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1.
Physiother Res Int ; : e1837, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of thoracoabdominal mobility is a tool extensively used in the physiotherapy practice in different populations. Photogrammetry may be a simple tool to analyse thoracoabdominal mobility; however, it is unclear whether this assessment can be a reliable method. AIM: To test the reliability intra-examinator by photogrammetry in asthmatic patients and in health controls. METHODS: Twenty-six asthmatic patients (29 ± 9 years) and 14 healthy matched controls (27 ± 8 years) were assessed by thoracoabdominal mobility. Photographs during rest, during inspiration and expiration maximum were used to calculate latero-lateral and antero-posterior diameters of the thorax (at axillary and xiphoid levels) and umbilical by markers positioned in osseous structures. An evaluator obtained the same measurements in an 8-day interval. RESULTS: We found a moderate reliability for axillary, xiphoid and umbilical mobility (average intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] respectively [0.68, 0.55 and 0.73]) for asthmatic group. In addition, for control group, we found a moderate reliability for axillary mobility (average ICC respectively [0.68] and a good reliability for xiphoid and umbilical mobility) (average ICC 0.81 and 0.70). Bland-Altman plots showed goods limit of agreement in photos 1 and 2 in both groups. CONCLUSION: The photogrammetric analysis of thoracoabdominal mobility presented itself as a reliable method and may be used in clinical practice in asthmatic patients and in controls.

2.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important prognostic marker in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) also negatively affects exercise tolerance. However, the impact of their association on CRF has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that patients with overlap syndrome would demonstrate a greater impairment in CRF, particularly those with severe COPD. METHODS: Individuals with COPD were recruited. First, subjects underwent clinical and spirometry evaluation. Next, home-based sleep evaluation was performed. Subjects with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 episodes/h were allocated to the COPD group and those with an AHI ≥ 15 episodes/h to the overlap group. On the second visit, subjects underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Subsequently, they were divided into four groups according to the severity of COPD and coexistence of OSA: COPDI/II; overlap I/II; COPDIII/IV; and overlap III/IV. RESULTS: Of the 268 subjects screened, 31 were included. The overlap group exhibited higher values for peak carbon dioxide (COPD: 830 [678-1157]; overlap: 1127 [938-1305] mm Hg; p < 0.05), minute ventilation (COPD: 31 [27-45]; overlap: 48 [37-55] L; p < 0.05), and peak systolic blood pressure (COPD: 180 [169-191]; overlap: 220 [203-227] mm Hg; p <; 0.001) and peak diastolic blood pressure COPD: 100 [93-103]; overlap: 110 [96-106] mm Hg; p < 0.001). COPD severity associated with OSA produced a negative impact on exercise time (COPDIII/IV: 487 ± 102; overlap III/IV: 421 ± 94 s), peak oxygen uptake (COPDIII/IV: 12 ± 2; overlap III/IV: 9 ± 1 ml.Kg.min-1 ; p < 0.05) and circulatory power (COPDIII/IV: 2306 ± 439; overlap III/IV: 2162 ± 340 ml/kg/min.mmHg; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Overlap syndrome causes greater hemodynamic and ventilatory demand at the peak of dynamic exercise. In addition, OSA overlap in individuals with more severe COPD impairs CRF.

3.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(6): e20180252, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a cut-off point for clinical and functional variables to determinate sarcopenia and dynapenia in COPD patients, and to analyze the impact of skeletal muscle dysfunction (SMD) on these variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, screened COPD patients for sarcopenia or dynapenia through low muscle mass and hand grip strength (HGS). Clinical variables: pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity (FC). The precision of the variables in determining points of predictive cut-off for sarcopenia or dynapenia were performed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: 20 COPD patients stratified for sarcopenia (n = 11) and dynapenia (n = 07). Sarcopenia group presented lower lean mass and lower maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), decreased HGS, reduced FC (p<0.050). Dynapenia group presented reduced MIP, lower HGS and walked a shorter distance at Incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) (p<0.050). We found cut-off points of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and ISWT. It is possible to identify sarcopenia or dynapenia in these patients. We found the coexistence of the conditions (SMD effect) in COPD - reduction in the distance in the ISWT (p = 0.002) and %ISWT (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: In moderate to very severe COPD patients the sarcopenia could be predicted by FEV1 (%predicted) < 52, MIP < 73 cmH2O, MEP < 126 cmH2O and distance traveled of < 295 m in ISWT. Whereas dynapenia could be predicted by FEV1 < 40%, MIP < 71 cmH2O, MEP < 110 cmH2O and distance of < 230 m traveled in ISWT.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada
4.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 12(1): 77-84, jan.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-995605

RESUMO

A amputação leva a redução da mobilidade e atividade física afetando os sistemas musculoesquelético, respiratório e cardiovascular. Nosso objetivo foi analisar a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) em diferentes posições corporais e durante a Manobra de Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória (MASR) em amputados unilaterais de membros inferiores (MMII) protetizados. Estudo transversal, amostra de conveniência, avaliou 07 amputados homens de origem traumática e registradas as variáveis clínicas e VFC nas posições supino, ortostase, sedestação (10 minutos) e durante a MASR (4 minutos). Em repouso os sujeitos apresentam predominância da modulação simpática que se acentua quando assume a posição de ortostase (p = <0.01) e atenuação da complexidade autonômica (p = 0,04). Os amputados não responderam de modo adequado à MASR e observou-se alteração na complexidade da VFC (0,04). Amputados unilaterais de MMII protetizados demonstraram comportamento esperado durante a mudança ativa de postura e respostas adversas à MASR


Amputation causes decrease of mobility and physical activities, affecting the muscle-skeleton, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Variability of heart frequency (VFC) at different body positions and during Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) was analyzed in people with amputation of unilateral lower members with prosthesis (MMII). Current transversal study, with convenience sample, evaluated seven males with trauma-caused amputations. Clinical variations and VFC were registered with regard to supine position, orthostasis, sedestation (10 min) and during RSA (4 min). The subjects at rest showed a predominance in increasing sympathetic modulation as the orthostatic position is achieved (p = <0.01) and attenuation of autonomic complexity (p = 0.04). People with amputation failed to respond adequately to RSA and alterations were detected in VFC complex (0.04). Unilateral amputated people with prosthesis showed expected behavior during active changes in posture and adverse responses to RSA


Assuntos
Masculino , Arritmia Sinusal , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Frequência Cardíaca , Amputação , Estudos Transversais
5.
J Sports Sci ; 37(12): 1420-1428, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595098

RESUMO

Aim was to identify critical load (CL) in young and elderly apparently healthy male cohorts. To contrast the metabolic, cardiovascular and perceptual responses on CL according to age. We evaluated 12 young (23 ± 3 years) and 10 elderly (70 ± 2 years) apparently healthy active males, who underwent: (1) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test on a 45° Leg Press; (2) on different days, three high-intensity resistance exercise constant load tests (60%, 75% and 90% 1RM) until fatigue (Tlim). Absolute values of both the CL asymptote and curvature constant (kg) were significantly lower in elderly subjects (P < 0.05). In contrast, elderly subjects demonstrated a significantly higher number of repetitions at CL when compared with young subjects (P < 0.05). As expected, oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) during maximal aerobic exercise testing were significantly reduced in older subjects. However, percent-predicted aerobic capacity were higher in older subjects (P < 0.05). In addition, blood lactate ([La-]) corrected to Tlim and rating of perceived exertion values were greater in younger subjects at all intensities (P < 0.05). These findings, despite reduced force production in older subjects, endurance-related parameters are well preserved according to age-adjusted percent-predicted values in apparently healthy males.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Idoso , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180252, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040296

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Estabelecer ponto de corte entre as variáveis clínicas e funcionais para avaliar a prevalência de sarcopenia e dinapenia em pacientes com Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC), além de analisar o impacto da Disfunção Muscular Esquelética (DME) nestas variáveis. Métodos Realizado estudo transversal com pacientes diagnosticados com DPOC para determinar sarcopenia ou dinapenia por meio do índice de baixa massa muscular e Força de Preensão Palmar (FPP). Avaliadas a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória e capacidade funcional (CF). A precisão das variáveis na determinação dos pontos de corte previstos para as doenças em questão foi obtida a partir da curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) e de uma análise bidirecional da variância. Resultados Ao final da análise, obtiveram-se 20 pacientes com DPOC estratificados por sarcopenia (n = 11) e dinapenia (n = 07). O grupo com sarcopenia apresentou menor massa magra e menor pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx), diminuição da Força de Preensão Palmar (FPP) e redução da CF (p<0,050). O grupo com dinapenia apresentou redução da PImáx, menor FPP e menor distância percorrida no teste Incremental Shuttle Walk (ISWT) (p<0,050). Foram encontrados pontos de corte no Volume Expiratório Forçado (VEF1) durante o primeiro segundo na PImáx, na Pressão Expiratória Máxima (PEmáx) e no ISWT, o que possibilitou identificar sarcopenia ou dinapenia nestes pacientes. A partir destes resultados, foi possível encontrar coexistência das condições (efeito DME) na DPOC: redução da distância no ISWT (p = 0,002) e % ISWT (p = 0,017). Conclusões Em pacientes com DPOC moderada a muito grave, a sarcopenia pode ser prevista pelo VEF1 (% previsto) <52, PImáx <73 cm H2O, PEmáx <126 cm H2O e distância percorrida de <295 metros no ISWT. Já a dinapenia pode ser prevista pelo VEF1 <40%, PImáx <71 cm H2O, PEmáx <110 cm H2O e distância de <230 metros percorrida no ISWT.


ABSTRACT Objective To establish a cut-off point for clinical and functional variables to determinate sarcopenia and dynapenia in COPD patients, and to analyze the impact of skeletal muscle dysfunction (SMD) on these variables. Methods Cross-sectional study, screened COPD patients for sarcopenia or dynapenia through low muscle mass and hand grip strength (HGS). Clinical variables: pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity (FC). The precision of the variables in determining points of predictive cut-off for sarcopenia or dynapenia were performed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and two-way analysis of variance. Results 20 COPD patients stratified for sarcopenia (n = 11) and dynapenia (n = 07). Sarcopenia group presented lower lean mass and lower maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), decreased HGS, reduced FC (p<0.050). Dynapenia group presented reduced MIP, lower HGS and walked a shorter distance at Incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) (p<0.050). We found cut-off points of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and ISWT. It is possible to identify sarcopenia or dynapenia in these patients. We found the coexistence of the conditions (SMD effect) in COPD - reduction in the distance in the ISWT (p = 0.002) and %ISWT (p = 0.017). Conclusion In moderate to very severe COPD patients the sarcopenia could be predicted by FEV1 (%predicted) < 52, MIP < 73 cmH2O, MEP < 126 cmH2O and distance traveled of < 295 m in ISWT. Whereas dynapenia could be predicted by FEV1 < 40%, MIP < 71 cmH2O, MEP < 110 cmH2O and distance of < 230 m traveled in ISWT.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Curva ROC , Análise de Variância , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas
7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 13: 3149-3156, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349223

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) manifests itself in complex ways, with local and systemic effects; because of this, a multifactorial approach is needed for disease evaluation, in order to understand its severity and impact on each individual. Thus, our objective was to study the correlation between easily accessible variables, usually available in clinical practice, and maximum aerobic capacity, and to determine models for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) estimation in COPD patients. Subjects and methods: Individuals with COPD were selected for the study. At the first visit, clinical evaluation was performed. During the second visit, the volunteers were subjected to the cardiopulmonary exercise test. To determine the correlation coefficient of VO2peak with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (% pred.) and the COPD Assessment Test score (CATs), Pearson or Spearman tests were performed. VO2 at the peak of the exercise was estimated from the clinical variables by simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: A total of 249 subjects were selected, 27 of whom were included after screening (gender: 21M/5F; age: 65.0±7.3 years; body mass index: 26.6±5.0 kg/m2; FEV1 (% pred.): 56.4±15.7, CAT: 12.4±7.4). Mean VO2 peak was 12.8±3.0 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1 and VO2peak (% pred.) was 62.1%±14.9%. VO2peak presented a strong positive correlation with FEV1 (% pred.), r: 0.70, and a moderate negative correlation with the CATs, r: -0.54. In the VO2peak estimation model based on the CAT (estimated VO2peak =15.148- [0.185× CATs]), the index explained 20% of the variance, with estimated error of 2.826 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1. In the VO2peak estimation model based on FEV1 (estimated VO2peak =6.490+ [0.113× FEV1]), the variable explained 50% of the variance, with an estimated error of 2.231 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1. In the VO2peak estimation model based on CATs and FEV1 (estimated VO2peak =8.441- [0.0999× CAT] + [0.1000× FEV1]), the variables explained 55% of the variance, with an estimated error of 2.156 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1. Conclusion: COPD patients' maximum aerobic capacity has a significant correlation with easily accessible and widely used clinical variables, such as the CATs and FEV1, which can be used to estimate peak VO2.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Consumo de Oxigênio , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Limiar Anaeróbio , Brasil , Correlação de Dados , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Work ; 61(3): 437-448, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of information and communication technologies improves the versatility of learning environments by broadening the scope of educational practices, allowing students to communicate with other institutions and providing access to information in real time. However, these tools, in addition to environmental characteristics, can increase the internal thermal load, which is directly influenced by the external environment, with a consequent impact on body physiology. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the relationship between air temperature and blood pressure and heart rate among students performing cognitive tasks at computer laboratories in four public universities (three in Northeastern Brazil and one in Northern Brazilian). METHODS: Thermal conditions and physiological parameters were analysed over three consecutive days, and the participants were subjected to changes in air temperature from 20°C to 33°C. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after testing. RESULTS: Analyses of the experimental data showed changes in heart rate at high temperatures, with a greater risk of students from Teresina and Manaus institutions presenting heart rates above 100 bpm during cognitive tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Within the temperature range applied, on the day of the highest temperature, we observed the highest percentage of participants who reported thermal discomfort (63%, 33°C; 58%, 29°C; 38%, 28°C) and a reduction of cognitive performance (15 to 10 points when the air temperature increases from 20 to 33°C).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Temperatura , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração
9.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 13: 1343-1351, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731622

RESUMO

Background: The study was conducted to determine the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in association with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on cardiac autonomic control and functional capacity. Subjects and methods: The study was a cross-sectional prospective controlled clinical study. Heart rate variability indices of 24 COPD (n = 12) and COPD+OSAS (n = 12) patients were evaluated and compared by electrocardiographic recordings acquired during rest, active postural maneuver (APM), respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-m), and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Results: The COPD group presented higher parasympathetic modulation during APM when compared to the COPD+OSAS group (P = 0.02). The COPD+OSAS group presented higher sympathetic modulation during RSA-m when compared to the COPD group (P = 0.00). The performance during 6MWT was similarly impaired in both groups, despite the greater severity of the COPD group. Conclusion: Subjects with COPD+OSAS present marked sympathetic modulation, and the presence of OSAS in COPD subjects has a negative impact on functional capacity regardless of the severity of lung disease.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Coração/inervação , Hemodinâmica , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Teste de Caminhada
10.
Clin Rehabil ; 32(1): 66-74, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a short-term neuromuscular electrical stimulation program on exercise tolerance in hospitalized patients with advanced heart failure who have suffered an acute decompensation and are under continuous intravenous inotropic support. DESIGN: A randomized controlled study. SUBJECTS: Initially, 195 patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure were recruited, but 70 were randomized. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized into two groups: control group subject to the usual care ( n = 35); neuromuscular electrical stimulation group ( n = 35) received daily training sessions to both lower extremities for around two weeks. MAIN MEASURES: The baseline 6-minute walk test to determine functional capacity was performed 24 hours after hospital admission, and intravenous inotropic support dose was daily checked in all patients. The outcomes were measured in two weeks or at the discharge if the patients were sent back home earlier than two weeks. RESULTS: After losses of follow-up, a total of 49 patients were included and considered for final analysis (control group, n = 25 and neuromuscular electrical stimulation group, n = 24). The neuromuscular electrical stimulation group presented with a higher 6-minute walk test distance compared to the control group after the study protocol (293 ± 34.78 m vs. 265.8 ± 48.53 m, P < 0.001, respectively). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation group also demonstrated a significantly higher dose reduction of dobutamine compared to control group after the study protocol (2.72 ± 1.72 µg/kg/min vs. 3.86 ± 1.61 µg/kg/min, P = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: A short-term inpatient neuromuscular electrical stimulation rehabilitation protocol improved exercise tolerance and reduced intravenous inotropic support necessity in patients with advanced heart failure suffering a decompensation episode.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada
11.
J. vasc. bras ; 16(4): 285-292, out.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954677

RESUMO

Abstract Background The pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complex and understanding of it has been changing in recent years, with regard to its multisystemic manifestations, especially peripheral dysfunction and its influence on intolerance to exercise. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and peripheral muscle strength and exercise capacity in COPD patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 patients with COPD who were evaluated with the Ankle-Brachial Index, handgrip strength test, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of knee extensors and flexors, and distance covered in the incremental shuttle walking test (dISWT). Results COPD patients with coexisting PAOD had lower dominant handgrip strength test results (33.00 vs. 26.66 kgf, p = 0.02) and worse performance in the dISWT (297.32 vs. 219.41 m, p = 0.02) when compared to the COPD patients without PAOD. Strong correlations were found between the result of the handgrip strength test and both the dISWT (r = 0.78; p < 0.001) and the 1RM/knee extension (r = 0.71; p = 0.03); and also between the dISWT and both the 1RM/knee extension (r = 0.72; p = 0.02) and the 1RM/knee flexion (r = 0.92; p < 0.001). The linear regression model showed that the dISWT variable alone explains 15.3% of the Ankle-Brachial Index result (p = 0.01). Conclusion COPD patients with PAOD exhibit reduced muscle strength and lower exercise capacity than COPD patients without PAOD.


Resumo Contexto A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) apresenta uma complexa fisiopatologia e sua compreensão vem se modificando nos últimos anos, com atenção para as manifestações multissistêmicas, em especial a disfunção periférica e sua influência na intolerância ao exercício físico. Objetivo Avaliar o impacto da doença arterial periférica obstrutiva (DAOP) na força muscular periférica e na capacidade de exercício dos portadores de DPOC. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado com 35 portadores de DPOC, que foram avaliados pelo índice tornozelo-braquial, teste de força de preensão palmar (FPP), uma repetição máxima (1RM) de extensores e flexores de joelho, e a distância no incremental shuttle walking test (dISWT). Resultados Portadores de DPOC com DAP coexistente apresentaram menor FPP da mão dominante (33,00 versus 26,66 kgf, p = 0,02) e pior desempenho no dISWT (297,32 versus 219,41 m, p = 0,02) quando comparados aos portadores de DPOC sem DAP. Fortes correlações foram encontradas entre a medida da FPP e a dISWT (r = 0,78; p < 0,001) e a 1RM/extensão de joelho (r = 0,71; p = 0,03); entre a dISWT e a 1RM/extensão de joelho (r = 0,72; p = 0,02) e a 1RM/flexão de joelho (r = 0,92; p < 0,001). O modelo de regressão linear identificou que a variável dISWT explica isoladamente 15,3% do resultado do índice tornozelo braquial (p = 0,01). Conclusão Portadores de DPOC com DAOP coexistente apresentam maior perda da força muscular periférica e pior desempenho da capacidade de exercício quando comparados aos portadores de DPOC sem DAOP.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV) indices and heart rate (HR) responses during isometric contraction (IC) and Valsalva maneuver (VM) in COPD patients. METHODS: Twenty-two stable moderate to severe COPD patients were evaluated. R-R intervals were recorded (monitor Polar® S810i) during dominant upper limb IC (2 minutes). Stable signals were analyzed by Kubios HRV® software. Indices of HRV were computed in the time domain (mean HR; square root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals [RMSSD] and HRV triangular index [RR tri index]) and in the frequency domain (high frequency [HF]; low frequency [LF] and LF/HF ratio). The HR responses were evaluated at rest, at the peak and at the nadir of the VM (15 seconds). The Valsalva index was also calculated. RESULTS: During IC: time domain indices (mean HR increased [P=0.001], RMSSD, and RR tri index decreased [P=0.005 and P=0.005, respectively]); frequency domain indices (LF increased [P=0.033] and HF decreased [P=0.002]); associations were found between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) vs RMSSD (P=0.04; r=-0.55), FEV1 vs HR (P=0.04; r=-0.48), forced vital capacity (FVC) vs RMSSD (P=0.05; r=-0.62), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) vs HF (P=0.02; r=0.68). FEV1 and FVC justified 30% of mean HR. During VM: HR increased (P=0.01); the nadir showed normal bradycardic response; the Valsalva index was =0.7. CONCLUSION: COPD patients responded properly to the upper limb IC and to the VM; however, HR recovery during VM was impaired in these patients. The severity of the disease and MIP were associated with increased parasympathetic modulation and higher chronotropic response.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/inervação , Contração Isométrica , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Manobra de Valsalva , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Cross-Over , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Extremidade Superior , Capacidade Vital
13.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 57(5): 556-564, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26868642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A hyperbolic function as well as a linear relationship between power output and time to exhaustion (Tlim) has been consistently observed during dynamic non-resistive exercises. However, little is known about its concept to resistance exercises (RE), which could be defined as critical load (CL). This study aimed to verify the existence of CL during dynamic RE and to verify the number of workbouts necessary to determine the optimal modeling to achieve it. METHODS: Fifteen healthy men (23±2.5 yrs) completed 1 repetition maximum test (1RM) on a leg press and 3 (60%, 75% and 90% of 1RM) or 4 (+ 30% of 1RM) workbouts protocols to obtain the CL by hyperbolic and linear regression models between Tlim and load performed. Blood lactate and leg fatigue were also measured. RESULTS: CL was obtained during RE and 3 workbouts protocol estimate it at 53% while 4 tests at 38% of 1 RM. However, based on coefficients of determination, 3 protocols provided a better fit than the 4-parameter model, respectively (R2>0.95 vs. >0.77). Moreover, all intensities increased blood lactate and leg fatigue, however, when corrected by Tlim, were significantly lower at CL. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to determinate CL during dynamic lower limbs RE and that 3 exhaustive workbouts can be used to better estimate the CL, constituting a new concept of determining this threshold during dynamic RE and reducing the physically demanding nature of the protocol. These findings may have important applications for functional performance evaluation and prescription of RE programs.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Vasc Bras ; 16(4): 285-292, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930662

RESUMO

Background: The pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complex and understanding of it has been changing in recent years, with regard to its multisystemic manifestations, especially peripheral dysfunction and its influence on intolerance to exercise. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and peripheral muscle strength and exercise capacity in COPD patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 patients with COPD who were evaluated with the Ankle-Brachial Index, handgrip strength test, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of knee extensors and flexors, and distance covered in the incremental shuttle walking test (dISWT). Results: COPD patients with coexisting PAOD had lower dominant handgrip strength test results (33.00 vs. 26.66 kgf, p = 0.02) and worse performance in the dISWT (297.32 vs. 219.41 m, p = 0.02) when compared to the COPD patients without PAOD. Strong correlations were found between the result of the handgrip strength test and both the dISWT (r = 0.78; p < 0.001) and the 1RM/knee extension (r = 0.71; p = 0.03); and also between the dISWT and both the 1RM/knee extension (r = 0.72; p = 0.02) and the 1RM/knee flexion (r = 0.92; p < 0.001). The linear regression model showed that the dISWT variable alone explains 15.3% of the Ankle-Brachial Index result (p = 0.01). Conclusion: COPD patients with PAOD exhibit reduced muscle strength and lower exercise capacity than COPD patients without PAOD.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27555757

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recognized as a multisystemic inflammatory disease associated with extrapulmonary comorbidities, including respiratory muscle weakness and cardiovascular and cardiac autonomic regulation disorders. We investigated whether alterations in respiratory muscle strength (RMS) would affect cardiac autonomic modulation in COPD patients. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study done in ten COPD patients affected by moderate to very severe disease. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal was recorded using a Polar cardiofrequencimeter at rest in the sitting position (10 minutes) and during a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-M; 4 minutes). Linear analysis in the time and frequency domains and nonlinear analysis were performed on the recorded signals. RMS was assessed using a digital manometer, which provided the maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) and the maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax). RESULTS: During the RSA-M, patients presented an HRV power increase in the low-frequency band (LFnu) (46.9±23.7 vs 75.8±27.2; P=0.01) and a decrease in the high-frequency band (HFnu) (52.8±23.5 vs 24.0±27.0; P=0.01) when compared to the resting condition. Significant associations were found between RMS and HRV spectral indices: PImax and LFnu (r=-0.74; P=0.01); PImax and HFnu (r=0.74; P=0.01); PEmax and LFnu (r=-0.66; P=0.01); PEmax and HFnu (r=0.66; P=0.03); between PEmax and sample entropy (r=0.83; P<0.01) and between PEmax and approximate entropy (r=0.74; P=0.01). Using a linear regression model, we found that PImax explained 44% of LFnu behavior during the RSA-M. CONCLUSION: COPD patients with impaired RMS presented altered cardiac autonomic control, characterized by marked sympathetic modulation and a reduced parasympathetic response; reduced HRV complexity was observed during the RSA-M.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/inervação , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Expiração , Feminino , Humanos , Inalação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica não Linear , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Espirometria , Telemetria , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Lasers Med Sci ; 31(6): 1203-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27250713

RESUMO

The objective of the present study is to evaluate the acute effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on functional capacity, perceived exertion, and blood lactate in hospitalized patients with heart failure (HF). Patients diagnosed with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction <45 %) were randomized and allocated prospectively into two groups: placebo LLLT group (n = 10)-subjects who were submitted to placebo laser and active LLLT group (n = 10)-subjects who were submitted to active laser. The 6-min walk test (6MWT) was performed, and blood lactate was determined at rest (before LLLT application and 6MWT), immediately after the exercise test (time 0) and recovery (3, 6, and 30 min). A multi-diode LLLT cluster probe (DMC, São Carlos, Brazil) was used. Both groups increased 6MWT distance after active or placebo LLLT application compared to baseline values (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively); however, no difference was observed during intergroup comparison. The active LLLT group showed a significant reduction in the perceived exertion Borg (PEB) scale compared to the placebo LLLT group (p = 0.006). In addition, the group that received active LLLT showed no statistically significant difference for the blood lactate level through the times analyzed. The placebo LLLT group demonstrated a significant increase in blood lactate between the rest and recovery phase (p < 0.05). Acute effects of LLLT irradiation on skeletal musculature were not able to improve the functional capacity of hospitalized patients with HF, although it may favorably modulate blood lactate metabolism and reduce perceived muscle fatigue.


Assuntos
Lactatos/sangue , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos da radiação , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
17.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 184-188, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-783873

RESUMO

Background: Portable respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) systems have been validated for ventilatory assessment during resting conditions and during incremental treadmill exercise. However, in clinical settings and during field-based exercise, intensity is usually constant and submaximal. A demonstration of the ability of RIP to detect respiratory measurements accurately during constant intensity conditions would promote and validate the routine use of portable RIP devices as an alternative to ergospirometry (ES), the current gold standard technique for ventilatory measures. Objective: To investigate the agreement between respiratory variables recorded by a portable RIP device and by ES during rest and constant intensity exercise. Method: Tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (RR) and minute ventilation (VE) were concurrently acquired by portable RIP and ES in seven healthy male volunteers during standing rest position and constant intensity treadmill exercise. Results: Significant agreement was found between RIP and ES acquisitions during the standing rest position and constant intensity treadmill exercise for RR and during the standing rest position for VE. Conclusion: Our results suggest that portable RIP devices might represent a suitable alternative to ES during rest and during constant submaximal exercise.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pletismografia , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Respiração , Descanso , Exercício Físico
18.
Physiol Behav ; 159: 88-94, 2016 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988283

RESUMO

Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida por Cavalos , Frequência Cardíaca , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia
19.
Braz J Phys Ther ; 20(2): 184-8, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26982454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portable respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) systems have been validated for ventilatory assessment during resting conditions and during incremental treadmill exercise. However, in clinical settings and during field-based exercise, intensity is usually constant and submaximal. A demonstration of the ability of RIP to detect respiratory measurements accurately during constant intensity conditions would promote and validate the routine use of portable RIP devices as an alternative to ergospirometry (ES), the current gold standard technique for ventilatory measures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the agreement between respiratory variables recorded by a portable RIP device and by ES during rest and constant intensity exercise. METHOD: Tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (RR) and minute ventilation (VE) were concurrently acquired by portable RIP and ES in seven healthy male volunteers during standing rest position and constant intensity treadmill exercise. RESULTS: Significant agreement was found between RIP and ES acquisitions during the standing rest position and constant intensity treadmill exercise for RR and during the standing rest position for VE. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that portable RIP devices might represent a suitable alternative to ES during rest and during constant submaximal exercise.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Pletismografia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Respiração , Descanso
20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 30(3): 702-8, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26725406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare pulmonary function, functional capacity, and clinical outcomes among conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), early open-lung (EOL), and late open-lung (LOL) strategies after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, and double-blinded study. SETTING: Two hospitals of the Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-three patients undergoing elective first-time OPCAB. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized into 3 groups: CMV (n=31); LOL (n=32) initiated upon intensive care unit (ICU) arrival; EOL (n = 30) initiated after intubation. MEASURAMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Spirometry was performed at bedside preoperatively and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and pulmonary shunt fraction were evaluated presurgically and on POD 1; 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was performed presurgically and on POD 5. Both open-lung groups demonstrated higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second on PODs 1, 3 and 5 compared to the CMV group (p<0.05). Similar results were found in relation to the 6MWT distance. Shunt fraction was lower and PaO2 was higher in both open-lung groups (p<0.05). Open-lung groups had shorter intubation time and hospital stay as well as fewer respiratory events (p<0.05). No statistical difference was found relative to the aforementioned results when the EOL and LOL groups were compared. CONCLUSIONS: Both open-lung strategies were able to promote higher pulmonary function preservation and greater recovery of functional capacity with better clinical outcomes after OPCAB. No difference in outcome was found when comparing initiation of OLS intraoperatively or after ICU arrival.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/métodos , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Capacidade Vital
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