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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125457, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505414

RESUMO

Taking into account a growing market and small number of articles related to honeydew honey, a metabolomic approach associated with multivariate analysis and modelling was proposed to discriminate five varieties of honey. Advanced analytical techniques were used for determination of 20 elements, 14 carbohydrates and stable carbon isotope ratio. No chemical marker has been found within sugar compounds, but several elements (Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Al, Co, Ni, Se) were marked as characteristic of honey type and allow classification of three botanical origins (Abies alba, Quercus frainetto, Quercus ilex). Sugars turanose, trehalose, arabinose and raffinose, elements Ba, Sr, P, Cd and Se, and δ13C values of honey, have different concentrations in honeys of the same botanical origin but harvested in different season. In addition to a confirmation of authenticity in terms of production, the values of δ13C of protein could be a good indicator of botanical origin.

2.
Biomolecules ; 9(12)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779186

RESUMO

Information on compositional, nutritional and functional properties of bee-pollen, as a health-promoting food, is essential for defining its quality. Concerning the nutritional importance of phenolic compounds, the aim of this study was to determine the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of twenty-four bee-pollen samples collected from different regions of Serbia. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) fingerprinting was used for profiling of bee-pollen samples according to the botanical type. HPTLC hyphenated with image analysis and a pattern recognition technique confirmed the grouping of samples caused by the specific phenolic composition of pollens of different botanical origin. Flavonoid glycosides in bee-pollen samples were identified by applying ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap MS). Eight out of twenty-seven flavonol glycosides were identified in bee-pollen samples for the first time. All analyzed bee-pollen samples showed a high number of phenolic compounds which may have therapeutic potential.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16577-16587, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989605

RESUMO

Pollution caused by heavy metals affects all forms of life. The aim of the study was to determine the content of toxic (Sr, Ni, Pb, V, Cd, U, Rb, As) and essential (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Se, Mn, Cr, Mo, Co) metals in the bone and whole blood samples, in regard to clinical means of long- and short-term exposure, respectively. For this purpose, the cortical and trabecular parts of femoral neck, as well as the blood samples, were collected to quantify bone-important metals by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based techniques. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the most influential metal discriminating blood samples was Cu, while all other quantified elements were present in higher amounts in the bones. Additionally, trabecular bones (TBs) could be characterized by higher content of Mo, Cr, V, Mn, Co, As, and Ni compared to cortical bones (CBs). Linear discrimination analysis (LDA) was successfully applied to distinguish trabecular bone from the cortical bone. Significant correlation between essential Ca and toxic Sr with other elements was found and discussed. This study provides novel data on the effects of metal pollutants on bone health hazards. The results obtained for investigating metals may serve as a baseline for further clinical investigations in the orthopedic fields.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Colo do Fêmur/química , Metais Pesados/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Idoso , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Sérvia , Estrôncio/análise , Estrôncio/sangue , Oligoelementos/análise
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 5422-5434, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604363

RESUMO

The mobility (fractionation) of rare earth elements (REEs) and their possible impacts on ecosystems are still relatively unknown. Soil samples were collected from two sites in central Serbia, an unpolluted mountain region (site 1) and a forest near a city (site 2). In order to investigate REE fractions (acid-soluble/exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual) in soils, BCR sequential extraction was performed. Additionally, the content of REEs was also determined in stipes and caps of the mushroom Macrolepiota procera, growing in the observed sites. Sc, Y, and lanthanide contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and results were subjected to multivariate data analysis. Application of pattern recognition technique revealed the existence of two distinguished clusters belonging to different geographical sites and determined by greater levels of Sc, Y, and lanthanides in Goc soil compared to Trstenik soil. Additionally, PCA analysis showed that REEs in soil were concentrated in two groups: the first consisted of elements belonging to light REEs and the second contained heavy REEs. These results suggest that the distribution of REEs in soils could indicate the geographical origin and type of soil. The bioconcentration factors and translocation factors for each REE were also calculated. This study provides baseline data on the rare earth element levels in the wild edible mushroom M. procera, growing in Serbia. In terms of bioconcentration and bioexclusion concept, Sc, Y, and REEs were bioexcluded in M. procera for both studied sites.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/análise , Escândio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ítrio/análise , Florestas , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/farmacocinética , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Escândio/farmacocinética , Sérvia , Solo/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Ítrio/farmacocinética
5.
Food Chem ; 274: 629-641, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372988

RESUMO

Concerning the particular nutritive value of honeydew honey compared to blossom honey, and small number of studies defining botanical origin of honeydew honey, comprehensive analysis of phenolic profile of 64 honeydew honey samples of specific botanical origin was performed. Two advanced techniques of liquid chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry were used for identification of a total of 52 compounds and quantification of 25 of them. Pattern recognition analysis applied on data on phenolic compounds content confirmed that quercetin, naringenin, caffeoylquinic acid, hydroxyphenylacetic acid, apigenin and genistein, could be considered as potential markers of botanical origin of honeydew honey. Spectroscopic and electrochemical approaches were applied for the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity. Quercus sps. samples, Quercus frainetto and Quercus ilex, showed high biological activity and specific chemical composition. Additionally, cyclic voltammetry profiles were used for characterization and natural clustering of honeydew honey for the first time.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Mel/análise , Fenóis/análise , Quercus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Espectrometria de Massas , Valor Nutritivo , Análise de Componente Principal , Quercus/metabolismo
6.
Genome Announc ; 6(26)2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954883

RESUMO

We present complete genome sequences of 13 Propionibacterium acnes phages isolated from urban raw sewage. They belong to the family Siphoviridae, have genome sizes of 29,450.6 ± 256.5 nucleotides and G+C contents of 54.14% ± 0.22% and contain 42 to 45 coding DNA sequences (CDS). Genomic sequences of 9 of 13 phages were divergent by 6 to 10%, distinguishing them as species.

7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2018 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The compositional, functional, and nutritional properties of fruits are important for defining their quality. Fruit seeds should be better exploited as they are also considered to be a good source of bioactive components. Twenty macro, micro, and trace elements were identified and quantified in the seeds of 70 genuine wild and cultivated fruit species/cultivars by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sophisticated chemometric techniques were also used to establish criteria for the classification of the analyzed samples. RESULTS: Calcium and P were the most abundant elements, followed by K and Na. The content of microelements and trace elements differed among the different cultivars/genotypes. The content of Ba, Pb, and Sr was significantly higher in wild fruits, whereas Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn content was higher in cultivated fruits. CONCLUSION: All of the statistical procedures that were used - Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-test, and principal component analysis (PCA) - confirm a unique set of parameters that could be used as phytochemical biomarkers to differentiate fruit-seed samples belonging to different cultivars/genotypes according to their botanical origin. This kind of investigation may contribute to intercultivar/genetic discrimination and may enhance the possibilities of acquiring a valuable authenticity factor. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

8.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 48: 134-140, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773171

RESUMO

Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ((ICP-MS)) was used to determine three toxic (Ni, As, Cd) and six essential trace elements (Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se) in blood serum of patients with hypothyroidism (Hy group) and healthy people (control group), in order to set the experimental conditions for accurate determination of a unique profile of these elements in hypothyroidism. Method validation was performed with standard reference material of the serum by varying the sample treatment with both standard and collision mode for analysis of elements isotopes. Quadratic curvilinear functions with good performances of models and the lowest detection limits were obtained for 52Cr, 66Zn, 75As, 112Cd in collision mode, and 55Mn, 59Co, 60Ni, 65Cu, 78Se in standard mode. Treatment of serum samples with aqueous solution containing nitric acid, Triton X-100 and n-butanol gave the best results. Chemometric tools were applied for discrimination of patients with hypothyroidism. All nine elements discriminated Hy group of samples with almost the same discriminating power as indicated by their higher values for this group of patients. Statistically significant correlation (p < 0.01) was observed for several elements. Results indicated clear differences in element profile between Hy and control group and it could be used as a unique profile of hypothyroid state.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(4): 208, 2018 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525886

RESUMO

Content of potentially toxic elements was examined in soils from Srem (Vojvodina), to evaluate industrial facilities as pollution sources. Based on the distribution of the elements, the results of sequential extraction, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and statistical analysis, the current ecological status of the soils was determined. Elements in soils around the industrial facilities can be grouped into the five significant components derived by the principal component analysis (PCA), which explains 78.435% of the total variance. Al, Fe and Mg, and K and Mn are associated with two lithogenic components, respectively. Anthropogenic origin is identified for Hg and Cd. Mixed sources, geogenic and anthropogenic, are identified within two PCA components; one wich includes As, Pb, B, Zn, and the other: K and Cr, Ni and Cu. Cluster analysis (CA) corroborated the results obtained by PCA. The preliminary results revealed that the soils studied in a vicinity of industrial facilities in Srem have been exposed to different degrees of pollution. Among the characterized studied elements, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Cr are the main contaminants. Based on calculated EF, the studied soils show minor to severe enrichment with heavy metals. Ecological risk assessment results indicate that Cd and Hg carry the highest ecological risk level, and Zn and Cr the lowest.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Medição de Risco , Sérvia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602909

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation and excretion of heavy metals in insects is only partially clarified. We have investigated cadmium accumulation in the feces, head and integument of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae exposed to chronic dietary intake of cadmium. The aim of the experiment was to establish modalities of metal accumulation, primarily cadmium, as well as changes in fitness traits in two insect populations receiving 50 or 100µgCd/g dry food. The egg-masses originated from two localities: a protected nature reserve (unpolluted population) and an area near a busy highway (polluted population) in Serbia. At both added dietary levels cadmium concentration was highest in feces. Small alterations in metal concentrations after both cadmium treatments were detected in the integument. It was established that irrespective of population origin, the modality of decline of larval mass and relative growth rate (RGR) was similar. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in the integument were approximately the same regardless of dietary cadmium intake. However, cadmium accumulation in the examined tissues, as well as variability of fitness traits depended on population origin and cadmium concentration. In larvae from both populations not given contaminated food the head was the organ with the greatest accumulation of trace elements. Our results reveal how invasive phytophagous insects cope with high metal concentrations in their food by body mass (RGR) reduction and energy allocation towards processes that enable accumulation of cadmium and other trace elements in different tissues.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Animais , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo
11.
J AOAC Int ; 100(4): 862-870, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534465

RESUMO

The present work aims to provide a contribution to the overall investigation of European unifloral honeys with regard to authentication according to botanical and geographical origins. The mineral content of 206 monofloral honey samples of five botanical origins from six different regions in Serbia was investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Chemometric techniques were applied for the classification and differentiation of acacia, sunflower, and linden honey according to botanical origin, as well as acacia honey samples according to regional origin. The highest influence on the differentiation of acacia honey samples was the presence of siderophile and chalcophile elements, whereas sunflower and linden honeys were determined by the presence of lithophile elements, indicating their origin from soil. However, due to the different bioaccumulation properties of plants, the presence of elements is not necessarily directly correlated to their presence in soil, which is confirmed by the results of the authentication of geographical origin of acacia honey.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Minerais/análise , Acacia , Geografia , Helianthus , Análise Espectral , Tilia
12.
J AOAC Int ; 100(4): 827-839, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527183

RESUMO

Honey is a precious natural product that is marketed with a wide range of nutritional and medicinal properties. However, it is also a product subjected to frequent adulteration through mislabeling and mixing with cheaper and lower-quality honeys and various sugar syrups. In that sense, honey authentication regarding its genuine botanical and geographical origins, as well as the detection of any adulteration, is essential in order to protect consumer health and to avoid competition that could create a destabilized market. Various analytical techniques have been developed to detect adulterations in honey, including measuring the ratios of stable isotopes (mostly 13C/12C) and the use of different spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrochemical methods. This review aims to provide a cross-section of contemporary analytical methods used for the determination of honey authenticity in order to help the scientific community engaged in the field of honey chemistry make appropriate choices and select the best applications that should lead to improvements in the detection and elimination of fraudulent practices in honey manufacturing.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Mel/análise , Carboidratos , Isótopos de Carbono/análise
13.
Talanta ; 162: 72-79, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27837887

RESUMO

Considering the introduction of phytochemical fingerprint analysis, as a method of screening the complex natural products for the presence of most bioactive compounds, use of chemometric classification methods, application of powerful scanning and image capturing and processing devices and algorithms, advancement in development of novel stationary phases as well as various separation modalities, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting is becoming attractive and fruitful field of separation science. Multivariate image analysis is crucial in the light of proper data acquisition. In a current study, different image processing procedures were studied and compared in detail on the example of HPTLC chromatograms of plant resins. In that sense, obtained variables such as gray intensities of pixels along the solvent front, peak area and mean values of peak were used as input data and compared to obtained best classification models. Important steps in image analysis, baseline removal, denoising, target peak alignment and normalization were pointed out. Numerical data set based on mean value of selected bands and intensities of pixels along the solvent front proved to be the most convenient for planar-chromatographic profiling, although required at least the basic knowledge on image processing methodology, and could be proposed for further investigation in HPLTC fingerprinting.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Resinas Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/instrumentação , Fenóis/análise , Plantas/química , Plantas/classificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sérvia , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Ecotoxicology ; 25(8): 1531-1542, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27629268

RESUMO

Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species and can induce oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of several metals on oxidative stress in the skin and muscle of the Pelophylax esculentus "complex" frogs (parental species Pelophylax ridibundus, Pelophylax lessonae, and their hybrid Pelophylax esculentus) that inhabit the wetland Obedska Bara in Serbia, and the potential use of these species as bioindicator organisms in biomonitoring studies. The biomarkers of oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR, GST activities and GSH, SH concentrations) and cholinesterase activity were investigated. The concentrations of nine metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb) were measured in the water and tissues. Correlations were established between metals and biomarkers in the tissues. The results of metal accumulation distinguished the skin of P. lessonae and muscle of P. ridibundus from other P. esculentus complex species. The oxidative stress biomarkers observed in P. ridibundus and P. esculentus had greater similarity than in P. lessonae. The P. lessonae displayed the highest number of correlations between biomarkers and metals. The results of tissue responses revealed that skin was more susceptible to metal-induced oxidative stress, with only exception of As. In the light of these findings, we can suggest the use of P. esculentus complex species as a biomonitoring species in studies of metal accumulation and metal-induced oxidative stress, but with special emphasis on P. lessonae.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Rana esculenta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Metais/análise , Metais/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Músculos/metabolismo , Sérvia , Pele/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(21): 22084-22098, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27541154

RESUMO

The content and bioaccumulation of trace (Ag, Se, As) and major elements (Ca, Mg, Na and K) in wild edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera and its corresponding soil substrates, collected from five sites in the Rasina region in central Serbia, were investigated. The content of Ag, As and Se was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while the amount of Ca, Mg, Na and K was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentrations of major elements in the mushrooms were at typical levels. As far as trace elements are concerned, M. procera bioaccumulates silver although all samples were collected from unpolluted sites. It was found that the content of Ag depended on the geographical origin and the density of fruiting body on the certain site. Principal component analysis distinguished the mushroom samples from different geographical areas and revealed the influence of soil composition on metal content in fruiting bodies. Also, a linear regression correlation test was performed to investigate correlations between Ag, Cd, Se, Pb and As in caps and stipes at different geographic sites separately. In addition, our results indicated that M. procera could serve as a good dietary source of Mg, K and Se. The content of Ag and As was low, so it could not pose a health risk for consumers.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Arsênico/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Selênio/análise , Selênio/metabolismo , Sérvia , Prata/análise , Prata/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0157097, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27272728

RESUMO

New information has come to light about the biological activity of propolis and the quality of natural products which requires a rapid and reliable assessment method such as High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting. This study investigates chromatographic and chemometric approaches for determining the antimicrobial activity of propolis of Serbian origin against various bacterial species. A linear multivariate calibration technique, using Partial Least Squares, was used to extract the relevant information from the chromatographic fingerprints, i.e. to indicate peaks which represent phenolic compounds that are potentially responsible for the antimicrobial capacity of the samples. In addition, direct bioautography was performed to localize the antibacterial activity on chromatograms. The biological activity of the propolis samples against various bacterial species was determined by a minimum inhibitory concentration assay, confirming their affiliation with the European poplar type of propolis and revealing the existence of two types (blue and orange) according to botanical origin. The strongest antibacterial activity was exhibited by sample 26 against Staphylococcus aureus, with a MIC value of 0.5 mg/mL, and Listeria monocytogenes, with a MIC as low as 0.1 mg/mL, which was also the lowest effective concentration observed in our study. Generally, the orange type of propolis shows higher antimicrobial activity compared to the blue type. PLS modelling was performed on the HPTLC data set and the resulting models might qualitatively indicate compounds that play an important role in the activity exhibited by the propolis samples. The most relevant peaks influencing the antimicrobial activity of propolis against all bacterial strains were phenolic compounds at RF values of 0.37, 0.40, 0.45, 0.51, 0.60 and 0.70. The knowledge gained through this study could be important for attributing the antimicrobial activity of propolis to specific chemical compounds, as well as the verification of HPTLC fingerprinting as a reliable method for the identification of compounds that are potentially responsible for antimicrobial activity. This is the first report on the activity of Serbian propolis as determined by several combined methods, including the modelling of antimicrobial activity by HPTLC fingerprinting.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Própole/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Própole/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(13): 13178-90, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27023804

RESUMO

During many years of industrial development, soil system was contaminated with large amounts of toxic metals. In order to investigate the mobility and availability of metals from soil to mushrooms, the content of 13 elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn), in caps and stipes of wild-grown edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera and soil substrates, collected from five sites in Rasina region in central Serbia, was determined. Soil samples were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference in order to fractionate acid-soluble/exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and the results subjected to multivariate data analysis. A principal component analysis distinguished mushrooms samples from different geographical areas and revealed the influence of soil composition on metal content in mushrooms. Hierarchical cluster analyses confirmed that the first three phases of extraction were the most important for metal uptake by mushrooms from soil. The bioconcentration factors and translocation factors for each metal were also calculated. These results showed that M. procera could serve as a good dietary source of essential elements, especially Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe but the consumption of mushrooms may pose a health risk for consumers during the "season of mushrooms," due to the presence of cadmium.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Sérvia , Solo/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica
18.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 54(7): 1077-83, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931733

RESUMO

Propolis is a "natural" remedy with prominent biological activity, which is used as dietary supplement. In the absence of clinical studies that would substantiate these claims, information on the biological activity of propolis is valuable. This study comprises chromatographic, image processing and chemometric approach for phenolic profiling of Serbian, Croatian and Slovenian propolis test solutions. Modern thin-layer chromatography equipment in combination with software for image processing was applied for fingerprinting and data acquisition, whereas the principal component analysis was used as pattern recognition method. Characterization of phenolic profile was performed along with the determination of the botanical and geographical origin of propolis. High-performance thin-layer chromatograms reveal that Central and Southeastern European propolis samples are rich in flavonoids. In addition, phenolic compounds proved to be suitable markers for the determination of European propolis authenticity.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/normas , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Própole/química , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Croácia , Humanos , Populus , Análise de Componente Principal , Resinas Vegetais/química , Sérvia , Eslovênia , Ceras/química
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(10): 9649-59, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26846240

RESUMO

To understand the effect of metals on the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus and the possible environment-induced changes in oxidative stress enzymes, we determined the concentrations of 18 metals: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, In, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn, in the tissues (liver, skin, and muscle) and water samples collected from different locations in Serbia. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and changes in concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and sulfhydryl groups (SH) were analyzed in the tissues of the sampled frogs. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, and Ni were highest in the liver, whereas those of Ba, Ca, Li, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn were highest in the skin. Hg correlated positively with liver SOD (in frogs from Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal (DTD)), muscle CAT (DTD), and muscle GST Ponjavica River (PO); Pb demonstrated a strong positive correlation with liver GR in frogs from Mt. Fruska Gora (FG); Cd only exhibited a positive correlation with AChE in the skin of frogs from DTD. In the skin, Zn correlated positively with AChE (DTD), SH groups (PO), and CAT (FG), and negatively with CAT, GST, and SH in the liver of frogs from DTD. Examination of these oxidative stress biomarkers, together with analysis of metal accumulation in the liver and skin of marsh frogs, provides a powerful tool for the assessment of metal pollution.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Metais , Estresse Oxidativo , Ranidae/metabolismo , Animais , Metais/análise , Metais/metabolismo , Metais/farmacocinética , Sérvia , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 70(4): 433-40, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26497505

RESUMO

Large amounts of fruit seeds, especially peach, are discarded annually in juice or conserve producing industries which is a potential waste of valuable resource and serious disposal problem. Regarding the fact that peach seeds can be obtained as a byproduct from processing companies their exploitation should be greater and, consequently more information of cultivars' kernels and their composition is required. A total of 25 samples of kernels from various peach germplasm (including commercial cultivars, perspective hybrids and vineyard peach accessions) differing in origin and ripening time were characterized by evaluation of their sugar composition. Twenty characteristic carbohydrates and sugar alcohols were determined and quantified using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC/PAD). Sucrose, glucose and fructose are the most important sugars in peach kernels similar to other representatives of the Rosaceae family. Also, high amounts of sugars in seeds of promising hybrids implies that through conventional breeding programs peach kernels with high sugar content can be obtained. In addition, by the means of several pattern recognition methods the variables that discriminate peach kernels arising from diverse germplasm and different stage of maturity were identified and successful models for further prediction were developed. Sugars such as ribose, trehalose, arabinose, galactitol, fructose, maltose, sorbitol, sucrose, iso-maltotriose were marked as most important for such discrimination.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Prunus persica , Sementes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutose/análise , Frutas/química , Glucose/análise , Prunus persica/química , Prunus persica/classificação , Prunus persica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sacarose/análise , Edulcorantes , Resíduos
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