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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(9): 1049-1058, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insurance coverage is associated with better cancer outcomes; however, the relative importance of insurance coverage may differ between cancers. This study compared the association between insurance coverage at diagnosis and cancer-specific mortality (CSM; insurance sensitivity) in 6 cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the SEER cancer registry, data were abstracted for individuals diagnosed with ovarian, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, prostate, or breast cancer in 2007 through 2010. The association between insurance coverage at diagnosis and CSM was modeled using a Fine and Gray competing-risks regression adjusted for demographics. An interaction term combining insurance status and cancer type was used to test whether insurance sensitivity differed between cancers. Separate models were fit for each cancer. To control for lead-time bias and to assess whether insurance sensitivity may be mediated by earlier diagnosis and treatment, additional models were fit adjusting for disease stage and treatment. RESULTS: Lack of insurance was associated with an increased hazard of CSM in all cancers (P<.01). The magnitude of the effect differed significantly between cancers (Pinteraction=.04), ranging from an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01-1.28) in ovarian and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.11-1.29) in pancreatic cancer to 2.19 (95% CI, 2.02-2.37) in breast and 2.98 (95% CI, 2.54-3.49) in prostate cancer. The benefit of insurance was attenuated after adjusting for stage and treatment (eg, screening/early treatment effect), with the largest reductions in prostate, breast, and colorectal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Greater insurance sensitivity was seen in screening-detected malignancies with effective treatments for early-stage disease (eg, prostate, breast, and colorectal cancers). Given that this differential is significantly reduced after adjusting for stage and treatment, our results suggest that a significant portion (but not all) of the benefit of insurance coverage is due to detection and treatment of certain curable early-stage cancers.

2.
J Sex Med ; 16(9): 1451-1458, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penile prosthesis surgery has witnessed a migration from the inpatient to ambulatory surgical care setting. However, little is known about the cost savings afforded by this change in care setting and whether or not these savings come at the expense of worse perioperative outcomes. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of index penile prosthesis (PP) surgery care setting, and whether ambulatory vs inpatient surgery is associated with comparable perioperative outcomes and costs. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using all-payer claims data from the 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Databases from Florida and New York. Patient demographics, regional data, total charges (converted to costs), and 30-day revisit rates were abstracted for all patients undergoing index placement of an inflatable or malleable PP. Multivariable logistic and linear regression adjusted for facility clustering was utilized. OUTCOMES: The outcomes were index surgical and 30-day postoperative costs, as well as 30-day revisit rates. RESULTS: Of the 1,790 patients undergoing an index surgery, 394 (22.0%) received care in the inpatient setting compared to 1,396 (78.0%) in the ambulatory setting. Adjusted index procedural ($9,319.66 vs $ 10,191.35; P < .001) and 30-day acute care costs ($9,461.74 vs $10,159.42; P < .001) were lower in the ambulatory setting. The underinsured experienced lower odds of receiving surgery in the ambulatory setting (Medicaid vs private: odds ratio [OR] 0.19; 95% CI 0.06-0.55; P < .001). There was no difference in risk-adjusted odds of experiencing a 30-day revisit between patients undergoing surgery in the ambulatory vs inpatient settings (OR 1.31; 95% CI 0.78-2.21; P = .3). CLINICAL TRANSLATION: Ambulatory PP surgery confers significant cost savings and is associated with comparable perioperative outcomes relative to inpatient-based surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Both clinical and nonclinical factors predict the care setting of index PP surgery. Notably, underinsured patients experienced lower odds of undergoing ambulatory surgery. Ambulatory surgery was less costly with similar 30-day revisit rates relative to inpatient-based care. Berger A, Friedlander DF, Herzog P, et al. Impact of Index Surgical Care Setting on Perioperative Outcomes and Cost Following Penile Prosthesis Surgery. J Sex Med 2019;16:1451-1458.

3.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of index surgical care setting on perioperative costs and readmission rates across 4 common elective general surgery procedures. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Facility fees seem to be a driving force behind rising US healthcare costs, and inpatient-based fees are significantly higher than those associated with ambulatory services. Little is known about factors influencing where patients undergo elective surgery. METHODS: All-payer claims data from the 2014 New York and Florida Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project were used to identify 73,724 individuals undergoing an index hernia repair, primary total or partial thyroidectomy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, or laparoscopic appendectomy in either the inpatient or ambulatory care setting. Inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted gamma generalized linear and logistic regression was employed to compare costs and 30-day readmission between inpatient and ambulatory-based surgery, respectively. RESULTS: Approximately 87% of index surgical cases were performed in the ambulatory setting. Adjusted mean index surgical costs were significantly lower among ambulatory versus inpatient cases for all 4 procedures (P < 0.001 for all). Adjusted odds of experiencing a 30-day readmission after thyroidectomy [odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53-0.93; P = 0.03], hernia repair (OR 0.28, 95% CI, 0.20-0.40; P < 0.001), and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (OR 0.37, 95% CI, 0.32-0.43; P < 0.001) were lower in the ambulatory versus inpatient setting. Readmission rates among ambulatory versus inpatient-based laparoscopic appendectomy were comparable (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.31-1.26; P = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Ambulatory surgery offers significant costs savings and generally superior 30-day outcomes relative to inpatient-based care for appropriately selected patients across 4 common elective general surgery procedures.

4.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(4): 349-354, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitals are increasingly being held responsible for their readmissions rates. The contribution of hospital versus patient factors (eg, case mix) to hospital readmissions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the relative contribution of hospital and patient factors to readmissions after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified individuals who underwent RC in 2014 in the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). The NRD is a nationally representative (USA), all-payer database that includes readmissions at index and nonindex hospitals. Survey weights were used to generate national estimates. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The main outcome was readmission within 30 d after RC. Using a multilevel mixed-effects model, we estimated the statistical association between patient and hospital characteristics and readmission. A hospital-level random-effects term was used to estimate hospital-level readmission rates while holding patient characteristics constant. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We identified a weighted sample of 7095 individuals who underwent RC at 341 hospitals in the USA. The 30-d readmission rate was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 27.8-31.2%), ranging from 1.4% (95% CI 0.6-2.2%) in the bottom quartile to 73.6% (95% CI 68.4-78.7) in the top. In our multilevel model, female sex and comorbidity score were associated with a higher likelihood of readmission. The hospital random-effects term, encompassing both measured and unmeasured hospital characteristics, contributed minimally to the model for readmission when patient characteristics were held constant at population mean values (pseudo-R2<0.01% for hospital effects). Surgical volume, bed size, hospital ownership, and academic status were not significantly associated with readmission rates when these terms were added to the model. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for patient characteristics, hospital-level effects explained little of the large between-hospital variability in readmission rates. These findings underscore the limitations of using 30-d post-discharge readmissions as a hospital quality metric. PATIENT SUMMARY: The chance of being readmitted after radical cystectomy varies substantially between hospitals. Little of this variability can be explained by hospital-level characteristics, while far more can be explained by patient characteristics and random variability.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303561

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated patient, hospital, and cancer-specific factors associated with positive surgical margin (PSM) variability after radical prostatectomy in pT2 prostate cancer in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 45,426 men from 1152 hospitals with pT2 prostate cancer and known margin status after radical prostatectomy were identified using the National Cancer Database (2010-2015). Data on patient, cancer, hospital factors, and surgical approach were extracted. A mixed effects logistic regression model was computed to examine factors associated with PSM and partial R2 values to assess the relative contributions of patient, cancer, and hospital variables to PSM status. RESULTS: Median PSM rate of 8.5% (interquartile range, 5.2%-13.0%). Robotic (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-0.99) and laparoscopic (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.90) surgical approach, academic institution (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-1.00) and high hospital surgical volume (>297 cases [OR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99) were independently associated with a lower PSM. Black men (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26) and adverse cancer-specific features (prostate-specific antigen [PSA], 10-20; PSA >20; cT3 stage; Gleason 7, 8, 9-10; all P > .01) were independently associated with a higher PSM. Patient-specific, hospital-specific, and cancer-specific factors had a contribution of 2.3%, 3.9%, and 15.2%, respectively, to the variation in PSM. Facility had a contribution of 23.7% to the variation in PSM. CONCLUSION: Cancer-specific factors account for 15.2% of PSM variation with the remaining 84.8% of PSM variation due to patient, hospital, and other factors not accounted within the model. Noncancer-specific factors represent addressable factors that are important for policy-makers in efforts to improve patient outcome.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e196673, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290987

RESUMO

Importance: The increased use of prescription opioid medications has contributed to an epidemic of sustained opioid use, misuse, and addiction. Adults of working age are thought to be at greatest risk for prescription opioid dependence. Objective: To develop a risk score (the Stopping Opioids After Surgery score) for sustained prescription opioid use after surgery in a working-age population using readily available clinical information. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, claims from TRICARE (the insurance program of the US Department of Defense) for working-age adult (age 18-64 years) patients undergoing 1 of 10 common surgical procedures from October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2014, were queried. A logistic regression model was used to identify variables associated with sustained prescription opioid use. The point estimate for each variable in the risk score was determined by its ß coefficient in the model. The risk score for each patient represented the summed point totals, ranging from 0 to 100, with a lower score indicating lower risk of sustained prescription opioid use. Data were analyzed from September 25, 2018, to February 5, 2019. Exposures: Exposures were age; race; sex; marital status; socioeconomic status; discharge disposition; procedure intensity; length of stay; intensive care unit admission; comorbid diabetes, liver disease, renal disease, malignancy, depression, or anxiety; and prior opioid use status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was sustained prescription opioid use, defined as uninterrupted use for 6 months following surgery. A risk score for each patient was calculated and then used as a predictor of sustained opioid use after surgical intervention. The area under the curve and the Brier score were used to determine the accuracy of the scoring system and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test was used to evaluate model calibration. Results: Of 86 356 patients in the analysis (48 827 [56.5%] male; mean [SD] age, 46.5 [14.5] years), 6365 (7.4%) met criteria for sustained prescription opioid use. The sample used for model generation consisted of 64 767 patients, while the validation sample had 21 589 patients. Prior opioid exposure was the factor most strongly associated with sustained opioid use (odds ratio, 13.00; 95% CI, 11.87-14.23). The group with the lowest scores (<31) had a mean (SD) 4.1% (2.5%) risk of sustained opioid use; those with intermediate scores (31-50) had a mean (SD) risk of 14.9% (6.3%); and those with the highest scores (>50) had a mean (SD) risk of 35.8% (3.6%). Conclusions and Relevance: This study developed an intuitive and accessible opioid risk assessment applicable to the care of working-age patients following surgery. This tool is scalable to clinical practice and can potentially be incorporated into electronic medical record platforms to enable automated calculation and clinical alerts that are generated in real time.

7.
Urology ; 130: 84-85, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345299
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194634, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150074

RESUMO

Importance: The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) was recently expanded to penalize excessive readmissions after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). These are the first surgical procedures to be included in the HRRP. Objective: To determine whether the HRRP was associated with a greater decrease in readmissions after targeted procedures (THA and TKA) compared with similar nontargeted procedures (lumbar spine fusion and laminectomy). Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients 50 years or older among all payers in the Nationwide Readmissions Database who underwent THA, TKA, lumbar spine fusion, or laminectomy between January 1, 2010, and September 30, 2015. Multivariable logistic regression and interrupted time-series models were used to calculate and compare 30-day readmission trends in 3 periods associated with the HRRP: preimplementation (January 2010-September 2012), implementation (October 2012-September 2014), and penalty (October 2014-September 2015). Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2010, to September 30, 2015. Exposures: Announcement and implementation of the HRRP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Readmission within 30 days after hospitalization for THA, TKA, lumbar spine fusion, or laminectomy surgery. Results: The study included 6 687 077 (58.3% women and 41.7% men; mean age, 66.7 years; 95% CI, 66.7-66.8 years) weighted hospitalizations for THA, TKA, lumbar spine fusion, and laminectomy surgery: 4 765 466 hospitalizations for targeted conditions and 1 921 611 for nontargeted conditions. After passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the risk-adjusted rates of readmission after all procedures decreased in a similar fashion. Implementation of the HRRP was associated with a 0.018% per month decrease in the rate of readmission (95% CI, -0.025% to -0.010%) after targeted procedures, which was not observed after nontargeted procedures (slope per month, -0.003%; 95% CI, -0.016% to 0.010%). Penalties were not associated with a greater decrease in readmission for either targeted or nontargeted procedures. Conclusions and Relevance: These results appear to be consistent with hospitals responding to the future possibility of penalties by reducing readmissions after surgical procedures targeted by the HRRP.

9.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While bladder cancer is less common among women, female sex is associated with worse oncological outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sex-specific differences in initial presentation and treatment patterns of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective study using the National Cancer Database to identify individuals diagnosed with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (cT2-T4aN0M0) between 2004 and 2013. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multivariable logistic regression and negative binomial regression with Bonferroni correction were used to investigate seven treatment measures: care at a high-volume facility, receipt of definitive therapy, delayed treatment, receipt of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, receipt of pelvic lymph node dissection, and number of lymph nodes removed. The secondary outcome was overall survival. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We identified 27525 patients, 27.4% of whom were females. Females were diagnosed significantly more often with nonurothelial carcinoma (15.1% vs 9.9%, p<0.001), with squamous carcinoma being the most prevalent variant (46.9%). After Bonferroni correction, there was no difference in six out of seven treatment quality measures. Females were significantly less likely to experience delayed treatment (odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.93, p<0.001). Females had significantly worse overall survival compared with males (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, p=0.030). Limitations arise from the retrospective design of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Despite little difference in treatment quality measures, female sex is associated with worse overall survival among individuals with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Our findings suggest that differences in treatment patterns are unlikely to explain the differences in overall survival. Future initiatives should focus on root causes for gender-specific differences in pathological staging and features at diagnosis. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we did not find differences in the treatment of bladder cancer between men and women that could readily explain why women diagnosed with this disease are more likely to die.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past decade prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostic approaches have evolved away from aggressive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. While a goal of these changes is to decrease over diagnosis and treatment, little is known about the downstream effects on PCa risk distribution at the time of diagnosis. To better understand these effects, we used a national cohort of men to investigate temporal trends in PCa risk profile at diagnosis. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified men diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed clinically localized prostate adenocarcinoma (T1-4N0M0) from 2004 to 2014. We assessed temporal trends in proportional distribution of National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk groups as well as their sub-components (PSA, Gleason score, clinical T stage). We also evaluated trends in these sub-components among men with intermediate- and high-risk disease as well as those with metastatic disease. RESULTS: In our cohort of 755,567 men diagnosed between 2004 and 2014, there was a decrease in the proportion of men diagnosed with low-risk PCa (38.32 to 27.23%, p < 0.001) and a consequent increase in the proportion of localized intermediate-risk (40.49 to 46.72%, p < 0.001) and high-risk diagnoses (21.19 to 26.05%, p < 0.001). This was primarily driven by an increased proportion of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 cancer, respectively. The number of men presenting with metastatic disease consistently increased from 3251 (2.88%) in 2004 to 6886 (7.19%) in 2014 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of localized intermediate/high risk and metastatic PCa has substantially increased over the past decade, while the proportion of low-risk disease has decreased. This shift has been primarily driven by increased diagnosis of high-grade disease. National guidelines advising against PSA screening may have contributed to these findings.

11.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(3): 265-273, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200840

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The centralization of cancer care is associated with better clinical outcomes and may be a method for optimizing value-based health care systems. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding the impact of centralization of care on clinical outcomes for genitourinary malignancies. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was conducted using Ovid and MEDLINE to identify studies between 1970 and 2018 reporting on the centralization of care for genitourinary malignancies. Prospective and retrospective studies were screened. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: There were no published randomized control trials (RCTs) on the centralization of care for genitourinary malignancies. Twenty-two retrospective studies met inclusion criteria. Centralization of radical cystectomy was the most studied. Care for bladder cancer, prostate cancer, penile cancer, testicular cancer, and renal cancer was reportedly associated with better morbidity and survival outcomes for patients treated at high-volume centers. However, evidence of better outcomes for centralization of care remains limited for penile, renal, and testicular cancers owing to the paucity of data and/or the lower incidence of these genitourinary malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: Care for genitourinary malignancies by high-volume providers was associated with greater utilization of cancer surgery, lower morbidity, and better survival outcomes. Centralization of care was most appropriate for complex procedures such as radical cystectomy when interpreted in the context of survival outcomes. Further research is needed to address the impact of centralizing care for all urologic malignancies with consideration of the associated costs and patient-reported measures, including quality of life and patient experience. PATIENT SUMMARY: We explored the evidence for moving major operations into larger centers. We focused on surgery for cancers of the bladder, prostate, testicle, penis, and kidney, and found that larger-volume hospitals had better survival outcomes and fewer complications when compared to smaller hospitals. The difference may be greatest for complex major surgeries such as radical cystectomy.

14.
JAMA Surg ; : e191637, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166585
17.
Urol Oncol ; 37(9): 575.e9-575.e18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A considerable number of prostate cancer (PCa) patients eligible for expectant management receive definitive treatment. We aimed to investigate the hospital-level contribution to overtreatment in the United States. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database we identified two nonoverlapping cohorts: (1) men with a life expectancy <10 years harbouring low or intermediate risk PCa (2) men with life expectancy ≥10 years with low-risk PCa. Multivariable mixed models with patient characteristics as fixed and hospital-level intercept as random effect were used to assess the hospital-level risk-adjusted probability of definitive treatment in both groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to investigate the correlation between the hospitals probabilities of treating patients of both cohorts. RESULTS: We found 33,431 men with a life expectancy <10 years and 122,514 men with a life expectancy ≥10 years and low-risk PCa. In the latter, the probability of treatment ranged from 29.0% in the bottom to 90.0% in the top decile and from 35.0% to 88.0% for men with a life expectancy <10 years. Age and race were independent predictors of low-value treatment in both cohorts. The correlation between 1,225 hospitals treating men of both cohorts was strong (Pearson's r = 0.66, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is wide hospital-level variability in low-value treatment of men with limited life expectancies and low-risk PCa. Hospitals more likely to treat men with limited life expectancies were more likely to treat men with low-risk PCa and vice versa. Identifying drivers and modifying practice at these hospitals may represent an effective tool for reducing overtreatment.

18.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000000352, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It remains controversial whether external beam radiation therapy with a brachytherapy boost provides oncologic outcomes equivalent to those of radical prostatectomy with or without adjuvant radiation therapy in men with Gleason 9-10 prostate cancer. We compared external beam radiation therapy plus brachytherapy to radical prostatectomy plus adjuvant radiation therapy of Gleason 9-10 prostate cancer in terms of overall survival and prostate cancer specific mortality in 2 large national databases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the NCDB (National Cancer Database) and the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database we identified 4,367 and 2,276 patients, respectively, diagnosed with clinical T1-T3N0M0, Gleason 9-10, prostate specific antigen 0 to 40 ng/ml prostate cancer managed by external beam radiation therapy plus brachytherapy or radical prostatectomy plus adjuvant radiation therapy. We compared overall survival and prostate cancer specific mortality in the 2 databases using inverse probability of treatment weighted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling after accounting for clinical and demographic factors. RESULTS: Median followup in the NCDB and SEER cohorts was 6.0 years and 5.8 years, respectively. In the NCDB cohort there was no significant difference in 5-year overall survival between radical prostatectomy plus adjuvant radiation therapy vs external beam radiation therapy plus brachytherapy (86.7% vs 87.0%, AHR 1.10, 95% CI 0.95-1.27, p=0.220). Results were unchanged when including only patients who received hormonal therapy. In the SEER cohort there was no difference in 5-year prostate cancer specific mortality (6.0% vs 5.7%, AHR 1.22, 95% CI 0.0.88-1.71, p=0.234). There was no significant interaction between patient age (65 years or greater vs less than 65) and treatment modality in the NCDB or SEER cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In men with Gleason 9-10 prostate cancer multimodality surgical therapy is equivalent to external beam radiation therapy plus brachytherapy.

19.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(6): e547-e559, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are a delivery and payment model designed to encourage integrated, high-value care. We designed a study to test the association between ACOs and two recommended cancer screening tests, colonoscopy for colorectal cancer and mammography for breast cancer. METHODS: Using the random 20% sample of Medicare claims, beneficiaries were attributed to ACO or non-ACO cohorts on the basis of providers' enrollment in the Medicare Shared Savings Program. An inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance patient characteristics between ACO and non-ACO cohorts. A propensity score-weighted, difference-in-differences analysis was then performed using the same provider groups in 2010-pre-ACO-as a baseline. A secondary analysis for older-nonrecommended-age ranges was performed. RESULTS: Prevalence of colonoscopy in recommended age ranges in ACOs from 2010 to 2014 increased from 15.3% (95% CI, 14.9% to 15.6%) to 17.9% (95% CI, 17.3% to 18.5%). This differed significantly from the change in non-ACOs (difference in differences, 1.2%; P < .001). Among women in ACOs, mammography prevalence rose from 53.7% (95% CI, 53.0% to 54.4%) to 54.9% (95% CI, 54.2% to 55.7%). In contrast to colonoscopy, the difference in mammography prevalence was not significantly different in ACO versus non-ACOs (difference in differences, 0.49%; P < .13). A similar pattern was also observed in older-nonrecommended-age ranges with significant difference in differences (ACO v non-ACO) in colonoscopy, but not mammography. CONCLUSION: The impact of ACOs on cancer screening varies between screening tests. Our results are consistent with a greater effect of ACOs on high-cost, high-complexity screening services, which may be more sensitive to integrated care delivery models.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether Medicare expenditures for men with incident prostate cancer, treated in Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) differ from those of men treated in non-ACOs. METHODS: Using the 20% Medicare sample, total charges for 1 year following an initial diagnosis of prostate cancer were abstracted from Medicare claims. Prostate cancer expenditures were calculated by subtracting total charges from the year prior to diagnosis. Propensity score weighting was used to balance baseline characteristics of men treated in ACOs and non-ACOs, and between treatment modalities (radiation, prostatectomy, and expectant management). A propensity score weighted regression model was then used to estimate mean expenditures for men with prostate cancer treated in ACOs and non ACOs and to test the association between ACO status and costs. RESULTS: We identified 3297 men treated in ACOs for localized prostate cancer versus 24,088 in the non-ACO cohort. The weighted total charges for each treatment modality were $32,358 (radiation), $27,662 (prostatectomy), and $11,134 (expectant management). In our propensity score weighted regression model, the association between charges and ACO status was not significant, nor was the interaction between treatment type and costs. This was true both overall, and in a stratified analysis by treatment type. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in Medicare spending on prostate cancer care based on provider ACO affiliation, regardless of treatment type. Although the effects of ACOs on clinical care are complex, this study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that ACOs fail to achieve significantly lower charges in certain clinical settings.

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