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1.
Soc Work Public Health ; 36(5): 558-576, 2021 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182897

RESUMO

The Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. Trinidad and Tobago reported its first infection on March 12th 2020. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices toward COVID-19 among Trinidadians during the post-lockdown period. A validated questionnaire was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey from May 25th to June 6th 2020.Most respondents (512, 96.6%) knew that COVID-19 is highly infectious. Many (523, 98.7%) identified vulnerable groups as persons 65 years and older and those with preexisting co-morbidities (480, 90.6%). Respondents identified COVID-19 symptoms as fever (498, 94.0%), dry cough (495, 93.4%), myalgia (403, 76.0%) and sore throat (441, 83.2%). Most 504 (95.1%) acknowledged that COVID-19 threatened the country's economy. Dominant practices included regular hand washing (97.2%) and social distancing (512, 96.6%).Health authorities should continue public education efforts to increase knowledge and the adoption of recommended practices.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
2.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Afghanistan has one of the highest under-five mortality rates in South Asia, 70.4 per 1000 live births. Determinants need to be identified to reduce this rate. Knowledge of the existence of familial and community frailty will also assist in the reduction of under-five mortality. METHODS: The 2015 Afghanistan Demographic Health Survey, including 32,712 live births, was analysed. Under-five mortality was disaggregated into neonatal, post-neonatal and child mortality and piecewise traditional Cox proportional hazard, variance-corrected and frailty models were developed. All the models identified determinants and the two frailty models examined the existence of familial and community frailty for each age group. RESULTS: There was statistically significant evidence of community frailty. Breastfeeding status was a highly significant determinant under univariable and multivariable analysis for neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. Post-neonates of employed mothers also experienced increased mortality, particularly those whose mother worked in agriculture where the hazard ratio was 2.77 (95% CI 2.10, 3.65). Birth order 5+ was associated with increased mortality for all three age groups. CONCLUSION: The Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health should identify frail communities. Support, such as daycare facilities, should be provided and early initiation of breastfeeding and breastfeeding throughout the post-neonatal period should also be encouraged. IMPACT: The study identified determinants of neonatal, post-neonatal and child mortality. The study also established the presence of community frailty with respect to under-five mortality in Afghanistan. The study shows that the association of not breastfeeding and mortality is more acute in the early neonatal age group and it extends into the post-neonatal age group. The study identified the association of high birth order and mortality in the neonatal, post-neonatal and child age groups in Afghanistan. Policies should be implemented that encourage early initiation of breastfeeding to continue throughout the post-neonatal period and support for vulnerable families should be provided.

3.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704029

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease globally. Although Indian studies have addressed the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors, this study focuses upon women in the reproductive age group, 15-49 years, who have undiagnosed hypertension. We use NFHS-4 data for secondary analyses of prevalence and factors associated with undiagnosed hypertension among women aged 15-49 years in India. Multiple logistic regression was undertaken to identify associated factors. Our analyses showed that overall prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 18.69% among women aged 15-49 years in India. In rural areas, it was 17.09% compared  and 21.73% in urban areas. By comparison, only 8.86% self-reported a diagnosis of hypertension. Factors associated with undiagnosed hypertension were age, less than or more than normal BMI, higher wealth quintiles, no education, religion, caste, and geographical zones. Almost one in five women aged 15-49 years in India has undiagnosed hypertension with implications for personal and reproductive health.

4.
P R Health Sci J ; 39(2): 216-221, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both periodontal disease and peripheral neuropathy are complications associated with poorly controlled diabetes. This study aimed to determine whether periodontal disease was more prevalent and more severe among patients with severe diabetic peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: A case-control study was performed; 46 patients with and 48 without the slipping slipper sign (SSS)-a surrogate clinical marker for severe peripheral neuropathy-were recruited from a diabetic outpatient clinic. Demography and data from the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE) were assessed, in addition to the patients' periodontal health by 2 examiners blinded to patients' SSS status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between the risk factors for and the presence of the SSS, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 55.8 years (±10.69 years). Most of the participants (77.7%) had either never been to a dentist or had last attended a dental clinic more than a year before this examination, and 83% did not have a dentist. Periodontal disease was advanced in 61.7%, and there was no association between the SSS and periodontal disease. Dental-service utilization variables were significantly associated with the SSS. Patients who did not have a regular dentist were more than 7 times more likely to have the SSS than were those who did (OR = 7.70; 95% CI: 1.12 53.21). CONCLUSION: In diabetic patients, oral health-related risk factors, such as not having a dentist, wearing a denture or dentures, and visiting a dentist once a year or more, may be associated with systemic complications, including peripheral neuropathy. Early collaboration between dentists and doctors on the care of patients with diabetes is recommended.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516322

RESUMO

There is a global lack of data concerning shark consumption trends, consumer attitudes, and public knowledge regarding sharks. This is the case in Trinidad and Tobago, where shark is a popular culinary delicacy. A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) survey was conducted in Trinidad and Tobago. Six hundred and seven questionnaires were administered. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regressions were performed to test the association between KAP and demographic categories. The response rate was 93.4% with 567 questionnaires returned (473 from Trinidad and 94 from Tobago). Two hundred and seventeen (38.3%) participants were knowledgeable, 422 (74.4%) displayed attitudes in favour of shark conservation and sustainable use, and 270 (47.6%) displayed practices promoting shark conservation and sustainable use. Island (AOR = 2.81, CI = 1.78, 4.46) and tertiary education (AOR = 2.31, CI = 1.20, 4.46) significantly influenced knowledge level. Gender (AOR = 1.50, CI = 1.02, 2.20) and island (AOR = 0.56, CI = 0.35, 0.90) significantly influenced attitude. Gender (COR = 1.59, CI = 1.14, 2.22) was significantly associated with practices. Over 70% of respondents ate shark, and 54.7% ate shark infrequently enough to avoid risks from heavy metal toxicity. Our results may be useful to develop public awareness and practice improvement initiatives in order to improve KAP regarding shark meat consumption.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Tubarões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alimentos Marinhos , Sorogrupo , Trinidad e Tobago
6.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 27(2): 132-140, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818167

RESUMO

Purpose: To study the impact of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors on the cataract burden in Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS) using disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs).Methods: National and regional age and sex specific cataract DALY numbers and rates from 1990 to 2016 for Caribbean SIDS, were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The human development index (HDI), healthcare access and quality (HAQ) index, and the World Bank's classification of economies were used as socioeconomic status indicators. The Gini coefficient, Atkinson, Theil and concentration indices were used to measure health inequality. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors associated with differences in cataract burden.Results: Men had higher age-standardized DALY rates than women (P < .001) with median rates of 90.72 (Interquartile range [IQR], 87.8-94.2) and 83.94(IQR, 80.9-86.5), respectively. The burden of cataract increased with age. Upper-middle income countries had higher age-standardized DALY rates than high income countries (P < .001), with median rates of 90.1 (IQR, 86.8-93.4) and 79.8 (IQR, 77.5-81.8), respectively. Age-standardized DALY rates were inversely correlated with HDI (r = - 0.61, ß = - 51.56 [P < .05]) and HAQ (r = - 0.68, ß = - 0.46 [P < .01). Between-country inequality was negligible, and the burden of cataract is greater among the poor.Conclusion: Global trends of socioeconomic factors were confirmed. Significantly, men had higher age-standardized DALY rates than women. This is an area for further research.


Assuntos
Catarata/economia , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Catarata/complicações , Catarata/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Desenvolvimento Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 1077-1085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499561

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) in an adult population and explore its association with sociodemographic variables, dietary habits and oral health behaviours as there is very little data on this from the Caribbean.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of consecutive dental patients (18 years and over) attending the UWI School of Dentistry polyclinic. Following informed consent, dental examinations were performed and the presence of DH was assessed clinically by sensitivity to an air blast on individual teeth. Patients were also given a questionnaire. Their answers were processed using statistical software (SPSS version 24). Associations between variables were analysed using the chi-squared test.
Results: 300 patients participated, with an age range of 18-81 years and a mean age of 44.7 years (SD 15.7). 68.8% were female and the main ethnic groups were African (45.8%), Indian (29.8%) and mixed (24.4%). Over half of the participants (54.9%) reported a history of sensitive teeth and 52% reported sensitivity to the air syringe on one or more teeth. Based on multivariate logistic regression, a history of sensitive teeth was significantly associated with Indo-Trinidadian ethnicity (OR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.45), a history of tooth grinding or jaw clenching (OR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.76) and consumption of citrus fruits one to two times daily (OR 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.85). Those who experienced vomiting irregularly were more likely (OR 2.31, 95% CI: 0.96, 5.54) to have DH.
Conclusion: Prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was high among this sample of dental patients and was associated with ethnicity, tooth grinding and dietary practices.

.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Clínicas Odontológicas , Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
PeerJ ; 7: e6979, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275738

RESUMO

A major benefit of expansive cancer genome projects is the discovery of new targets for drug treatment and development. To date, cancer driver genes have been primarily identified by methods based on gene mutation frequency. This approach fails to identify culpable genes that are not mutated, rarely mutated, or contribute to the development of rare forms of cancer. Due to the complexity of the disease and the sheer volume of data, computational methods may encounter a NP-complete problem. We have developed a novel pathway and reach (PAR) method that employs a guilty by resemblance approach to identify cancer driver genes that avoids the above problems. Essentially PAR sifts through a list of genes of biological pathways to find those that are common to the same pathways and possess a similar 2-reach topology metric as a reference set of recognized driver genes. This approach leads to faster processing times and eliminates any dependency on gene mutation frequency. Out of the three pathways, signal transduction, immune system, and gene expression, a set of 50 candidate driver genes were identified, 30 of which were new. The top five were HGF, E2F1, C6, MIF, and CDK2.

9.
Children (Basel) ; 5(4)2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670054

RESUMO

This review evaluated the association of place of residence (urban/rural) and under-five mortality in middle- and low-income countries. Both English and Spanish language studies conducted during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period (1990 to 2015) were reviewed. Twenty-six cross-sectional studies, all in the English language, were selected for further review. Published data were used for this analysis. A funnel plot was produced to ascertain the presence of publication bias. The combined relative risk for under-five mortality was estimated using a random-effects model and a meta-regression was conducted on 15 of the 26 studies. The studies had a combined effect size of 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.27–1.67). The results of the meta-regression showed a positive association between the relative risk and the percentage of the rural population for the various regions/countries. The coefficient for the variable rural population percentage was 0.007, indicating that for every one percent increase in the rural population percentage, there was a 0.007 increase in the relative risk for under-five mortality. However, this was not significant (p-value = 0.3). Rural disadvantage persists in middle- and low-income countries. This is important to evaluate policies and programmes designed to remove the gap in under-five mortality rates between urban and rural areas.

10.
PeerJ ; 5: e2568, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28149674

RESUMO

Bioinformaticians have implemented different strategies to distinguish cancer driver genes from passenger genes. One of the more recent advances uses a pathway-oriented approach. Methods that employ this strategy are highly dependent on the quality and size of the pathway interaction network employed, and require a powerful statistical environment for analyses. A number of genomic libraries are available in R. DriverNet and DawnRank employ pathway-based methods that use gene interaction graphs in matrix form. We investigated the benefit of combining data from 3 different sources on the prediction outcome of cancer driver genes by DriverNet and DawnRank. An enriched dataset was derived comprising 13,862 genes with 372,250 interactions, which increased its accuracy by 17% and 28%, respectively, compared to their original networks. The study identified 33 new candidate driver genes. Our study highlights the potential of combining networks and weighting edges to provide greater accuracy in the identification of cancer driver genes.

11.
BMJ Open ; 7(2): e013408, 2017 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indonesia has shown a nominal increase in antenatal care (ANC) coverage from 93% to 96% in the Indonesia Demographic Health Survey (IDHS)-2012. This is high but for a comprehensive assessment of maternal health coverage in Indonesia, safe delivery services need to be assessed in conjunction with ANC coverage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study uses survey data from the IDHS-2012 that was conducted among women aged 15-49 years who gave birth during the past 3 years preceding the survey. Socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting ANC coverage and safe delivery services are analysed by segregating the data into 7 regions of Indonesia. RESULTS: Multivariate results show that besides wealth and education differentials, regional differences significantly affect the usage of ANC and safe delivery services across the 7 regions. Univariate analyses show that Sulawesi, Maluku and Western New Guinea islands are at a disadvantage in accessing ANC and safe delivery services. CONCLUSIONS: The study recommends that disaggregated regional targets be set in order to further reduce maternal mortality rates in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
12.
PeerJ ; 3: e1222, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26357596

RESUMO

Background. Worldwide, cataract is a major cause of blindness. The paper aims to evaluate factors associated with borderline and poor outcomes of cataract surgery at an Eastern Regional Health Authority (ERHA) hospital in Trinidad and Tobago. Materials and Methods. A hospital-based, retrospective study was done on 401 patients who had undergone cataract surgery (unilateral and bilateral) at an ERHA Hospital between March 2009 and September 2014. Data was collected on variables concerning demographic, medical history, surgical history, ocular findings and visual acuity (VA). The outcome variable of interest was Snellen's post-operative (presenting) VA which was transformed into a dichotomous variable with borderline and poor outcomes as one and good outcomes as the other. Data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results. Good outcome (presenting VA 6/18 or better) was seen in 350 (67%) eyes. The fitted model consisted of ocular co-morbidity (OR =2.133; 95% CI [1.346-3.380]), hypertension (OR = 0.520; 95% CI [0.381-0.928]), surgical procedure (OR = 1.56; 95% CI [1.004-2.425]), good preoperative VA (OR = 0.388, 95% CI [0.211-0.714]), borderline preoperative VA (OR = 0.485; 95% CI = [0.278-0.843]) and year of first visit to clinic (OR = 2.243; 95% CI [1.215-4.141]). Conclusion. There is a need for community-based outreach to increase awareness of eye health and diseases. It is recommended that the general population is encouraged to take responsibility for personal management. The facilities at the Hospital should also be enhanced.

13.
PeerJ ; 3: e1215, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26355429

RESUMO

Background. Nepal is set to achieve MDG-5 goals by end of 2015. However, maternal health parameters will remain way below those of developed countries. This study was conducted to assess the factors contributing to utilization of ANC and safe delivery services with the aim of furthering overall maternal health parameters in Nepal. Material and Methods. Using survey data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011, socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the utilization of ANC and safe delivery services among women aged 15-49 years who gave births during the last three years preceding the survey are examined. Data was segregated into three ecological zones: Mountain, Hill and Terai zones for univariate analyses. Data from all three zones was then pooled for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of Antenatal Care and Safe Delivery services in Nepal. Results and Conclusion. The analyses show that rural place of residence is at a disadvantage in receiving ANC (OR, 0.8; 95% CI [0.7-0.9]) and ensuring safe delivery (OR, 0.6; 95% CI [0.5-0.7]). Woman's education, husband's education and wealth quintile are significant factors in ensuring ANC and safe delivery services. Further, the analyses show that Budh/Muslim/Kirat/Christians are at a significant disadvantage in ensuring safe delivery (OR, 0.8; 95% CI [0.7-0.9]) as compared with Hindus. Though ecological zones lost their significance in receiving ANC, women in the Terai region are at a significant advantage in ensuring safe delivery (OR, 1.7; 95% CI [1.2-2.1]). Recommendation. Segregated targets should be set for the different ecological zones for further improvement in maternal mortality rates in Nepal.

14.
PeerJ ; 3: e710, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25653900

RESUMO

Background. India accounts for 24% to all under-five mortality in the world. Residence in rural area, poverty and low levels of mother's education are known confounders of under-five mortality. Since two-thirds of India's population lives in rural areas, mothers employed in agriculture present a particularly vulnerable population in the Indian context and it is imperative that concerns of this sizeable population are addressed in order to achieve MDG4 targets of reducing U5MR to fewer than 41 per 1,000 by 2015. This study was conducted to examine factors associated with under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture. Methods. Data was retrieved from National Family Household Survey-3 in India (2008). The study population is comprised of a national representative sample of single children aged 0 to 59 months and born to mothers aged 15 to 49 years employed in agriculture from all 29 states of India. Univariate and Multivariate Cox PH regression analysis was used to analyse the Hazard Rates of mortality. The predictive power of child mortality among mothers employed in agriculture was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results. An increase in mothers' ages corresponds with a decrease in child mortality. Breastfeeding reduces child mortality by 70% (HR 0.30, 0.25-0.35, p = 0.001). Standard of Living reduces child mortality by 32% with high standard of living (HR 0.68, 0.52-0.89, 0.001) in comparison to low standard of living. Prenatal care (HR 0.40, 0.34-0.48, p = 0.001) and breastfeeding health nutrition education (HR 0.45, 0.31-0.66, p = 0.001) are associated significant factors for child mortality. Birth Order five is a risk factor for mortality (HR 1.49, 1.05-2.10, p = 0.04) in comparison to Birth Order one among women engaged in agriculture while the household size (6-10 members and ≥ 11 members) is significant in reducing child mortality in comparison to ≤5 members in the house. Under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture in India discriminated well between death and survival (Area Under ROC was 0.75, 95% CI [0.73-0.77]) indicating that the model is good for appropriate prediction of child mortality. Conclusion. In a nationally representative sample of households in India, mother's age, breastfeeding, standard of living, prenatal care and breastfeeding health nutrition education are associated with reduction in child mortality.

15.
Springerplus ; 2: 284, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23961385

RESUMO

The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under-five mortality. The study emphasises the need of developing interventions to address the issues of anaemia, mothers working in the agricultural sector and improving relevant literacy among mothers.

16.
Anemia ; 2012: 608658, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22693662

RESUMO

Objectives. Anemia is a major public health problem throughout the world which assumes prominence in pregnant mothers. Patients with severe anemia continue to present themselves at term or in labor. This study was conducted to compare the improvements in hematological parameters of patients receiving partial exchange blood transfusion and transfusion of packed cells without exchange. Methods. One hundred and twenty-five severely anemic antenatal mothers were admitted from outpatient service. Partial exchange transfusion was given to sixty-six patients while fifty-nine received transfusion of packed cells with frusemide cover. Results. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, height, weight, religion, diet, education, occupation of self and husband, and income. Hemoglobin level in Group 1 was comparatively less than Group 2 at prelevel (5.2 ± 1.5 versus 6.6 ± 2.3, P = 0.001) and postlevel (7.2 ± 1.5 versus 8.6 ± 1.8, P = 0.001), respectively, but there was no significant difference between the two modes of transfusion (2.09 ± 1.6 versus 2.01 ± 1.5, P = 0.78). Conclusion. The study produced an equally significant improvement in hematological parameters in partial exchange and packed cell transfusion. Platelet counts were significantly less in partial exchange as compared with packed cell transfusion.

17.
World Health Popul ; 13(3): 28-51, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22555118

RESUMO

Data used in the present study are from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-I) 1992-93 (International Institute for Population Sciences 1995), India. Our study has developed Cox model analyses to see the effect of breastfeeding as a time-varying and time-dependent factor on birth spacing. While it is acknowledged that breastfeeding has a protective effect on birth spacing, such analysis of breastfeeding allows for a more nuanced understanding of that effect. Multivariate analysis revealed that breastfeeding, ever experience of fetal loss, education of women, employment status of women, education of husband, media exposure, survival status of index child and place of residence played an important part in extending birth space in at least one of the birth-spacing intervals (first to fifth). However, the variables varied from the first birth spacing to the fifth birth spacing. Breastfeeding is the only covariate found to be a significant protective factor associated with each birth spacing. Furthermore, this study validates the developed models with their prediction utilities for birth spacing.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Análise Multivariada , Paridade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 21(4): 461-8, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19783561

RESUMO

Abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) caused by a variety of reproductive tract infections is a widespread syndrome among women in India and in other developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a polyherbal formulation, Praneem, can be used for the regression of the syndrome. A phase IotaIota randomized controlled study was carried out with Praneem polyherbal tablets and Betadine vaginal pessary in 99 women with AVD. The authors found that 92% of women using Praneem were relieved of their symptoms of AVD as against 81.6% women using Betadine. Significant reduction was also seen with both treatments in lower abdominal pain, vaginal itching, and dysuria. Thus, the study indicates the efficacy of Praneem for the treatment of AVD and provides a rationale for planning a further Phase III study on a larger sample size for definitive conclusions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Quinina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Vaginais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Pessários , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Plantas , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Quinina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais , Descarga Vaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Descarga Vaginal/etiologia
20.
J Biosoc Sci ; 37(3): 319-32, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15906887

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants for early discontinuation among IUCD users in a rural district of northern India. Multivariate analysis indicated several significant predictors of early discontinuation of IUCD use. The risk of discontinuation increased more than two times in the presence of factors such as more than usual amount of menstrual flow before insertion and intermenstrual bleeding after insertion. Similarly, residence or alternatively those coming from villages without health centres were nearly two times more likely to discontinue. Menstrual disturbance increased the risk nearly three-fold. If only those women who report normal menstrual cycles had IUCDs inserted, it is very likely that the high discontinuation rate due to menstrual disturbance could be reduced. Knowledge about the IUCD and its effectiveness decreased the risk of early discontinuation but was not a statistically significant factor in multivariate analysis. Validation of the developed model was done by using the bootstrapping method and the model was found to be 18% noisy. These findings may help family planning providers in counselling and practice.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre/efeitos adversos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
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