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1.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407139

RESUMO

Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) encompasses a range of structural cardiac abnormalities present before birth attributable to abnormal foetal cardiac development. The pulmonary circulation of patients with ACHD and intracardiac or extracardiac defects is often exposed to increased blood flow and occasionally to systemic pressures. Depending on the location and magnitude of the defect as well as the time of surgical correction, the patient with ACHD is at risk of developing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which dramatically increases morbidity and mortality. It is encouraging that therapies applied in idiopathic PAH and significantly improve outcome are also effective in ACHD-related PAH (ACHD-PAH). This review summarizes the challenges encountered in the diagnosis and management of ACHD-PAH.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(6): 804-813, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395131

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. Complex interactions of the cardiovascular aging process with risk factors (obesity, hypertension, and atherosclerosis), comorbidities (anemia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and so on), and disease modifiers (sex, genes, others) contribute to the development of HF phenotype and outcome. A conglomerate of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlies the effects of aging on cardiovascular function, the most important being excessive oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation superimposed on the limited cardiac regeneration capacity. Notably, a sizeable percentage of elderly HF patients have cardiac amyloidosis, an HF precipitator. This review summarizes the current published data on the mechanisms of cardiovascular aging as they contribute to the development of HF phenotype and outcome.

5.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227942

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (AHF) is a common clinical challenge that a wide spectrum of physicians encounters in every practice. In many cases, AHF is due to decompensation of chronic heart failure. This decompensation may be triggered by various reasons, with sepsis being a notable one. Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by the dysregulated host response to infection and is associated with a very high mortality, which may reach 25%. Alarmingly, the increase in the mortality rate of patients with combined cardiac dysfunction and sepsis is extremely high (may reach 90%). Thus, these patients need urgent intervention. Management of patients with AHF and sepsis is challenging since cornerstone interventions for AHF may be contraindicated in sepsis and vice versa (e.g., diuretic treatment). Unfortunately, no relevant guidelines are yet available, and treatment remains empirical. This review attempts to shed light on the intricacies of the available interventions and suggests routes of action based on the existing bibliography.

6.
Metabolism ; 96: 92-100, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980838

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are oral antidiabetic agents that exert their glucose-lowering effect by increasing renal excretion of glucose. These drugs have been reported to beneficially affect cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes. However, concerns have recently been raised in relation to increased risk of lower-extremities amputation with canagliflozin and it remains unclear whether and to what extent this side effect could also occur with other SGLT2i. The present expert panel overview focuses on the three SGLT2i available and widely used in the US and Europe, i.e. empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin and only refers briefly to other SGLT2i for which less data are available. The results of large CV outcome trials with these SGLT2i are presented, focusing specifically on the data in relation to amputation risk. The potential pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this side effect are discussed. Furthermore, available data reporting amputation cases in SGLT2i users are critically reviewed. The expert panel concludes that, based on current data, increased amputation risk seems to be related only to canagliflozin, thus representing a drug-effect rather than a SGLT2i class-effect. The exact pathways underlying this drug-induced adverse event, possibly related to off-target drug effects rather than SGLT2 inhibition per se, should be elucidated in future studies. Continuous monitoring and pharmacovigilance is necessary and head to head trials would also be essential to provide definitive conclusions.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

8.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(2): 87-97, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553904

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and liver disease often co-exist. This is because systemic disorders and diseases affect both organs (alcohol abuse, drugs, inflammation, autoimmunity, infections) and because of complex cardiohepatic interactions. The latter, which are the focus of this review, include the development of acute cardiogenic liver injury and congestive hepatopathy in HF as well as cardiac dysfunction and failure in the setting of liver cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and sequelae following liver transplantation. The emerging role of altered liver X receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of HF comorbidities as well as of the intestinal microbiome and its metabolites in HF and liver disease are fruitful areas for future research.

11.
Cardiology ; 140(3): 194-198, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130750
13.
In Vivo ; 32(4): 921-925, 2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Several risk scores can stratify patients with acute heart failure (AHF) at the Emergency Department (ED). Registration of vital signs, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) upon admission is mandatory. Nevertheless, measurement of RR remains neglected worldwide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The predictive value of RR in classifying patients with AHF was investigated by processing several vital signs recorded in the ED. RESULTS: HR and RR individually did not discriminate patients according to hospitalization length, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admittance, mechanical respiratory support or death. The derivative indices, HR:RR and Respiratory Efficacy Index (REFI) (=RR×100/SatO2), differentiated study patients regarding hospitalization length. Receiver operating characteristic curves predicting mortality and ICU admission for REFI and HR:RR revealed high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for cut-off values of REFI >27 and HR:RR ≥4. CONCLUSION: The RR and its derivative indices are easily accessible vital signs monitored at the ED which merit 'revitalization'.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 33(4): 436-443, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601328

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The effects of statin loading before, during or after vascular interventions on cardiovascular and renal outcomes are discussed. Furthermore, the selection of optimal statin type and dose, according to current evidence or guidelines, is considered. The importance of treating statin intolerance and avoiding statin discontinuation is also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Statin loading has been shown to beneficially affect cardiovascular outcomes, total mortality and/or contrast-induced acute kidney injury, in patients undergoing vascular procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid artery stenting, endovascular aneurysm repair, open abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) repair and lower extremities vascular interventions. High-dose statin pretreatment is recommended for PCI and CABG according to current guidelines. Statin discontinuation should be avoided during acute cardiovascular events and vascular interventions; adequate measures should be implemented to overcome statin intolerance. SUMMARY: Statin loading is an important clinical issue in patients with cardiac and noncardiac vascular diseases, including carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease and AAA, undergoing vascular interventions. Cardiologists and vascular surgeons should be aware of current evidence and implement guidelines in relation to statin loading, discontinuation and intolerance.

16.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 28(6): 392-400, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471985

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is classified based upon the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous disorder with increasing prevalence in the elderly that remains incompletely understood and inadequately treated as no therapy has shown favorable effects. In this review, we summarize the current theories regarding HFpEF pathogenesis, propose a phenotype-based classification of HFpEF, discuss prevention strategies, explain why clinical trials on HFpEF treatment have failed, and make suggestions for the future.

18.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has an important role in atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of six RAAS gene polymorphisms on myocardial perfusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 810 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) using stress-rest myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography. Summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), summed difference score (SDS), transient ischemic dilation (TID), and lung/heart ratio (LHR) were recorded. The following gene polymorphisms were investigated: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T and T174M, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) A1166C, renin (REN) C5312T, and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) C3123A. The heterozygotes or homozygotes on ACE D allele were 7.54 times more likely to have abnormal SSS, while the AGT (T174M) heterozygotes were 5.19 times more likely to have abnormal SSS. The homozygotes of ACE D had significantly higher values on TID and LHR, while the AGT (T174M) heterozygotes had higher values on TID. The AT1R heterozygotes had greater odds for having SSS ≥ 3. The patients carried AT1R homozygosity of C allele had significantly higher values on TID, while heterozygotes of AT1R had significantly higher values on LHR. CONCLUSIONS: Among the polymorphisms investigated, ACE D allele had the strongest association with abnormal myocardial perfusion.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(3): 436-444, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105899

RESUMO

The limited myocardial fibre thickening and shortening alone cannot explain the marked left ventricular (LV) volume reduction during LV ejection. This can only be achieved with LV helical (spiral) orientation of myocardial fibres, which is determined by the non-contractile LV myocardial components (intrasarcomeric and extrasarcomeric cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix). Preservation of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in heart failure (HF) is due to the presence of normal ellipsoid LV configuration and spiral myocardial fibre orientation. Conversely, reduction of LVEF in HF results from spherical LV configuration associated with impaired myocardial fibre orientation. These mechanisms are supported by the fact that biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis are strong predictors of LV reverse remodelling in HF with reduced LVEF (HFrEF) and therapeutic interventions in HFrEF that retard or inhibit extracellular matrix remodelling are effective, whereas those that increase myocardial contractility are ineffective. Thus, current classification of HF, based on LVEF, should be revised, and future therapy in HF should focus on interventions affecting the non-contractile LV myocardial components rather than on LV myocardial contractility.

20.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 107(1): 76-86, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28921054

RESUMO

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) constitute a beneficial therapy in chronic heart failure, but their use in the acute heart failure (AHF) setting remains rather unexplored. To assess the effect of MRAs administered during hospitalization on in-hospital outcomes of patients with AHF, we performed a post-hoc analysis of the Acute Heart Failure Global Registry of Standard Treatment (ALARM-HF). Patients of the original study cohort (n = 4953) were categorized according to in-hospital MRA treatment status as MRA-treated (n = 1439) and untreated (n = 3514) subjects. Nearest-neighbor propensity score with 1:1 matching yielded a subsample of pairs of MRA-treated and MRA-untreated patients (n = 1003 in each treatment group) that were balanced in an extensive list of baseline characteristics. In-hospital mortality between MRA-treated and untreated patients were assessed by Cox regression analysis before and after adjustment for known prognostic factors and other concomitantly administered intravenous and oral HF specific therapies. In the matched cohort, in-hospital mortality was 4.2 vs 10.8% in MRA-treated vs untreated patients. Treatment with MRAs was associated with a reduction of in-hospital mortality [HR 0.372 (95% CI, 0.261-0.532), p < 0.001]. This association remained significant after adjustment for known prognostic factors and co-administered intravenous and oral HF therapies [HR: 0.618 (95% CI, 0.383-0.995), p = 0.048]. In conclusion, MRA therapy administered during hospitalization for AHF was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. The role of MRAs in AHF deserves further examination in adequately powered randomized controlled studies.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Análise Multivariada , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
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