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1.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 154(2): 55-58, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies represents a major public health issue for travellers because pretravel preexposure (PrEP) rabies vaccination is not routinely indicated. For those unvaccinated, adequate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), including rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) if needed, is the only effective method to prevent this fatal disease. METHODS: Descriptive retrospective study at a National Referral Unit for Tropical and Travel Medicine in Madrid, Spain, among travellers treated with PEP for rabies (January 2012-December 2017). Demographic, clinical and management data were reviewed. RESULTS: 168 patients were treated for possible rabies exposure (53% females, median age 35 years; IQR: 31-42). Southeast Asia accounted for more than half of the cases (N=86, 57.3%; CI 95% 49-65%). Dogs were the primary animal involved (n=67, 44.9%; CI 37-53%). After the bite, in half of the cases (n=88, 52.4%; CI 44-60%) PEP rabies vaccine was started abroad, and the vaccine plus RIG in about 10% (n=22, 13.1%; CI: 8-19%). Most of patients classified as category III did not received RIG at all (n=88, 69.3% CI: 60-77%). CONCLUSIONS: Although indicated, most travellers did not receive RIG abroad, nor appropriate first doses of PEP. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of appropriate PrEP in selected individuals.

2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101543, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From the first Zika virus (ZIKV) description, it has progressively widespread worldwide. We analyzed demographic, clinical, microbiologic and travel-related characteristic from returned patients from a ZIKV endemic country in a referral Tropical Medicine Unit. METHOD: A prospective cohort study performed in a Spanish referral center with the aim of determining the significant factors associated with confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. RESULTS: 817 patients, (56% women, median age 36 [IQR, Interquartile Range: 32-42]) were enrolled. Most had returned from Latin America (n = 486; 59.4%), travelled for tourism (n = 404; 49.4%) and stayed a median of 18 days (IQR: 10-30). 602 (73.6%) presented symptoms, but only 25 (4%) were finally diagnosed with confirmed ZIKV infection (including two pregnant women, without adverse fetal outcomes), 88% (n:22) presented with fever and 92% (n:23) with rash. 56% (n:14) arthralgia and/or myalgia and 28% (n:7) conjunctivitis. The presence of conjunctivitis, fever and rash were associated with an 8.9 (95% CI: 2.2-34.9), 6.4 (95% CI: 1.2-33.3) and 72.3 (95% CI: 9.2-563.5) times greater probability of confirmed ZIKV infection, respectively. CONCLUSION: Travel characteristics and clinical presentation may help clinicians to optimize requests for microbiological testing. Diagnosis of arboviriasis in travellers arriving form endemic areas remains a challenge for clinicians, but must be detected for the possible transmission outside endemic areas, where the vector is present.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164819

RESUMO

Benznidazole (Bzn) from the nitroimidazole family and nifurtimox from nitrofurans family, are drugs used as first and second line treatment for acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease (CD). Even though skin reactions are frequent, confirmed allergy to Bzn is rare, and there are few cases reported in the literature. Since CD treatment is very restrained, the possibility of cross-reactivity between members of the same and other pharmacological families highlights the importance of an adequate diagnosis that allows alternative treatments in CD and other diseases. We report a series of 31 patients (69% women) referred to our Allergy unit with suspected hypersensitivity to Bzn, twenty three of them with mild reactions and eight of them with severe reactions. LTT with Bzn was performed in 31 patients and in 8 negative controls. LTT was also performed in 25 and 20 of these patients with nifurtimox and Mtn, respectively. Twenty-one out of thirty-one patients were Bzn prick tested, and all were negative. We obtained 2/19 positive results on patch tests to Bzn. LTT with Bzn was positive in 22/31 patients (Sensitivity 75.9% and specificity 100%). The test was considered positive with a stimulation index ≥2. There was a positive result in 7/25 patients for nifurtimox and in 7/20 patients with Mtn. After negative LTT and skin tests, oral provocation was performed in 4/9 patients, all negative. LTT is a safe test that seems to be more useful than skin tests (prick and patch test), particularly in severe reactions, in confirming delayed hypersensitivity to Bzn and detecting cross reactivity with other imidazoles such as Mtn and reactivity to other drugs like nifurtimox. Tests for these drugs need to be included in the workup of patients with hypersensitivity to Bzn in case they are needed as an alternative treatment for CD or to treat other frequent infectious diseases.

4.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(8): 517-522, oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176811

RESUMO

La fiebre hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo afecta a más de 30 países de África, Asia, Europa oriental y Oriente Medio, con una creciente incidencia durante los últimos años, especialmente en Europa. Sin un tratamiento específico eficaz, las medidas terapéuticas de soporte son fundamentales, así como disponer de un centro con los medios adecuados para garantizar la seguridad de los trabajadores. La monitorización analítica es esencial para el manejo de la trombocitopenia, la coagulopatía grave o el fallo hepático. La atención a los pacientes con fiebre hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo debe llevarse a cabo en Unidades de Aislamiento de Alto Nivel, capaces de aplicar procedimientos de biocontención que eviten la transmisión nosocomial a través de fluidos infectados o accidentes con material contaminado. En caso de exposiciones de alto riesgo podría plantearse la administración precoz de ribavirina


Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with an increasing incidence in recent years, especially in Europe. Because no specific treatments have demonstrated efficacy, supportive treatment is essential, as well as the provision of a centre with the appropriate means to guarantee the safety of its healthcare professionals. Laboratory monitoring of thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy or liver failure is of critical importance. Patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever should be admitted to High Level Isolation Units where appropriate biocontainment procedures can prevent nosocomial transmission through infected fluids or accidents with contaminated material. In case of high-risk exposures, early administration of ribavirin should be considered


Assuntos
Humanos , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/terapia , Prognóstico
6.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-170107

RESUMO

Introduction: A considerable increase of imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in Europe in the last year. This is the result of the large outbreak of the disease in the Americas, along with the increase in the numbers of travellers and immigrants arriving from ZIKV endemic areas. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital La Paz-Carlos III in Madrid on travellers returning from an endemic area for ZIKV from January to April 2016. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were analyzed. Results: A total of 185 patients were screened for ZIKV (59.9% women, median age of 37.7±10.3 years). Main purpose of the travel was tourism to Colombia, Brazil, and México. Just under three-quarters (73%) were symptomatic, mostly with fever and headache. A total of 13 patients (7% of those screened) were diagnosed with ZIKV infections, of which four of them were pregnant. All of them were symptomatic patients, the majority immigrants, and mainly from Colombia. Diagnostic tests were based on positive neutralization antibodies (8 cases, 61.6%) and a positive RT-PCR in different organic fluids (7 cases, 53.8%) The four infected pregnant women underwent a neurosonography every 3 weeks, and no alterations were detected. RT-PCR in amniotic fluid was performed in three of them, with negative results. One of the children has already been born healthy. Conclusions: Our cases series represents the largest cohort of imported ZIKV to Spain described until now. Clinicians must increase awareness about the progression of the ZIKV outbreak and the affected areas so that they can include Zika virus infection in their differential diagnosis for travellers from those areas (AU)


Introducción: En el último año se ha registrado un importante aumento de casos de infección por virus Zika (ZIKV) importados en Europa. Este hecho es un reflejo de la epidemia que actualmente se está produciendo en las Américas, así como del aumento del número de viajeros e inmigrantes que proceden de zonas endémicas. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de los viajeros retornados de área endémica para ZIKV en la Unidad de Medicina Tropical del Hospital La Paz-Carlos III en Madrid, de enero a abril de 2016. Se recogieron y analizaron datos demográficos, clínicos y microbiológicos. Resultados: Se cribaron para ZIKV un total de 185 pacientes (59,9% mujeres, mediana de edad de 37,7±10,3 años). El propósito por el que habían realizado el viaje fue por turismo a Colombia, Brasil y México. El 73% de los inicialmente cribados presentaron síntomas, fundamentalmente fiebre y cefalea. Se diagnosticó infección por ZIKV a 13 pacientes (7% de los cribados); 4 de ellos eran gestantes. Todos los casos con infección confirmada estaban sintomáticos, y la mayoría eran inmigrantes colombianos. El diagnóstico se basó en la presencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes positivos (8 casos, 61,6%) y RT-PCR positiva en diferentes fluidos orgánicos (7 casos, 53,8%). A las 4 gestantes infectadas se les realizó neurosonografía fetal seriada cada 3 semanas, no detectándose alteraciones en ninguna de ellas. En 3 casos se realizó RT-PCR en líquido amniótico, que fue negativo. Uno de los niños ha nacido, y está completamente sano. Conclusiones: Nuestra serie representa la cohorte más grande de infección por ZIKV importada en España hasta la fecha. Los clínicos deben estar alerta sobre la evolución de la epidemia del ZIKV y las zonas a las que afecta, para poder incluir la infección por ZIKV dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de viajeros que regresan de esas áreas (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Infecções por Arbovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Arbovirus/microbiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/microbiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem/história , Medicina de Viagem/tendências , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(1): 4-8, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27743683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A considerable increase of imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in Europe in the last year. This is the result of the large outbreak of the disease in the Americas, along with the increase in the numbers of travellers and immigrants arriving from ZIKV endemic areas. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital La Paz-Carlos III in Madrid on travellers returning from an endemic area for ZIKV from January to April 2016. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 185 patients were screened for ZIKV (59.9% women, median age of 37.7±10.3 years). Main purpose of the travel was tourism to Colombia, Brazil, and México. Just under three-quarters (73%) were symptomatic, mostly with fever and headache. A total of 13 patients (7% of those screened) were diagnosed with ZIKV infections, of which four of them were pregnant. All of them were symptomatic patients, the majority immigrants, and mainly from Colombia. Diagnostic tests were based on positive neutralization antibodies (8 cases, 61.6%) and a positive RT-PCR in different organic fluids (7 cases, 53.8%) The four infected pregnant women underwent a neurosonography every 3 weeks, and no alterations were detected. RT-PCR in amniotic fluid was performed in three of them, with negative results. One of the children has already been born healthy. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases series represents the largest cohort of imported ZIKV to Spain described until now. Clinicians must increase awareness about the progression of the ZIKV outbreak and the affected areas so that they can include Zika virus infection in their differential diagnosis for travellers from those areas.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Infecção por Zika virus , Adulto , Américas , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Viagem , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
8.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(8): 517-522, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669587

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with an increasing incidence in recent years, especially in Europe. Because no specific treatments have demonstrated efficacy, supportive treatment is essential, as well as the provision of a centre with the appropriate means to guarantee the safety of its healthcare professionals. Laboratory monitoring of thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy or liver failure is of critical importance. Patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever should be admitted to High Level Isolation Units where appropriate biocontainment procedures can prevent nosocomial transmission through infected fluids or accidents with contaminated material. In case of high-risk exposures, early administration of ribavirin should be considered.


Assuntos
Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/terapia , Humanos
9.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 31(6): 531-534, nov.-dic. 2017. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168545

RESUMO

La actual epidemia por virus Zika ha generado gran alarma social, favorecida en parte por la falta de información de la población general. Para proporcionar información veraz y contrastada, la Unidad de Medicina Tropical y del Viajero del Hospital Carlos III-La Paz (Madrid) puso en marcha una línea de atención telefónica sobre la infección por el virus Zika. En este artículo se presentan los datos relativos a los primeros 6 meses de su funcionamiento. El perfil predominante de llamadas corresponde a mujeres solicitando información previa a la realización del viaje. Los destinos sobre los que más información se ha demandado han sido Brasil, Méjico y Colombia. La mayoría de las llamadas se resolvieron ofreciendo información exclusivamente. La implementación de dispositivos de atención telefónica que ofrezcan información contrastada y fiable en el contexto de enfermedades asociadas a gran alarma social es de gran interés sanitario, reduce el número de consultas innecesarias y ahorra costes (AU)


The current outbreak of Zika virus has caused great social alarm, generated in part by the lack of information in the general population. In order to provide accurate and verified information, the Tropical and Travel Medicine Unit of Hospital Carlos III-La Paz (Madrid, Spain) established a hotline for Zika virus infection. We present the data concerning the first 6 months of operation of the telephone hotline. The predominant call profile consisted of women seeking information about the risk of acquiring the disease before travelling. Brazil, Mexico and Colombia were the destinations for which the most information was requested. Most of the consultations were resolved by providing information only. The implementation of call devices that provide confirmed and reliable information on diseases associated with great alarm are of significant public health interest, as they reduce the number of unnecessary medical consultations and save on medical costs (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Telefone , Saúde do Viajante , Saúde Global/normas , Epidemias , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Análise Estatística
11.
N Engl J Med ; 377(2): 154-161, 2017 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700843

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, viral, tickborne disease. In Europe, cases have been reported only in the southeastern part of the continent. We report two autochthonous cases in Spain. The index patient acquired the disease through a tick bite in the province of Ávila - 300 km away from the province of Cáceres, where viral RNA from ticks was amplified in 2010. The second patient was a nurse who became infected while caring for the index patient. Both were infected with the African 3 lineage of this virus. (Funded by Red de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Tropicales [RICET] and Efficient Response to Highly Dangerous and Emerging Pathogens at EU [European Union] Level [EMERGE].).


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Colo/patologia , Busca de Comunicante , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/classificação , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/patologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/transmissão , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espanha
12.
Gac Sanit ; 31(6): 531-534, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645459

RESUMO

The current outbreak of Zika virus has caused great social alarm, generated in part by the lack of information in the general population. In order to provide accurate and verified information, the Tropical and Travel Medicine Unit of Hospital Carlos III-La Paz (Madrid, Spain) established a hotline for Zika virus infection. We present the data concerning the first 6 months of operation of the telephone hotline. The predominant call profile consisted of women seeking information about the risk of acquiring the disease before travelling. Brazil, Mexico and Colombia were the destinations for which the most information was requested. Most of the consultations were resolved by providing information only. The implementation of call devices that provide confirmed and reliable information on diseases associated with great alarm are of significant public health interest, as they reduce the number of unnecessary medical consultations and save on medical costs.


Assuntos
Linhas Diretas , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Medicina Tropical/organização & administração , Infecção por Zika virus , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
14.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 83(2): 400-415, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543764

RESUMO

AIM: We conducted a prospective evaluation of all eosinophilic drug reactions (EDRs) through the Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital to find out the incidence and distribution of these entities in our hospital, their causative drugs, and predictors. METHODS: All peripheral eosinophilia >700 × 106  cells l-1 detected at admission or during hospitalisation, were prospectively monitored over 42 months. The spectrum of the localised or systemic manifestation of EDR, the incidence, the distribution of causative drugs, and the predictors were analysed. RESULTS: The incidence of EDR was 16.67 (95% Poisson confidence interval [CI]: 9.90-25.98) per 10 000 admissions. Of 274 cases of EDR, 154 (56.2%) cases in 148 patients were asymptomatic hypereosinophilia. In the remaining 120 (43.8%) cases, there was other involvement. Skin and soft tissue reactions were detected in 36 (13.1%) cases; visceral EDRs in 19(7.0%) cases; and drug-induced eosinophilic cutaneous and visceral manifestations were detected in the remaining 65 (23.7%) cases, 64 of which were potential drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). After adjusting for age, sex, and hospitalisation wards, predictors of symptomatic eosinophilia were earlier onset of eosinophilia (hazard ratio [HR], 10.49; 95%CI: 3.13-35.16) higher eosinophil count (HR, 8.51; 95%CI: 3.28-22.08), and a delayed onset of corticosteroids (HR, 1.34; 95%CI: 1.01-1.73). A higher eosinophil count in patients with DRESS was significantly associated with greater impairment of liver function, prolonged hospitalisation, higher cumulative doses of corticosteroids, and if hypogammaglobinaemia was detected, a reactivation of human-herpesvirus 6 was subsequently detected. CONCLUSIONS: Half (53.3%, 64/120 cases) of symptomatic EDRs were potential DRESS. The main predictor of severity of EDR was an early severe eosinophilia.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/induzido quimicamente , Farmacovigilância , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Erupção por Droga/epidemiologia , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Erupção por Droga/patologia , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/etiologia , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
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