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1.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 20(2): 165-175, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) improve overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (aUC), but response rates can be modest. We compared outcomes between patients with and without prior intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), who received ICI for aUC, hypothesizing that prior intravesical BCG would be associated with worse outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study across 25 institutions in US and Europe. We compared observed response rate (ORR) using logistic regression; progression-free survival (PFS) and OS using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards. Analyses were stratified by treatment line (first line/salvage) and included multivariable models adjusting for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: A total of 1026 patients with aUC were identified; 614, 617, and 638 were included in ORR, OS, PFS analyses, respectively. Overall, 150 pts had history of prior intravesical BCG treatment. ORR to ICI was similar between those with and without prior intravesical BCG exposure in both first line and salvage settings (adjusted odds radios 0.55 [P= .08] and 1.65 [P= .12]). OS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.05 [P= .79] and 1.13 [P= .49]) and PFS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.12 [P= .55] and 0.87 [P= .39]) were similar between those with and without intravesical BCG exposure in first line and salvage settings. CONCLUSION: Prior intravesical BCG was not associated with differences in response and survival in patients with aUC treated with ICI. Limitations include retrospective nature, lack of randomization, presence of selection and confounding biases. This study provides important preliminary data that prior intravesical BCG exposure may not impact ICI efficacy in aUC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Administração Intravesical , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
2.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 114022, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735832

RESUMO

In the present study, an attempt has been made to design a solar light driven N-rGO-ZnO- CoPc(COOH)8 nanocomposite for the degradation of cyanide. The morphological and structural characterization of the synthesized nanocomposite was performed by XRD, FT-IR, XPS, UV-vis DRS, FESEM, TEM, EDS, PL spectra and BET surface area. The results revealed that almost 91% degradation and 86% toxicity removal occurred at 25 mgL-1 of initial cyanide concentration by the N-rGO-ZnO-CoPc(COOH)8 nanocomposite under illumination of solar light within 120 min. Analysis of free radicals reveals that the generation of OH. radicals was the predominant species in the photocatalytic degradation process. The cyanide degradation follows pseudo-first order kinetics. The estimated apparent rate constant (Kapp) of the above nanocomposite was 3 times higher than that of the ZnO photocatalyst alone together with a very good recycle activities. This might be due to the application of metallpthalocyanine photosensitizer CoPc(COOH)8 which enhances the rate of visible light absorption efficiency and activates the higher band gap ZnO photocatalyst under visible light. In addition, the presence of residual oxygen in N-rGO also promotes nucleation and anchor sites for interfacial contact between ZnO and N-rGO for effective charge transfer. Further, the N-rGO-ZnO-CoPc(COOH)8 photocatalytic system showed significant antibacterial activities against mixed culture systems. Therefore, the N-rGO-ZnO-CoPc(COOH)8 nanocomposite may be an alternative solar light driven photocatalyst system for the removal of cyanide from the wastewater along with its strong disinfectant activities.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Óxido de Zinco , Catálise , Cianetos , Grafite , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
BJU Int ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical outcomes with programmed-death ligand-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC) who have vs have not undergone radical surgery (RS) or radiation therapy (RT) prior to developing metastatic disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study collecting clinicopathological, treatment and outcomes data for patients with aUC receiving ICIs across 25 institutions. We compared outcomes (observed response rate [ORR], progression-free survival [PFS], overall survival [OS]) between patients with vs without prior RS, and by type of prior locoregional treatment (RS vs RT vs no locoregional treatment). Patients with de novo advanced disease were excluded. Analysis was stratified by treatment line (first-line and second-line or greater [second-plus line]). Logistic regression was used to compare ORR, while Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used for PFS and OS. Multivariable models were adjusted for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: We included 562 patients (first-line: 342 and second-plus line: 220). There was no difference in outcomes based on prior locoregional treatment among those treated with first-line ICIs. In the second-plus-line setting, prior RS was associated with higher ORR (adjusted odds ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.19-5.74]), longer OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88) and PFS (aHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89) vs no prior RS. This association remained significant when type of prior locoregional treatment (RS and RT) was modelled separately. CONCLUSION: Prior RS before developing advanced disease was associated with better outcomes in patients with aUC treated with ICIs in the second-plus-line but not in the first-line setting. While further validation is needed, our findings could have implications for prognostic estimates in clinical discussions and benchmarking for clinical trials. Limitations include the study's retrospective nature, lack of randomization, and possible selection and confounding biases.

4.
J Food Sci Technol ; 58(11): 4442-4449, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538928

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of different wine strains and inoculum size on the physicochemical, bioactive, and sensorial attributes of wine prepared from beetroot with varying TSS content (18 and 20°Brix) and inoculum sizes (5% (v/v) and 10% (v/v)). The beetroot wine produced by fermenting the must for 0-14 days and standard protocols adopted to analyze the wine properties. It was noticed that the acidity of wine increased and pH was found to be decreased as the fermentation days increased. In addition, alcohol content was significantly enhanced (> 10% by volume) in T5, which was higher than the other trials. In general, results of sensory and physicochemical analysis of different trials showed that T5 (TSS 18°Brix and inoculum size of 5% (v/v)) produced the wine of acceptable quality using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The color properties revealed that the L* value increased as fermentation progressed. Wine prepared from T5 possessed TSS of 6.55°Brix, 3.96 pH, 0.35% titratable acidity, reducing sugar of 26.75 µg ml-1, 30.03% of DPPH free radical scavenging activity, phenol content (104.20 µg ml-1) and betalain content of 10.85 mg 100 g-1. There were significant differences in the taste, flavor, and overall acceptability of beetroot wines fermented for 14 days. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-021-05136-y.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363009

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcomes. Despite numerous recent approvals of novel therapies, castration-resistant prostate cancer remains lethal. A "real-world" clinical-genomic database is urgently needed to enhance our characterization of advanced prostate cancer and further enable precision oncology. METHODS: The Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine Multi-Institutional Collaborative Effort (PROMISE) is a consortium whose aims are to establish a repository of de-identified clinical and genomic patient data that are linked to patient outcomes. The consortium structure includes a (1) bio-informatics committee to standardize genomic data and provide quality control, (2) biostatistics committee to independently perform statistical analyses, (3) executive committee to review and select proposals of relevant questions for the consortium to address, (4) diversity/inclusion committee to address important clinical questions pertaining to racial disparities, and (5) patient advocacy committee to understand patient perspectives to improve patients' quality of care. RESULTS: The PROMISE consortium was formed by 16 academic institutions in early 2020 and a secure RedCap database was created. The first patient record was entered into the database in April 2020 and over 1000 records have been entered as of early 2021. Data entry is proceeding as planned with the goal to have over 2500 patient records by the end of 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The PROMISE consortium provides a powerful clinical-genomic platform to interrogate and address data gaps that have arisen with increased genomic testing in the clinical management of prostate cancer. The dataset incorporates data from patient populations that are often underrepresented in clinical trials, generates new hypotheses to direct further research, and addresses important clinical questions that are otherwise difficult to investigate in prospective studies.

7.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 19(1): 110, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pullulanases are the significant industrial group in the 13 glycosyl hydrolases category, known as the α-amylases family. There are very few reports on pullulanase from fungal sources. Based on the above research gap, the present study was undertaken to explore the endophytic fungi for their pullulanase-producing capabilities. RESULTS: A total of 126 endophytes were isolated from Tradescantia pallida, Zea mays, and Trifolium alexandrinum. Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Ganoderma species recovered highest from the stem of Tradescantia palida. Fusarium was dominant in the stem and leaf of Zea mays. Penicillium, Aspergillus, Ganoderma, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Alternaria were recovered from the Trifolium alexandrium. The Shannon index in Tradescantia pallida was highest in leaves while in Zea mays and Trifolium alexandrinum, it is highest in the stem. The Simpson's index is highest in the case of Zea mays stem and root. Species richness was indicated by Menhinick's index, and it was found that this value was highest in the roots of Trifolium alexandrinum. As per our knowledge, no comparative data is available on the endophytic diversity of the above plants taken for the study. Out of 126 endophytes, only 2.38% produced pullulanase while 7.94% produced amylase. The recovery of pullulanase-producing endophytic fungi was very less. But the importance of pullulanase is high as compared to amylase because it has both α-1,6 and α-1,4 hydrolyzing ability. Therefore, the most promising isolates were identified by ITS sequence analysis. Based on spore chain morphology, isolates BHU-25 and BHU-30 were identified as Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus species, respectively. This is the first report of pullulanase from endophytic Aspergillus and Penicillium. CONCLUSION: Endophytes Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. produce pullulanase enzyme. This is the first report of pullulanase from endophytic Aspergillus and Penicillium.

8.
Chem Asian J ; 16(16): 2351-2360, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214252

RESUMO

The controlled oxidation reaction of L-selenocystine under neutral pH conditions affords selenocysteine seleninic acid (3-selenino-L-alanine) which is characterized also by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This technique shows that selenium forms three chalcogen bonds (ChBs), one of them being outstandingly short. A survey of seleninic acid derivatives in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) confirms that the C-Se(=O)O- functionality tends to act as a ChB donor robust enough to systematically influence the interactional landscape in the solid. Quantum Theory of Atom in Molecules (QTAIM) analysis proves the attractive nature of the short contacts observed in crystals containing the seleninic functionality and calculation of surface molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) reveals that remarkably positive σ-holes can frequently be found opposite to the covalent bonds at selenium. Both CSD searches and QTAIM and MEP approaches show that also the sulfinic acid moiety can function as a ChB donor, albeit less frequently than the seleninic acid one. These findings may contribute to a better understanding, at the atomic level, of the mechanism of action of the enzymes that control oxidative stress and ROS deactivation and that contain selenocysteine seleninic acid and cysteine sulfinic acid in the active site.

9.
Procedia Comput Sci ; 185: 380-386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131453

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses found in several animal species, such as bats, cattle, cats, camels, and humans. With more than 1.6 million people dead worldwide, as of December 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic has brought about a unified need to address global health crises more aggressively. There is great urgency in decreasing the impact of a potential future outbreak, which can be done by gathering information about the disease and its effects on humans. Various artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be utilized for the pandemic, such as COVID (CoV) management, a vast scientific field involving computers performing tasks capable of only human brains. Among the subsets of AI, there are Machine Learning (ML) techniques, which can learn from historical data examples without programming. While no prior data regarding the virus exists, the growing cases make for more data. In this research, we employ a literature review method to understand pandemic management's current state and how it can benefit by utilizing AI capabilities.

10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(7): 1670-1692, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156034

RESUMO

Purpose: COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) has reached epidemic proportion during India's second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, with several risk factors being implicated in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the patient demographics, risk factors including comorbidities, and medications used to treat COVID-19, presenting symptoms and signs, and the outcome of management. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19-associated ROCM managed or co-managed by ophthalmologists in India from January 1, 2020 to May 26, 2021. Results: Of the 2826 patients, the states of Gujarat (22%) and Maharashtra (21%) reported the highest number of ROCM. The mean age of patients was 51.9 years with a male preponderance (71%). While 57% of the patients needed oxygen support for COVID-19 infection, 87% of the patients were treated with corticosteroids, (21% for > 10 days). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was present in 78% of all patients. Most of the cases showed onset of symptoms of ROCM between day 10 and day 15 from the diagnosis of COVID-19, 56% developed within 14 days after COVID-19 diagnosis, while 44% had delayed onset beyond 14 days. Orbit was involved in 72% of patients, with stage 3c forming the bulk (27%). Overall treatment included intravenous amphotericin B in 73%, functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)/paranasal sinus (PNS) debridement in 56%, orbital exenteration in 15%, and both FESS/PNS debridement and orbital exenteration in 17%. Intraorbital injection of amphotericin B was administered in 22%. At final follow-up, mortality was 14%. Disease stage >3b had poorer prognosis. Paranasal sinus debridement and orbital exenteration reduced the mortality rate from 52% to 39% in patients with stage 4 disease with intracranial extension (p < 0.05). Conclusion: : Corticosteroids and DM are the most important predisposing factors in the development of COVID-19-associated ROCM. COVID-19 patients must be followed up beyond recovery. Awareness of red flag symptoms and signs, high index of clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and early initiation of treatment with amphotericin B, aggressive surgical debridement of the PNS, and orbital exenteration, where indicated, are essential for successful outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Mucormicose , Doenças Orbitárias , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Teste para COVID-19 , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/terapia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Mucormicose/terapia , Doenças Orbitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Orbitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Orbitárias/terapia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(2): 131-133, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642222

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have already been approved for the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are now being investigated for perioperative treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Ongoing trials are assessing ICIs as monotherapy and in combination with other treatments. Early data are promising, and long-term survival data are awaited to confirm the potential of ICIs in MIBC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Músculos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia
12.
BJU Int ; 128(2): 196-205, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical outcomes between patients with locally advanced (unresectable) or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (aUC) in the upper and lower urinary tract receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study collecting clinicopathological, treatment, and outcome data for patients with aUC receiving ICIs from 2013 to 2020 across 24 institutions. We compared the objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) between patients with upper and lower tract UC (UTUC, LTUC). Uni- and multivariable logistic and Cox regression were used to assess the effect of UTUC on ORR, OS, and PFS. Subgroup analyses were performed stratified based on histology (pure, mixed) and line of treatment (first line, subsequent line). RESULTS: Out of a total of 746 eligible patients, 707, 717, and 738 were included in the ORR, OS, and PFS analyses, respectively. Our results did not contradict the hypothesis that patients with UTUC and LTUC had similar ORRs (24% vs 28%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.24), OS (median 9.8 vs 9.6 months; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.93, 95% CI 0.73-1.19), and PFS (median 4.3 vs 4.1 months; aHR 1.01, 95% CI 0.81-1.27). Patients with mixed-histology UTUC had a significantly lower ORR and shorter PFS vs mixed-histology LTUC (aOR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.91 and aHR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06-2.59), respectively). CONCLUSION: Overall, patients with UTUC and LTUC receiving ICIs have comparable treatment response and outcomes. Subgroup analyses based on histology showed that those with mixed-histology UTUC had a lower ORR and shorter PFS compared to mixed-histology LTUC. Further studies and evaluation of molecular biomarkers can help refine patient selection for immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
13.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 4(1): 96-100, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615163

RESUMO

In clinical cancer medicine, the current inability to quantify intracellular chemotherapy drug concentrations in individual human cells limits the personalization and overall effectiveness of drug administration. New bioanalytical methods capable of real-time measurement of drug levels in live single cancer cells would allow for more adaptive and personalized administration of chemotherapy drugs, potentially leading to better clinical outcomes with fewer side effects. In this study, we report the development of a new quantitative single cell mass spectrometry (qSCMS) method capable of providing absolute drug amounts and concentrations in single cancer cells. Using this qSCMS system, quantitative analysis of the intracellular drug gemcitabine present in individual bladder cancer cells is reported, including in bladder cancer cells isolated from patients undergoing standard-of-care gemcitabine chemotherapy. The development of single cell pharmacology bioanalytical methods can potentially lead to more effective and safely administered drug medications in patients, especially in the treatment of cancer.

14.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(3): 464-472, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are approved in the first-line (1L) setting for cisplatin-unfit patients with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-high tumors or for platinum (cisplatin/carboplatin)-unfit patients, response rates remain modest and outcomes vary with no clinically useful biomarkers (except for PD-L1). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a prognostic model for overall survival (OS) in patients receiving 1L ICIs for advanced urothelial cancer (aUC) in a multicenter cohort study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients treated with 1L ICIs for aUC across 24 institutions and five countries (in the USA and Europe) outside clinical trials were included in this study. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We used a stepwise, hypothesis-driven approach using clinician-selected covariates to develop a new risk score for patients receiving ICIs in the 1L setting. Demographics, clinicopathologic data, treatment patterns, and OS were collected uniformly. Univariate Cox regression was performed on 18 covariates hypothesized to be associated with OS based on published data. Variables were retained for multivariate analysis (MVA) if they correlated with OS (p < 0.2) and were included in the final model if p < 0.05 on MVA. Retained covariates were assigned points based on the beta coefficient to create a risk score. Stratified median OS and C-statistic were calculated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among 984 patients, 357 with a mean age of 71 yr were included in the analysis, 27% were female, 68% had pure UC, and 13% had upper tract UC. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2, albumin <3.5 g/dl, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio >5, and liver metastases were significant prognostic factors on MVA and were included in the risk score. C index for new 1L risk score was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.65-0.71). Limitations include retrospective nature and lack of external validation. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new 1L ICI risk score for OS based on data from patients with aUC treated with ICIs in the USA and Europe outside of clinical trials. The score components highlight readily available factors related to tumor biology and treatment response. External validation is being pursued. PATIENT SUMMARY: With multiple new treatments under development and approved for advanced urothelial carcinoma, it can be difficult to identify the best treatment sequence for each patient. The risk score may help inform treatment discussions and estimate outcomes in patients treated with first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors, while it can also impact clinical trial design and endpoints. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: A new risk score was developed for advanced urothelial carcinoma treated with first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors. The score assigned Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2, albumin <3.5 g/dl, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio >5, and liver metastases each one point, with a higher score being associated with worse overall survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124735, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508643

RESUMO

Bio-plastics are eco-friendly biopolymers finding tremendous application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Bio-plastics have suitable physicochemical, mechanical properties, and do not cause any type of hazardous pollution upon disposal but have a high production cost. This can be minimized by screening potential bio-polymers producing strains, selecting inexpensive raw material, optimized cultivation conditions, and upstream processing. These bio-plastics specifically microbial-produced bio-polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) find application in food industries as packaging material owing to their desirable water barrier and gas permeability properties. The present review deals with the production, recovery, purification, characterization, and applications of PHAs. This is a comprehensive first review will also focus on different strategies adopted for efficient PHA production using dairy processing waste, its biosynthetic mechanism, metabolic engineering, kinetic aspects, and also biodegradability testing at the lab and pilot plant level. In addition to that, the authors will be emphasizing more on novel PHAs nanocomposites synthesis strategies and their commercial applicability.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Biopolímeros , Poluição Ambiental , Engenharia Metabólica , Plásticos
16.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(5): 887-894, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433731

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohorts across the world have allowed better understanding of SLE, including its bimodal mortality, and the impact of social factors and ethnicity on outcomes. The representation of patients from South Asia has been poor in the existing SLE cohorts across the world. Hence, we planned to initiate an inception cohort to understand the diversity of lupus in India. Indian SLE Inception cohort for REsearch (INSPIRE), planned over 5 years is a multi-centric cohort of adult and childhood lupus patients of Indian origin, fulfilling the SLICC-2012 classification criteria, with an aim to provide cross-sectional information on demography, ethnicity, socio-economic status, standard disease variables, quality of life, and prospective information on new events like hospitalization, infections, pregnancies, changes in disease activity, and damage. One of the other deliverables of this project is the establishment of a biorepository. The instruments to be used for each variable and outcome were finalized, and a web-enabled case report form was prepared to encompass SLEDAI, BILAG, SLICC damage scores, and Lupus quality-of-life index.Ten centers located in different geographic areas of India would enroll patients who are seen for the first time after the start of the study. In the first 8 months, 476 patients (63 children, 36 males) have been enrolled with a median disease duration of 10 (IQR 4-17) months and mucocutaneous features being the most prevalent clinical manifestations. INSPIRE is the first prospective Indian SLE cohort to study the diversity of Indian patients.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
17.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 24(2): 290-300, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, resulting in increased fracture risk. Patients with prostate cancer may have multiple risk factors contributing to bone fragility: advanced age, hypogonadism, and long-term use of androgen-deprivation therapy. Despite absence of metastatic disease, patients with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer receiving newer androgen receptor inhibitors can experience decreased bone mineral density. A systematic approach to bone health care has been hampered by a simplistic view that does not account for heterogeneity among prostate cancer patients or treatments they receive. This review aims to raise awareness in oncology and urology communities regarding the complexity of bone health, and to provide a framework for management strategies for patients with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer receiving androgen receptor inhibitor treatment. METHODS: We searched peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database using key words "androgen-deprivation therapy," "androgen receptor inhibitors," "bone," "bone complications," and "nonmetastatic prostate cancer" from 2000 to present. RESULTS: We discuss how androgen inhibition affects bone health in patients with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. We present data from phase 3 trials on the three approved androgen receptor inhibitors with regard to effects on bone. Finally, we present management strategies for maintenance of bone health. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer, aging, and antiandrogen therapy contribute to bone fragility. Newer androgen receptor inhibitors were associated with falls or fractures in a small subset of patients. Management guidelines include regular assessment of bone density, nutritional guidance, and use of antiresorptive bone health agents when warranted.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Doenças Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
18.
J Food Sci Technol ; 58(6): 2206-2215, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904843

RESUMO

Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) is a major tropical fruit rich in sugar, organic acids and flavonoids, making it suitable fruit for wine making. In the present study, five varieties of mango (Baganpalli, Langra, Dashehari, Alphonso, and Totapuri) were utilized for wine production using two different yeast strains namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178 and isolated yeast. The physiochemical analysis of wine produced from chosen mango varieties showed that North Indian local mango variety (Dashehari) gave better results in terms of organoleptic and functional attributes. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178 treated Dashehari wine possessed 6.1 ± 0.26% TSS, 2.1 ± 0.08% reducing sugar, 0.657% titratable acidity, 0.11 ± 0.00% volatile acidity, 12% ethanol (v/v) and pH 3.7 ± 0.10 comparable to Baganpalli mango wine. HPLC analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178 inoculated Dashehari mango wine revealed the presence of primarily; gallic acid (RT-4.4 min), Galloyl-A-type, procyanidin (RT-5.2 min), 2,2,6-Trimethyl-6-vinyltetrahydropyran (RT-8.91 min), ß-Pinene (RT-11.47 min) and Caffeoyl-quinic acid (RT-12.15 min) showing potential antioxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The local mango varieties wine showed significant (p < 0.05) physicochemical properties, antioxidant potential and ethanol content comparable to Baganpalli wine and was cost effective.

19.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(2): 1912-1919, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014460

RESUMO

The study of controlling the morphology for designing advanced supramolecular architectures by tuning the molecular motif at the elemental level has been rarely carried out. Here, we report the synthesis of a nicotinic acid-conjugated selenopeptide, which induced the formation of an unbranched mesoscale elongated tubular morphology. We rationally designed two additional peptides to find out the decisive role played by the nitrogen atom (in nicotinic acid) and selenium (in the peptide backbone) toward the formation of the mesotube. We found that the peptide, devoid of nitrogen, forms a fibrillar structure, whereas the peptide without selenium self-assembled into a cylindrical filled rodlike morphology. Here, we report an entirely different class of peptide inspired from the selenopeptide chemistry that forms a tubular structure and unambiguously establish that both nicotinic acid and selenium are essential toward the formation of such mesotubes.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Niacina/química , Peptídeos/química , Compostos de Selênio/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Teste de Materiais , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula
20.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(12): 3514-3528, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304163

RESUMO

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit crop, rich in fiber, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals and source of different biologically active compounds. The bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodispv. punicae is a serious threat to the crop leading to 60-80% yield loss under epiphytotic conditions. In this work, we have generated comparative transcriptome profile to mark the gene expression signatures during resistance and susceptible interactions. We analyzed leaf and fruits samples of moderately resistant genotype (IC 524207) and susceptible variety (Bhagawa) of pomegranate at three progressive infection stages upon inoculation with the pathogen. RNA-Seq with the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform revealed 1,88,337 non-redundant (nr) transcript sequences from raw sequencing data, for a total of 34,626 unigenes with size >2 kb. Moreover, 85.3% unigenes were annotated in at least one of the seven databases examined. Comparative analysis of gene-expression signatures in resistant and susceptible varieties showed that the genes known to be involved in defense mechanism in plants were up-regulated in resistant variety. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis successfully annotated 90,485 pomegranate unigenes, of which 68,464 were assigned to biological, 78,107 unigenes molecular function and 44,414 to cellular components. Significantly enriched GO terms in DEGs were related to oxidations reduction biological process, protein binding and oxidoreductase activity. This transcriptome data on pomegranate could help in understanding resistance and susceptibility nature of cultivars and further detailed fine mapping and functional validation of identified candidate gene would provide scope for resistance breeding programme in pomegranate.

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