Clock Drawing Test, Word list memory (WLMT), Direct and Indirect Digit Order (WAIS-III and WMS-III) and N-back. Results: After 10 sessions of tDCS, significant group-time interactions were found for the CAMCOG - executive functioning (χ2 = 3.961, p = 0.047), CAMCOG - verbal fluency (χ2 = 3.869, p = 0.049), CAMCOG - Memory recall (χ2 = 9.749, p = 0.004), and WMLT - recall (χ2 = 7.254, p = 0.007). A decline in performance on the CAMCOG - constructional praxis (χ2 = 4.371, p = 0.037) was found in the tDCS group after intervention. No significant differences were observed between the tDCS and Sham groups for any other tasks. Conclusion: tDCS at 2 mA for 30 min twice a week over 5 consecutive weeks proved superior to placebo (Sham) for improving memory recall, verbal fluency and executive functioning in elderly with MCI.

3.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(2): 187-195, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011961

RESUMO

ABSTRACT. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, painless and easy-to use-technology. It can be used in depression, schizophrenia and other neurological disorders. There are no studies about longer usage protocols regarding the ideal duration and weekly frequency of tDCS. Objective: to study the use of tDCS twice a week for longer periods to improve memory in elderly with MCI. Methods: a randomized double-blind controlled trial of anodal tDCS on cognition of 58 elderly aged over 60 years was conducted. A current of 2.0 mA was applied for 30 minutes for 10 sessions, twice a week. The anode was placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLFC). Subjects were evaluated before and after 10 sessions by the following tests: CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making, Semantic Verbal Fluency (Animals), Boston naming, Clock Drawing Test, Word list memory (WLMT), Direct and Indirect Digit Order (WAIS-III and WMS-III) and N-back. Results: After 10 sessions of tDCS, significant group-time interactions were found for the CAMCOG - executive functioning (χ2 = 3.961, p = 0.047), CAMCOG - verbal fluency (χ2 = 3.869, p = 0.049), CAMCOG - Memory recall (χ2 = 9.749, p = 0.004), and WMLT - recall (χ2 = 7.254, p = 0.007). A decline in performance on the CAMCOG - constructional praxis (χ2 = 4.371, p = 0.037) was found in the tDCS group after intervention. No significant differences were observed between the tDCS and Sham groups for any other tasks. Conclusion: tDCS at 2 mA for 30 min twice a week over 5 consecutive weeks proved superior to placebo (Sham) for improving memory recall, verbal fluency and executive functioning in elderly with MCI.


RESUMO. A ETCC (estimulação transcraniana por corrente contínua) é uma tecnologia não-invasiva, indolor e de fácil utilização. Pode ser usada na depressão, esquizofrenia e outros distúrbios neurológicos. Não há orientações ideais sobre o uso de protocolos mais longos quanto à duração e frequência semanal da ETCC. Objetivo: estudar o uso de ETCC duas vezes por semana por 5 semanas em idosos com CCL. Métodos: o estudo foi controlado, randomizado, duplo-cego com ETCC anódica em 58 idosos acima de 60 anos. Uma corrente de 2,0 mA foi aplicada por 30 minutos durante 10 sessões consecutivas, 2 vezes por semana. O ânodo foi colocado no córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral esquerdo (LDLFC). Os pacientes foram avaliados antes e após 10 sessões pelos testes: CAMCOG, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MMSE), Trilhas, Fluência Verbal Semântica - Animais, Boston, Relógio, Memória da Lista de Palavras (WLMT), Dígitos - ordem direta e indireta (WAIS-III e WMS-III) e N-back. Resultados: foram encontradas interações significativas (tempo/grupo) para CAMCOG - funcionamento executivo (χ2 = 3,961, p = 0,047), CAMCOG - fluência verbal (χ2 = 3,869, p = 0,049), CAMCOG - recuperação da memória (χ2 = 9.749, p = 0,004), WMLT - recordação (χ2 = 7,254, p = 0,007). Foi observado um declínio no grupo ETCC após a intervenção para CAMCOG - praxia construtiva (χ2 = 4,371, p = 0,037). Não encontramos diferenças significativas entre os grupos ETCC e placebo para outros testes. Conclusão: A ETCC de 2 mA por 30 min, 2x por semana, por 5 semanas consecutivas, é superior ao placebo (Sham) na melhoria da recuperação de memória, fluência verbal e funcionamento executivo em idosos com CCL.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua
4.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 186-190, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043521

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Brazil is the world's biggest consumer of crack cocaine, and dependence is a major public health issue. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of potentially harmful adulterants present in hair samples from Brazilian patients with crack cocaine dependence. Method We evaluated adulterants in hair samples extracted by convenience from 100 patients admitted at the 48 hour-observation unit of Centro de Referência de Álcool, Tabaco e Outras Drogas (CRATOD), Brazil's largest center for addiction treatment. A cross-sectional analysis was performed with the data obtained. Results Adulterants were found in 97% of the analyzed hair samples. The most prevalent adulterant was lidocaine (92%), followed by phenacetin (69%) and levamisole (31%). Conclusion Adulterants were widely prevalent in hair samples from crack users treated at CRATOD: at least one adulterant was present in virtually all the hair samples collected. This points to a need to monitor adverse effects in the clinical setting in order to provide this high-risk group of patients with prompt and effective care related to the acute and chronic complications associated with these adulterants.


Resumo Introdução O Brasil é o maior consumidor mundial de crack, e a dependência é um grande problema de saúde pública. Este é o primeiro estudo a investigar a prevalência de adulterantes potencialmente nocivos presentes em amostras de cabelo de pacientes brasileiros com dependência de crack. Métodos Foram avaliados adulterantes em amostras de cabelos extraídos por conveniência de 100 pacientes internados na unidade de observação de 48 horas do Centro de Referência de Álcool, Tabaco e Outras Drogas (CRATOD), o maior centro de tratamento de dependência do Brasil. Uma análise transversal foi realizada com os dados obtidos. Resultados Foram encontrados adulterantes em 97% das amostras de cabelo analisadas. O adulterante mais prevalente foi a lidocaína (92%), seguida da fenacetina (69%) e levamisol (31%). Conclusão Os adulterantes foram amplamente prevalentes em amostras de cabelo de usuários de crack tratados no CRATOD: pelo menos um adulterante estava presente em praticamente todas as amostras de cabelo coletadas. Isso aponta para a necessidade de monitorar os efeitos adversos no ambiente clínico, a fim de proporcionar a esse grupo de pacientes de alto risco cuidados imediatos e efetivos relacionados às complicações agudas e crônicas associadas a esses adulterantes.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emotional intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. Studying EI could potentially be useful in understanding addictive behaviors as well as for designing and planning interventions. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a critical review on EI impairment in addiction disorders. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, and SciELO databases were searched. Articles that used the standardized Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) instrument to assess EI in people with addictions and healthy controls were selected for the review. RESULTS: We selected seven articles assessing EI and its associations with addiction disorders, mainly alcohol abuse and cocaine dependence. Most studies reported that individuals with addiction disorders had worse EI scores when compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Overall, the studies reviewed demonstrated that addictions are associated with EI deficits, compared to controls. However, aspects such as the small number of addictive disorders analyzed, methodological issues related to instruments for assessment of IE and the lack of follow-up remain significant limitations.

6.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 87-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994781

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emotional intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. Studying EI could potentially be useful in understanding addictive behaviors as well as for designing and planning interventions. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a critical review on EI impairment in addiction disorders. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, and SciELO databases were searched. Articles that used the standardized Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) instrument to assess EI in people with addictions and healthy controls were selected for the review. RESULTS: We selected seven articles assessing EI and its associations with addiction disorders, mainly alcohol abuse and cocaine dependence. Most studies reported that individuals with addiction disorders had worse EI scores when compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Overall, the studies reviewed demonstrated that addictions are associated with EI deficits, compared to controls. However, aspects such as the small number of addictive disorders analyzed, methodological issues related to instruments for assessment of IE and the lack of follow-up remain significant limitations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Humanos
7.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 94-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994788

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emotional intelligence (EI) is a theoretical construct postulated by Mayer and Salovey to designate the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. The study of EI in schizophrenia offers new insights into the disorder's cognitive and functional impacts. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively review studies analyzing EI impairment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders using standardized instruments. METHODS: Searches were run on MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and SciELO databases. The only validated instrument used was the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT). Articles that used all branches of the MSCEIT to assess EI in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls were included in the review. RESULTS: We found 30 articles on this topic. The studies analyzed showed a significant impairment of MSCEIT total score in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders when compared to healthy controls. In relation to the MSCEIT branches, understanding of emotions and management of emotions are the most impaired branches. CONCLUSION: Since most studies are cross-sectional, it is not possible to establish a cause and effect relationship between EI deficits and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Therefore, longitudinal studies are needed to establish a clearer relationship between these variables. By so doing, we may be able to intervene for prevention and management of these disorders, aiming at better quality of life for patients.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Humanos
8.
CNS Spectr ; : 1-7, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR) in cognition by comparing performance in neuropsychological tests for working memory between a group of non-obese healthy subjects doing CR for 2 years with another consuming ad libitum diet (AL). METHODS: This study was part of a larger multicenter trial called CALERIE that consisted of a randomized clinical trial with parallel-group comparing 2 years of 25% CR and AL in 220 volunteers with a BMI between 22 and 28 kg/m2, across 3 sites. The cognitive tests used were the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB) for Spatial Working Memory (SWM) including the total number of errors (SWMTE) and strategy (SWMS). Included as possible moderators were sleep quality, mood states, perceived stress, and energy expenditure. Analyses were performed at baseline and months 12 and 24. RESULTS: After adjustments, there was a significantly greater improvement in working memory assessed by the SWM for CR individuals, compared to AL. At month 24, it was related mostly to lower protein intake, compared to other macronutrients. Changes in SWM were moderated by changes in sleep quality, physical activity, and energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: On the long term, CR in healthy individuals seems to have a slightly positive effect on working memory. The study of brain CR targets opens new possibilities to prevent and treat cognitive deficits.

9.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(6): 822-827, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of late-life depression is challenged by high rates of treatment-resistance and adverse effects, along with medical comorbidities and polypharmacy. Together with the limited data on managing treatment-resistant depression in older adults, there is a need for investigating the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatment strategies. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one modality that may better serve this patient population. METHODS: The present study examines data from two previous clinical trials (NCT00305045 and NCT01515215) to explore the efficacy of bilateral and unilateral high-frequency left-sided (HFL) rTMS in older adults suffering from treatment-resistant depression. A total of 43 adults aged 60 or older with a current major depressive episode were randomized to bilateral sequential, unilateral HFL, or sham. Bilateral sequential stimulation involved low-frequency (1 Hz) right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation followed immediately by high-frequency (10 Hz) left DLPFC. The unilateral condition was HFL stimulation alone, and the placebo condition was either HFL or sequential bilateral form of sham. The primary outcome was remission of depression. RESULTS: Participants receiving bilateral rTMS experienced greater remission rates (40%) compared with unilateral (0%) or sham (0%) groups. Response to rTMS in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores similarly favored the efficacy of bilateral rTMS. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that sequential bilateral treatment may be an optimal form of rTMS when used for treatment-resistant depression in older adults. Further large-scale comparative effectiveness trials of bilateral rTMS in this population are warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(1): 87-93, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004842

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Emotional intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. Studying EI could potentially be useful in understanding addictive behaviors as well as for designing and planning interventions. Objectives To conduct a critical review on EI impairment in addiction disorders. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, and SciELO databases were searched. Articles that used the standardized Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) instrument to assess EI in people with addictions and healthy controls were selected for the review. Results We selected seven articles assessing EI and its associations with addiction disorders, mainly alcohol abuse and cocaine dependence. Most studies reported that individuals with addiction disorders had worse EI scores when compared to controls. Conclusion Overall, the studies reviewed demonstrated that addictions are associated with EI deficits, compared to controls. However, aspects such as the small number of addictive disorders analyzed, methodological issues related to instruments for assessment of IE and the lack of follow-up remain significant limitations.


Resumo Introdução Inteligência emocional (IE) é definida como a habilidade de perceber, compreender, utilizar e manejar emoções. Estudos em IE são potencialmente úteis na compreensão de comportamentos relacionados a adições, assim como no planejamento de intervenções. Objetivos Realizar revisão crítica da literatura em comprometimento da IE em adições. Métodos A busca foi realizada nas plataformas MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS e SciELO. Artigos que utilizaram o Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) para a avaliação de IE em adições e controles saudáveis foram incluídos na revisão. Resultados Nós selecionamos sete artigos que avaliaram IE e sua associação com dependência química e não química, especialmente abuso de álcool e dependência de cocaína. A maior parte dos estudos reportou que indivíduos com transtornos relacionados ao uso de substâncias apresentaram valores inferiores na MSCEIT em comparação a controles saudáveis. Conclusão De forma geral, os estudos revisados demostraram uma associação entre dependência química e déficits em IE na comparação com controles saudáveis. No entanto, a reduzida quantidade de transtornos de uso de substância analisada, problemas metodológicos relacionados a instrumentos de avaliação de IE e a ausência de seguimento dos sujeitos incluídos nos estudos são limitações significativas.

11.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(1): 94-102, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004845

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Emotional intelligence (EI) is a theoretical construct postulated by Mayer and Salovey to designate the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. The study of EI in schizophrenia offers new insights into the disorder's cognitive and functional impacts. Objectives To comprehensively review studies analyzing EI impairment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders using standardized instruments. Methods Searches were run on MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and SciELO databases. The only validated instrument used was the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT). Articles that used all branches of the MSCEIT to assess EI in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls were included in the review. Results We found 30 articles on this topic. The studies analyzed showed a significant impairment of MSCEIT total score in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders when compared to healthy controls. In relation to the MSCEIT branches, understanding of emotions and management of emotions are the most impaired branches. Conclusion Since most studies are cross-sectional, it is not possible to establish a cause and effect relationship between EI deficits and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Therefore, longitudinal studies are needed to establish a clearer relationship between these variables. By so doing, we may be able to intervene for prevention and management of these disorders, aiming at better quality of life for patients.


Resumo Introdução Inteligência emocional (IE) é um constructo postulado por Mayer e Salovey para designar a habilidade de perceber, entender, utilizar e gerenciar emoções. O estudo de IE em esquizofrenia oferece novos insights quanto ao impacto deste transtorno em funções cognitivas e funcionais. Objetivos Conduzir revisão da literatura que analisa o prejuízo em IE nos transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia utilizando instrumentos padronizados. Métodos Buscas foram realizadas nos bancos de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov e SciELO. O único instrumento validado utilizado foi a Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT). Artigos que utilizaram todas as ramificações da MSCEIT para avaliar IE em transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia e em controles saudáveis foram incluídos na revisão. Resultados Encontramos 30 artigos no tópico estudado. Os estudos analisados mostraram um prejuízo significativo da IE pela MSCEIT em pacientes com transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia quando comparados com controles saudáveis. Em relação às ramificações da MSCEIT, compreensão das emoções e gerenciamento das emoções foram as ramificações com maior prejuízo. Conclusão Devido à maior parte dos estudos serem estudos transversais, não é possível estabelecer uma relação de causa e efeito entre os déficits em IE e transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia. Portanto, estudos longitudinais são necessários para se estabelecer uma relação mais clara entre essas variáveis. Assim, talvez possamos intervir na prevenção e manejo desses transtornos, para uma melhor qualidade de vida dos pacientes.

13.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(4): 285-291, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570100

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The recovery housing (RH) program was initiated in São Paulo with the objective of providing treatment for substance use disorders and addressing users' housing and employment problems. The purpose of this study was to describe the model based on its first 11 months of operation, it was launched in June 2016 in Brazil. METHOD: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the records of all subjects treated in the RH of the Restart Program (Programa Recomeço) since its creation, from June 2016 to May 2017. RESULTS: Sixty-nine subjects were included. Thirty-five (51%) remained in the household until the end of treatment or were reinserted in society. Thirty-four (49%) presented recurrence during their stay, of which 16 (47%) volunteered for treatment in a therapeutic community or psychiatric hospital, 8 (23.5%) chose to continue with outpatient treatment only, 6 (17.7%) returned to their families and continued to receive outpatient treatment, and 4 (11.8%) discontinued the treatment. Of the 35 subjects who completed the RH program, 28 (80%) were in employment and 7 (20%) received governmental support for permanent disability on medical or psychiatric grounds. CONCLUSION: RH can be an important component of integrated care and is used in several countries. Although controversial, the use of urine tests to control relapse seems to have a positive impact on adherence to treatment and maintenance of abstinence. These preliminary findings corroborate, with clear limitations, the evidence available in the literature showing that RH programs are effective for the treatment of addictions.


Assuntos
Instituições Residenciais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adulto , Brasil , Integração Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Dados Preliminares , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(4): 285-291, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979439

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The recovery housing (RH) program was initiated in São Paulo with the objective of providing treatment for substance use disorders and addressing users' housing and employment problems. The purpose of this study was to describe the model based on its first 11 months of operation, it was launched in June 2016 in Brazil. Method: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the records of all subjects treated in the RH of the Restart Program (Programa Recomeço) since its creation, from June 2016 to May 2017. Results: Sixty-nine subjects were included. Thirty-five (51%) remained in the household until the end of treatment or were reinserted in society. Thirty-four (49%) presented recurrence during their stay, of which 16 (47%) volunteered for treatment in a therapeutic community or psychiatric hospital, 8 (23.5%) chose to continue with outpatient treatment only, 6 (17.7%) returned to their families and continued to receive outpatient treatment, and 4 (11.8%) discontinued the treatment. Of the 35 subjects who completed the RH program, 28 (80%) were in employment and 7 (20%) received governmental support for permanent disability on medical or psychiatric grounds. Conclusion: RH can be an important component of integrated care and is used in several countries. Although controversial, the use of urine tests to control relapse seems to have a positive impact on adherence to treatment and maintenance of abstinence. These preliminary findings corroborate, with clear limitations, the evidence available in the literature showing that RH programs are effective for the treatment of addictions.


Resumo Introdução: O Programa Moradia Monitorada (MM) foi iniciado em São Paulo com o objetivo de prover tratamento para transotrnos de uso de substâncias e problemas relacionados a moradia e emprego. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever o modelo com base nos primeiros 11 meses de operação (o programa foi lançado em junho de 2016 no Brasil). Métodos: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo utilizando os registros de todos os indivíduos tratados no MM do Programa Recomeço desde a sua criação. Resultados: Sessenta e nove indivíduos foram incluídos. Trinta e cinco (51%) permaneceram no tratamento até o fim ou foram reinseridos socialmente com sucesso. Trinta e quatro sujeitos (49%) apresentaram recidiva durante a permanência. Destes, 16 (47%) se voluntariaram para tratamento em comunidades terapêuticas ou hospitais psiquiátricos, 8 (23,5%) escolheram permanecer apenas no tratamento ambulatorial, 6 (17.7%) retornaram para suas famílias e continuaram o tratamento em uma unidade ambulatorial próxima ao domicílio, e 4 (11.8%) descontinuaram o tratamento. Dos 35 pacientes que completaram o tratamento, 28 (80%) estavam empregados em serviço regular e 7 (20%) recebiam aposentadoria por questões clínicas e/ou psiquiátricas. Conclusão: O modelo MM pode ser um componente importante na via de cuidados integrados e é utilizado em vários países. Apesar de controverso, o uso de análise de urina para vigilância da recidiva e da recorrência parece ter um impacto positivo na adesão ao tratamento e na manutenção da abstinência. Nossos achados preliminares corroboram, com claras limitações, os resultados reportados previamente na literatura, de que os programas de MM são efetivos no tratamento da dependência química.

16.
Schizophr Res ; 197: 34-44, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder with significant socioeconomic burden. Although current pharmacological treatments are effective for treating positive symptoms, medications have little-to-no effect in the treatment of negative symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) for negative symptoms in schizophrenia in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). METHODS: A systematic review in Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to May 31, 2017. The primary outcome was Hedges' g for continuous scores in a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I2 and χ2 tests. Publication bias was assessed using Begg's funnel plot. RESULTS: 31 RCTs (n = 1272) were included, most with small-to-modest sample sizes. Both repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were superior to sham (Hedges' g = 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.32; and 0.5; 0.02-0.97, respectively). Only one study evaluated the use of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS). The funnel plot and Eggers test showed that the risk of publication bias was low. In relation to heterogeneity, we found an I2 of 0% (p = 0.749) and 51.3% (0.055) for rTMS and tDCS, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both rTMS and tDCS were superior to sham stimulation for ameliorating negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We found no considerable heterogeneity or publication bias in our analysis, corroborating the strength of our findings. Not enough studies on other NIBS techniques, such as taVNS, were found for an isolated analysis. Further RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the specific impact of NIBS on negative symptoms in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
17.
Am J Addict ; 26(7): 660-666, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent neurobiological evidences along with clinical observations justify the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a medication for craving. The objective of our study was to assess the evidence of efficacy of NAC for craving in substance use disorders in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). METHODS: Systematic review of the RCTs literature (PROSPERO number 56698) until February, 2017, using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and clinicaltrials.gov. We included seven RCTs (n = 245); most with small-to-moderate sample sizes. The main outcome was the Hedges' g for continuous scores in a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I2 and the χ2 test. Publication bias was evaluated using the Begg's funnel plot and the Egger's test. Meta-regression was performed using the random-effects model. RESULTS: Comparing NAC versus placebo, NAC was significantly superior for craving symptoms (Hedges' g = 0.94; 95%CI 0.55-1.33). The funnel plot showed the risk of publication bias was low and between-study heterogeneity was not significant (I2 = 44.4%, p = 0.07 for the χ2 test). A subgroup analysis performed using meta-regression showed no particular influence. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: NAC was superior to placebo for craving reduction in SUDs. The relatively small number of trials and their heterogeneous methodology were possible limitations; however, these positive thrilling results stimulate further studies for clarifying the potential impact of NAC for craving symptoms in SUDs. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The safety profile of NAC and favorable tolerability, in addition to being an over-the-counter medication, presents with an interesting potential clinical use for craving in SUDs. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The safety profile of NAC and its favorable tolerability, in addition to being anover-the-counter medication, presents with an interesting potential clinical use for craving in SUDs. (Am J Addict 2017;26:660-666).


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 44(4): 99-102, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903030

RESUMO

Abstract Background Cognitive alterations are associated with benign childhood focal epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) including aspects of executive functions. Objectives This study presents the performance profile on attention and executive function tests of fifty-eight children (BCECTS, n = 30 and controls, n = 28) aged 8-13 years. Methods The following tools were employed: Vocabulary and Block Design subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III, Stroop Test, Modified Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association - FAS and Tower of London. Results Children with BCECTS presented average IQ measure, although their performance was statistically worse when compared to the control group. Children with BCECTS showed significantly lower performance compared to the control group in the following variables: total number of recollected words on the oral fluency test, total number of categories, categorization effect and total number of errors in MCST; and execution time for the Stroop Test Card 1. After controlling for the IQ effect, the total number of errors in the MCST did not show any significant difference between the groups. Discussion Children with BCECTS showed lower performance in attention and executive functions when compared to healthy children. The results suggest that the concept of "benign" BCECTS should be reconsidered.

20.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 39(1): 48-53, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28403323

RESUMO

Objective:: This study is a critical review analyzing occurrence of treatment-emergent mania (TEM) related to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS). Method:: We present a systematic review of the literature on TEM related to tDCS and TNS treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), conducted in accordance with the recommendations from Cochrane Group and the PRISMA guidelines. Results:: Our search identified few reported episodes of TEM in the literature. In fact, we found 11 trials focused on treatment of MDD (seven controlled trials of tDCS and four trials of TNS, three open label and one controlled). We highlight the need for safety assessment in clinical research settings to establish with precision and in larger samples the risks inherent to the technique under investigation. Conclusion:: Safety assessment is of fundamental importance in clinical research. TEM is a very important safety issue in MDD trials. Further and larger controlled trials will help to clarify both the safety and the clinical effects of combinations of pharmacotherapy and tDCS or TNS in daily clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Humanos , Nervo Trigêmeo
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