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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(7): 2457-2463, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149522

RESUMO

The simplest molecular dimer, H2-H2, poses a challenge to both experiment and theory as a system with a multidimensional energy surface that supports only a single weakly bound quantum state. Here, we provide a direct experimental image of the structure of hydrogen dimers [(H2)2, H2-D2, and (D2)2] obtained via femtosecond laser-induced Coulomb explosion imaging. Our results indicate that hydrogen dimers are not restricted to a particular geometry but rather occur as a mixture of all possible configurations. The measured intermolecular distance distributions were used to deduce the isotropic intermolecular potential as well as the binding energies of the dimers.

2.
Nat Mater ; 19(5): 512-516, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066929

RESUMO

Crystallization is a fundamental process in materials science, providing the primary route for the realization of a wide range of new materials. Crystallization rates are also considered to be useful probes of glass-forming ability1-3. At the microscopic level, crystallization is described by the classical crystal nucleation and growth theories4,5, yet in general solid formation is a far more complex process. In particular, the observation of apparently different crystal growth regimes in many binary liquid mixtures greatly challenges our understanding of crystallization1,6-12. Here, we study by experiments, theory and computer simulations the crystallization of supercooled mixtures of argon and krypton, showing that crystal growth rates in these systems can be reconciled with existing crystal growth models only by explicitly accounting for the non-ideality of the mixtures. Our results highlight the importance of thermodynamic aspects in describing the crystal growth kinetics, providing a substantial step towards a more sophisticated theory of crystal growth.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602773

RESUMO

Wave-particle duality is an inherent peculiarity of the quantum world. The double-slit experiment has been frequently used for understanding different aspects of this fundamental concept. The occurrence of interference rests on the lack of which-way information and on the absence of decoherence mechanisms, which could scramble the wave fronts. Here, we report on the observation of two-center interference in the molecular-frame photoelectron momentum distribution upon ionization of the neon dimer by a strong laser field. Postselection of ions, which are measured in coincidence with electrons, allows choosing the symmetry of the residual ion, leading to observation of both, gerade and ungerade, types of interference.

4.
Opt Lett ; 43(18): 4390-4393, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211872

RESUMO

X-ray spectroscopy is a method, ideally suited for investigating the electronic structure of matter, which has been enabled by the rapid developments in light sources and instruments. The x-ray fluorescence lines of life-relevant elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are located in the soft x-ray regime and call for suitable spectrometer devices. In this Letter, we present a high-resolution spectrum of liquid water, recorded with a soft x-ray spectrometer based on a reflection zone plate (RZP) design. The RZP-based spectrometer with meridional variation of line space density from 2953 to 3757 l/mm offers extremely high detection efficiency and, at the same time, medium energy resolution. We can reproduce the well-known splitting of liquid water in the lone pair regime with 10 s acquisition time.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(13): 2780-2786, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28582620

RESUMO

Most large molecules are chiral in their structure: they exist as two enantiomers, which are mirror images of each other. Whereas the rovibronic sublevels of two enantiomers are almost identical (neglecting a minuscular effect of the weak interaction), it turns out that the photoelectric effect is sensitive to the absolute configuration of the ionized enantiomer. Indeed, photoionization of randomly oriented enantiomers by left or right circularly polarized light results in a slightly different electron flux parallel or antiparallel with respect to the photon propagation direction-an effect termed photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD). Our comprehensive study demonstrates that the origin of PECD can be found in the molecular frame electron emission pattern connecting PECD to other fundamental photophysical effects such as the circular dichroism in angular distributions (CDAD). Accordingly, distinct spatial orientations of a chiral molecule enhance the PECD by a factor of about 10.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(51): 14651-14655, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930299

RESUMO

Quantum tunneling is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and crucial for many technological applications. It allows quantum particles to reach regions in space which are energetically not accessible according to classical mechanics. In this "tunneling region," the particle density is known to decay exponentially. This behavior is universal across all energy scales from nuclear physics to chemistry and solid state systems. Although typically only a small fraction of a particle wavefunction extends into the tunneling region, we present here an extreme quantum system: a gigantic molecule consisting of two helium atoms, with an 80% probability that its two nuclei will be found in this classical forbidden region. This circumstance allows us to directly image the exponentially decaying density of a tunneling particle, which we achieved for over two orders of magnitude. Imaging a tunneling particle shows one of the few features of our world that is truly universal: the probability to find one of the constituents of bound matter far away is never zero but decreases exponentially. The results were obtained by Coulomb explosion imaging using a free electron laser and furthermore yielded He2's binding energy of [Formula: see text] neV, which is in agreement with most recent calculations.

7.
Chemphyschem ; 17(16): 2465-72, 2016 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27298209

RESUMO

The absolute configuration of individual small molecules in the gas phase can be determined directly by light-induced Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI). Herein, this approach is demonstrated for ionization with a single X-ray photon from a synchrotron light source, leading to enhanced efficiency and faster fragmentation as compared to previous experiments with a femtosecond laser. In addition, it is shown that even incomplete fragmentation pathways of individual molecules from a racemic CHBrClF sample can give access to the absolute configuration in CEI. This leads to a significant increase of the applicability of the method as compared to the previously reported complete break-up into atomic ions and can pave the way for routine stereochemical analysis of larger chiral molecules by light-induced CEI.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(29): 11821-4, 2011 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21730184

RESUMO

Radiation damage to living tissue stems not only from primary ionizing particles but to a substantial fraction from the dissociative attachment of secondary electrons with energies below the ionization threshold. We show that the emission yield of those low energy electrons increases dramatically in ion-atom collisions depending on whether or not the target atoms are isolated or embedded in an environment. Only when the atom that has been ionized and excited by the primary particle impact is in immediate proximity of another atom is a fragmentation route known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) enabled. This leads to the emission of a low energy electron. Over the past decade ICD was explored in several experiments following photoionization. Most recent results show its observation even in water clusters. Here we show the quantitative role of ICD for the production of low energy electrons by ion impact, thus approaching a scenario closer to that of radiation damage by alpha particles: We choose ion energies on the maximum of the Bragg peak where energy is most efficiently deposited in tissue. We compare the electron production after colliding He(+) ions on isolated Ne atoms and on Ne dimers (Ne(2)). In the latter case the Ne atom impacted is surrounded by a most simple environment already opening ICD as a deexcitation channel. As a consequence, we find a dramatically enhanced low energy electron yield. The results suggest that ICD may have a significant influence on cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation.


Assuntos
Partículas alfa , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Elétrons , Hélio/química , Neônio/química , Análise Espectral
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