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1.
Int J Adolesc Youth ; 24(4): 474-483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709130

RESUMO

To analyze how socio-economic factors and behavioural characteristics are related to the failure of academic progress. Data of the 1993 Birth Cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, were analyzed using four follow-up waves. As a measure of the failure of academic progress, we used indicators of the age-grade gap. We analyzed the association of demographic, socio-economic, and behavioural characteristics. Factors associated with failure of academic progress were assessed through logistic regression. There are a higher odds of the age-grade gap when the adolescent is not white, man, of low socio-economic status, whose parents have low schooling and living in large families. In relation to risk behaviours, alcohol and tobacco consumption represent higher odds of the age-grade gap at age 18. The results show that socio-economic factors and behavioural characteristics are important predictors of academic progress. Public policies that seek to promote education should be targeted at the most vulnerable groups, decreasing the observed inequalities.

2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(12): 4395-4404, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778490

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze how economic crises affect child health globally and between subgroups of countries with different levels of income. Data from the World Bank and the World Health Organization were used for 127 countries between 1995 and 2014. A fixed effects model was used, evaluating the effect of the change on macroeconomic indicators (GDP per capita, unemployment and inflation rates and misery index) in neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates. Moreover, we evaluated whether there was a change in the association effect according to the income of the countries and also analyzed the role of public health expenditure in this association. Evidence has shown that worse economic indicators (lower GDP per capita, higher inflation, unemployment rates and misery index) are associated with higher child mortality rates. In the subsamples by income strata, the same association is observed, but with effects of greater magnitude for low- and middle-income countries. We also verified that a higher percentage in public health expenditures alleviates the effects of economic indicators on child mortality rates. Thus, more attention needs to be paid to the harmful effects of the macroeconomic crises to ensure improvements in child health.

3.
SSM Popul Health ; 8: 100419, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198837

RESUMO

This paper investigates the effect of attending physical education classes on mental health indicators - loneliness and insomnia - of Brazilian schoolchildren. The identification strategy consists of separating the sample into two parts: people who practice physical activity and who attend physical education classes at school and people who, despite not attending physical education classes, practice physical activities. The data are from the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), and the sample pairing method is the Propensity Score Matching with robustness analysis using the Bivariate Probit method and the sensitivity is tested using the method developed by Ichino, Mealli, and Nannicini (2008). For both girls and boys the results showed that physical education exerts a negative effect, reducing the probability of reporting problems of insomnia and loneliness among schoolchildren who attend the discipline. Although they show similar magnitudes, the observed effects are greater for boys, in both measures. The study investigates - in a rigorous and unprecedented way in the literature - the effect of physical education classes on the insomnia and loneliness of Brazilian school children. The results are important for the formulation of discipline maintenance policies in the curriculum of schoolchildren in Brazil.

4.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 9(3): 260-266, Dez. 2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-883011

RESUMO

Objetivo: Avaliar a influência de cinco estilos de vida sobre a autoavaliação da saúde como boa no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) realizada em 2013, com amostra de 46.785 indivíduos. O desfecho principal foi a autoavaliação de saúde como boa e utilizou-se a regressão logística para analisar os estilos de vida saudáveis associados a melhor autoavaliação de saúde. Resultados: Encontramos que o tabagismo, o consumo de álcool, a atividade física e a alimentação saudável são comportamentos que estão associados à autoavaliação de saúde. Pessoas que apresentam múltiplos comportamentos saudáveis apresentam chances maiores de avaliar positivamente sua saúde. Conclusão: Políticas de conscientização devem ser realizadas informando a população dos benefícios da adoção de hábitos de vida saudáveis.


Objective: Evaluating the influence of five lifestyles on health self-assessment as good in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study using data from the National Health Survey (PNS 2013) conducted in 2013, with a sample of 46,785 individuals. The main outcome was self-rated health as good and logistic regression was used to analyze healthy lifestyles associated with better self-rated health. Results: We found that smoking, drinking, physical activity and healthy eating are behaviors that are associated with self-rated health. People who have multiple healthy behaviors are more likely to positively evaluate their health. Conclusion: Awareness policies should be carried out to inform the population of the benefits of adopting a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Estilo de Vida Saudável
5.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171888, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187167

RESUMO

High fertility rates among disadvantaged subgroups are a public health problem because fertility levels significantly affect socioeconomic conditions and a population's welfare. This paper aims to analyze the sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors associated with fertility rates among Brazilian women aged between 15-49 years. A Poisson regression was used to analyze data from the 2006 PNDS (Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher), which evaluates socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, reproductive, behavioral, and chronic disease variables. The results show that the following characteristics are positively associated with an increase in the number of children born: being aged 20-24, residing in the North, being nonwhite, not being in paid employment, having lower education levels, having lower socioeconomic status, being in a stable union, having the first sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and having the first child before the age of 20. Thus, it is important to implement efficient family planning policies targeting these subgroups in order to improve life conditions, reduce inequalities and avoid the adverse outcomes of high fertility.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Número de Gestações , Paridade , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual
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