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1.
Blood Purif ; : 1-7, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In clinical reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is extremely variable, although AKI is described as an independent risk factor for mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the incidence and the impact of COVID-19-related AKI on mortality. METHODS: All trials reporting the incidence of AKI in COVID-19 patients were searched using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases (last update April 26, 2020). RESULTS: Ten trials with a sample of 5,166 patients were included. AKI occurred in 947 out of 5,166 (18.3%) patients. AKI incidence was higher in severe cases: 62/305 severe patients developed AKI (20%) versus 27/1,268 nonsevere patients (2%) (p = 0.00001). AKI occurred in 475 out of 915 (52%) deceased patients versus 183 out of 2,678 (7%) survivors (p = 0.00001). Continuous renal replacement therapy was significantly more frequent in severe cases and in dead patients. CONCLUSION: A significant increase in mortality rate was observed in COVID patients who developed AKI, and AKI incidence was also higher in severe cases. Any supportive strategies to protect kidney could represent valuable intervention to reduce mortality in severe COVID-19 patients.

2.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(1): 4-22, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639325

RESUMO

Levosimendan was first approved for clinical use in 2000, when authorization was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the hemodynamic stabilization of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (HF). In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitization and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced HF, right ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care, and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the United States. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and noncardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute HF arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.

3.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional combustible cigarette (TCC) smoking remains a major cause of preventable cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Modified risk products (MRP) such as electronic vaping cigarettes (EVC) and heat-not-burn cigarettes (HNBC) may be safer than TCC but may still have detrimental oxidative, platelet and vascular effects of particular importance to people with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We aim to compare the acute coronary, systemic and environmental effects of two leading MRP in 20 TCC smokers admitted for invasive coronary assessment of CAD and willing to quit or after prior failed quitting attempts. After confirmation at angiography of an intermediate coronary stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) will be appraised. Patients will then be randomized 1:1 to use a single EVC or a single HNBC in the catheterization laboratory, followed by repeat CFR measurement. The primary endpoint will be the change in CFR before and after product use. Quantitative coronary angiography, fractional flow reserve (FFR), and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) will also be measured. EXPECTED RESULTS: We expect to accrue results able to: 1) test whether MRP have in general a detrimental impact on coronary vascular function in TCC smokers; 2) test whether EVC have a different impact than HNBC on coronary function; 3) provide ancillary pathophysiologic and translational insights on the acute risk and safety profile of MRP in TCC smokers with established cardiovascular disease, including complex correlations between coronary, cardiac, systemic and environmental effects. In addition, by directly informing participants of their individual results, they will be further empowered to quit TCC. CONCLUSIONS: The Sapienza University of Rome-Vascular Assessment of Proatherosclerotic Effects of Smoking (SUR-VAPES) 3 trial will provide important insights into the pathophysiologic cardiovascular impact of EVC and HNBC, also suitable to inform patients and individualize their smoking cessation strategy.

4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(7): 1393-1399, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture (HF) is a burdening health problem in older people. The orthogeriatric approach has been shown to favour functional recovery and reduce mortality, but its implementation in clinical practice cannot rely upon shared management protocols and greatly varies among different healthcare systems. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Italian consensus document on the management of HF in older people. METHODS: A panel of multidisciplinary experts from ten Italian scientific societies involved in the care of HF and including geriatricians, orthopaedics, anaesthesiologists, physiatrists and general practitioners, will join to establish the content validity of a list of statements. A Delphi consensus methodology will be applied to obtain the opinions of the panel and to provide the final recommendations. OBJECTIVES: The document will include indications on the following relevant topics: (1) optimal care path of older subjects with HF; (2) management of comorbidities and pre-operative alteration of physiological parameters; (3) management of selected categories of patients at expected increased risk of adverse outcomes; (4) continuity of care out of hospital; (5) screening and correction of risk factors for HF in older subjects; (6) information and divulgation of shared management strategies. The objective of the consensus will be to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers about the best management strategies for HF in older people and their inherent limitations, thus facilitating communication between stakeholders and promoting the most cost/effective models of care.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Consenso , Assistência à Saúde , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
5.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 25, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38538

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic underlines the importance of a mindful utilization of financial and human resources. Preserving resources and manpower is paramount in healthcare. It is important to ensure the ability of surgeons and specialized professionals to function through the pandemic. A conscious effort should be made to minimize infection in this sector. A high mortality rate within this group would be detrimental.This manuscript is the result of a collaboration between the major Italian surgical and anesthesiologic societies: ACOI, SIC, SICUT, SICO, SICG, SIFIPAC, SICE, and SIAARTI. We aim to describe recommended clinical pathways for COVID-19-positive patients requiring acute non-deferrable surgical care. All hospitals should organize dedicated protocols and workforce training as part of the effort to face the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/normas
6.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 25, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264898

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic underlines the importance of a mindful utilization of financial and human resources. Preserving resources and manpower is paramount in healthcare. It is important to ensure the ability of surgeons and specialized professionals to function through the pandemic. A conscious effort should be made to minimize infection in this sector. A high mortality rate within this group would be detrimental.This manuscript is the result of a collaboration between the major Italian surgical and anesthesiologic societies: ACOI, SIC, SICUT, SICO, SICG, SIFIPAC, SICE, and SIAARTI. We aim to describe recommended clinical pathways for COVID-19-positive patients requiring acute non-deferrable surgical care. All hospitals should organize dedicated protocols and workforce training as part of the effort to face the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/normas
7.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 86(6): 589-591, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154688
9.
J Nephrol ; 32(6): 895-908, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515724

RESUMO

Hypophosphatemia is a common but often underestimated electrolyte derangement among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Low phosphate levels can lead to cellular dysfunction with potentially relevant clinical manifestations (e.g., muscle weakness, respiratory failure, lethargy, confusion, arrhythmias). In critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) renal replacement therapies (RRTs) represent a well-known risk factor for hypophosphatemia, especially if the most intensive and prolonged modalities of RRT, such as continuous RRT or prolonged intermittent RRT, are used. Currently, no evidence-based specific guidelines are available for the treatment of hypophosphatemia in the critically ill; however, considering the potentially negative impact of hypophosphatemia on morbidity and mortality, strategies aimed at reducing its incidence and severity should be timely implemented in the ICUs. In the clinical setting of critically ill patients on RRT, the most appropriate strategy could be to anticipate the onset of RRT-related hypophosphatemia by implementing the use of phosphate-containing solutions for RRT through specifically designed protocols. The present review is aimed at summarizing the most relevant evidence concerning epidemiology, prognostic impact, prevention and treatment of hypophosphatemia in critically ill patients with AKI on RRT, with a specific focus on RRT-induced hypophosphatemia.

10.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 9782594, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467936

RESUMO

Monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population distinguished into three subsets with distinctive phenotypic and functional properties: "classical" (CD14++CD16-), "intermediate" (CD14++CD16+), and "nonclassical" (CD14+CD16++). Monocyte subsets play a pivotal role in many inflammatory systemic diseases including atherosclerosis (ATS). Only a low number of studies evaluated monocyte behavior in patients affected by cardiovascular diseases, and data about their role in acute aortic dissection (AAD) are lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate CD14++CD16-, CD14++CD16+, and CD14+CD16++ cells in patients with Stanford-A AAD and in patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS). Methods. 20 patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS group), 17 patients with Stanford-A AAD (AAD group), and 17 subjects with traditional cardiovascular risk factors (RF group) were enrolled. Monocyte subset frequency was determined by flow cytometry. Results. Classical monocytes were significantly increased in the AAD group versus CAS and RF groups, whereas intermediate monocytes were significantly decreased in the AAD group versus CAS and RF groups. Conclusions. Results of this study identify in AAD patients a peculiar monocyte array that can partly explain depletion of T CD4+ lymphocyte subpopulations observed in patients affected by AAD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/imunologia , Estenose das Carótidas/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/sangue , Estenose das Carótidas/sangue , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/análise , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/classificação , Receptores de IgG/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 85(12): 1315-1333, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213042

RESUMO

Perioperative hemodynamic management, through monitoring and intervention on physiological parameters to improve cardiac output and oxygen delivery (goal-directed therapy, GDT), may improve outcome. However, an Italian survey has revealed that hemodynamic protocols are applied by only 29.1% of anesthesiologists. Aim of this paper is to provide clinical guidelines for a rationale use of perioperative hemodynamic management in non cardiac surgical adult patients, oriented for Italy and updated with most recent studies. Guidelines were elaborated according to NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) and GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations of Assessment Development and Evaluations). Key questions were formulated according to PICO system (Population, Intervention, Comparators, Outcome). Guidelines and systematic reviews were identified on main research databases and strategy was updated to June 2018. There is not enough good quality evidence to support the adoption of a GDT protocol in order to reduce mortality, although it may be useful in high risk patients. Perioperative GDT protocol to guide fluid therapy is recommended to reduce morbidity. Continuous monitoring of arterial pressure may help to identify short periods of hemodynamic instability and hypotension. Fluid strategy should aim to a near zero balance in normovolemic patients at the beginning of surgery, and a slight positive fluid balance may be allowed to protect renal function. Drugs such as inotropes, vasocostrictors, and vasodilatator should be used only when fluids alone are not sufficient to optimize hemodynamics. Perioperative GDT protocols are associated with a reduction in costs, although no economic study has been performed in Italy.

12.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(4): 1571-1579, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179101

RESUMO

Background: Management of mechanical ventilation is a key issue in the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) and the improvement of surgical outcome. This is especially true in cardiac surgery where the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) increases the risk of lung injury. In the last years a growing number of studies have shown that protective ventilation has led to excellent results. However, the literature in this regard is lacking in cardiac surgery and there are no univocal guidelines in this sense. The aim of this survey was to investigate the actual clinical practice about ventilation techniques used in the Italian cardiac surgery centers. Methods: A questionnaire of 32-item was sent to 69 Italian cardiac surgery centers, 56 of which return a completed form (81.2%). The questionnaire was assembled by three independent researchers and the final version was e-mailed to all members of the SIAARTI (Italian society of anesthesia resuscitation and intensive care medicine) Study Group on Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. The answers were collected using a Google Forms sheet. In case of multiple questionnaires returned from the same center (i.e., different physicians from the same center responded) the head of department was asked to give a definite answer. Furthermore, for the 17 centers who reported multiple questionnaires, no large differences were found between the responses of different doctors belonging to the same center (12.3%±4.2% of discordant answers). Results: Intraoperatively, patients were ventilated with a tidal volume (TV) of 6-8 mL/kg (91.1% of centers), a positive end-expiration pressure of 3-5 cmH2O (76.8% of centers) and a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 50-80% (60.7% of centers). During the CPB, the "stop ventilation" technique was frequently adopted (73.2%). Before the discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was never applied in 32.1% of the centers, but it was used in 46.4% of patients with postoperative complications. Conclusions: This study shows a significant heterogeneity in ventilatory techniques among the Italian centers during CPB, whereas in the other surgical time the majority of the responding centers adopted a protective mechanical ventilation strategy.

13.
Echocardiography ; 36(5): 992-995, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873637

RESUMO

A 20-year-old Congolese woman presented with presyncope, dyspnea, and anasarca. Past medical history was unremarkable. Echocardiography revealed a rare combination of giant right atrium (RA), a dilated and hypertrophied right ventricle, subvalvular pulmonary stenosis (subPS), severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR), pericardial effusion and what appeared to be a spontaneously closed ventricular septal defect (VSD). Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Cardiac Computed Tomography confirmed the findings excluding the presence of intra-cardiac and extra-cardiac shunt and other associated congenital anomalies. The patient underwent subPS resection, right atrioplasty, and tricuspid annuloplasty. Multimodality approach facilitated the detection of the abnormalities and provided clarity when determining the optimal surgical strategy.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Estenose Subvalvar Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Estenose Subvalvar Pulmonar/patologia , Estenose Subvalvar Pulmonar/cirurgia , Septo Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Septo Interventricular/patologia , Septo Interventricular/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 46(3): 176-183, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140512

RESUMO

Objective: Management of pain, agitation and delirium (PAD) remains to be a true challenge in critically ill patients. The pharmacological proprieties of dexmedetomidine (DEX) make it an ideal candidate drug for light and cooperative sedation, but many practical questions remain unanswered. This structured consensus from 17 intensivists well experienced on PAD management and DEX use provides indications for the appropriate use of DEX in clinical practice. Methods: A modified RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used. In four predefined patient populations, the clinical scenarios do not properly cope by the current recommended pharmacological strategies (except DEX), and the possible advantages of DEX use were identified and voted for agreement, after reviewing literature data. Results: Three scenarios in medical patients, five scenarios in patients with acute respiratory failure undergoing non-invasive ventilation, three scenarios in patients with cardiac surgery in the early postoperative period and three scenarios in patients with overt delirium were identified as challenging with the current PAD strategies. In these scenarios, the use of DEX was voted as potentially useful by most of the panellists owing to its specific pharmacological characteristics, such as conservation of cognitive function, lack of effects on the respiratory drive, low induction of delirium and analgesia effects. Conclusion: DEX might be considered as a first-line sedative in different scenarios even though conclusive data on its benefits are still lacking.

16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(6): 2459-2466, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is increasing burnout incidence among medical disciplines, and physicians working in emergency settings seem at higher risk. Cardiac anesthesiology is a stressful anesthesiology subspecialty dealing with high-risk patients. The authors hypothesized a high risk of burnout in cardiac anesthesiologists. DESIGN: National survey conducted on burnout. SETTING: Italian cardiac centers. PARTICIPANTS: Cardiac anesthesiologists. INTERVENTIONS: The authors administered via email an anonymous questionnaire divided into 3 parts. The first 2 parts evaluated workload and private life. The third part consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory test with its 3 constituents: high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors measured the prevalence and risk of burnout through the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and analyzed factors influencing burnout. Among 670 contacts from 71 centers, 382 cardiac anesthesiologists completed the survey (57%). The authors found the following mean Maslach Burnout Inventory values: 14.5 ± 9.7 (emotional exhaustion), 9.1 ± 7.1 (depersonalization), and 33.7 ± 8.9 (personal accomplishment). A rate of 34%, 54%, and 66% of respondents scored in "high" or "moderate-high" risk of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment, respectively). The authors found that, if offered to change subspecialty, 76% of respondents would prefer to remain in cardiac anesthesiology. This preference and parenthood were the only 2 investigated factors with a protective effect against all components of burnout. Significantly lower burnout scores were found in more experienced anesthesiologists. CONCLUSION: A relatively high incidence of burnout was found in cardiac anesthesiologists, especially regarding high depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. Nonetheless, most of the respondents would choose to remain in cardiac anesthesiology.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cardiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Anestesiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Prevalência
18.
Crit Care ; 21(1): 252, 2017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of levosimendan in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), however, showed no advantages of levosimendan. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (MEDLINE and Embase from inception until March 30, 2017), investigating whether levosimendan offers advantages compared with placebo in high-risk cardiac surgery patients, as defined by preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% and/or low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS). The primary outcomes were mortality at longest follow-up and need for postoperative renal replacement therapy (RRT). Secondary postoperative outcomes investigated included myocardial injury, supraventricular arrhythmias, development of LCOS, acute kidney injury (AKI), duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay, and incidence of hypotension during drug infusion. RESULTS: Six RCTs were included in the meta-analysis, five of which investigated only patients with LVEF ≤ 35% and one of which included predominantly patients with LCOS. Mortality was similar overall (OR 0.64 [0.37, 1.11], p = 0.11) but lower in the subgroup with LVEF < 35% (OR 0.51 [0.32, 0.82], p = 0.005). Need for RRT was reduced by levosimendan both overall (OR 0.63 [0.42, 0.94], p = 0.02) and in patients with LVEF < 35% (OR 0.55 [0.31, 0.97], p = 0.04). Among secondary outcomes, we found lower postoperative LCOS in patients with LVEF < 35% receiving levosimendan (OR 0.49 [0.27, 0.89], p = 0.02), lower overall AKI (OR 0.62 [0.42, 0.92], p = 0.02), and a trend toward lower mechanical support, both overall (p = 0.07) and in patients with LVEF < 35% (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan reduces mortality in patients with preoperative severely reduced LVEF but does not affect overall mortality. Levosimendan reduces the need for RRT after high-risk cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Simendana , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Anesthesiology ; 127(6): 918-933, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic myocardial damage accompanying coronary artery bypass graft surgery remains a clinical challenge. We investigated whether xenon anesthesia could limit myocardial damage in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients, as has been reported for animal ischemia models. METHODS: In 17 university hospitals in France, Germany, Italy, and The Netherlands, low-risk elective, on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients were randomized to receive xenon, sevoflurane, or propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia for anesthesia maintenance. The primary outcome was the cardiac troponin I concentration in the blood 24 h postsurgery. The noninferiority margin for the mean difference in cardiac troponin I release between the xenon and sevoflurane groups was less than 0.15 ng/ml. Secondary outcomes were the safety and feasibility of xenon anesthesia. RESULTS: The first patient included at each center received xenon anesthesia for practical reasons. For all other patients, anesthesia maintenance was randomized (intention-to-treat: n = 492; per-protocol/without major protocol deviation: n = 446). Median 24-h postoperative cardiac troponin I concentrations (ng/ml [interquartile range]) were 1.14 [0.76 to 2.10] with xenon, 1.30 [0.78 to 2.67] with sevoflurane, and 1.48 [0.94 to 2.78] with total intravenous anesthesia [per-protocol]). The mean difference in cardiac troponin I release between xenon and sevoflurane was -0.09 ng/ml (95% CI, -0.30 to 0.11; per-protocol: P = 0.02). Postoperative cardiac troponin I release was significantly less with xenon than with total intravenous anesthesia (intention-to-treat: P = 0.05; per-protocol: P = 0.02). Perioperative variables and postoperative outcomes were comparable across all groups, with no safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: In postoperative cardiac troponin I release, xenon was noninferior to sevoflurane in low-risk, on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Only with xenon was cardiac troponin I release less than with total intravenous anesthesia. Xenon anesthesia appeared safe and feasible.


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Internacionalidade , Éteres Metílicos/administração & dosagem , Troponina I/sangue , Xenônio/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Sevoflurano , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Mycoses ; 60(12): 826-829, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877374

RESUMO

Duration >120 minutes of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) during cardiopulmonary bypass procedure was associated to an increased risk of candidemia in the intensive care unit (ICU). To evaluate oral nystatin prophylaxis in cardiac surgery considering its exclusive effect on Candida, in the absence of systemic effects and selection of resistant strains to polyene. We conducted an observational study in the postcardiac surgery ICU of Policlinico "Umberto I" of Rome. From January 2014, all patients with a prolonged ECC >120 minutes were systematically treated with oral nystatin (Prophylaxis group). This group was compared with all patients hospitalised in the same ICU, who have not received oral nystatin after ECC >120 minutes (No prophylaxis group). Overall, 672 consecutive patients were analyzed: 318 (47.3%) patients belonged to the no prophylaxis group, and 354 (52.7%) patients to the prophylaxis group. Diagnosis of candidemia was confirmed in 7 (2.2%) patients, all belonged to the no prophylaxis group. At multivariate analysis, oral nystatin prophylaxis showed a protective effect for development of candidemia after cardiac surgery. Oral nystatin prophylaxis, in patients who underwent a ECC >120 minutes, seems to reduce development of candidemia; however, the real efficacy of such prophylaxis approach requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Candidíase/prevenção & controle , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Circulação Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Nistatina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/etiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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