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1.
Cancer ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After controlling for baseline disease factors, researchers have found that black women have worse breast cancer survival, and this suggests that treatment differences may contribute to poorer outcomes. Delays in initiating and completing treatment are one proposed mechanism. METHODS: Phase 3 of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study involved a large, population-based cohort of women with incident breast cancer. For this analysis, we included black women (n = 1328) and white women (n = 1331) with stage I to III disease whose treatment included surgery with or without adjuvant therapies. A novel treatment pathway grouping was used to benchmark the treatment duration (surgery only, surgery plus chemotherapy, surgery plus radiation, or all 3). Models controlled for the treatment pathway, age, and tumor characteristics and for demographic factors related to health care access. Exploratory analyses of the association between delays and cancer recurrence were performed. RESULTS: In fully adjusted analyses, blacks had 1.73 times higher odds of treatment initiation more than 60 days after their diagnosis in comparison with whites (odds ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.90). Black race was also associated with a longer treatment duration. Blacks were also more likely to be in the highest quartile of treatment duration (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.41-2.02), even after adjustments for demographic and tumor characteristics (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.64). A nonsignificant trend toward a higher recurrence risk was observed for patients with delayed initiation (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.89-2.33) or the longest duration (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.87-1.59). CONCLUSIONS: Black women more often had delayed treatment initiation and a longer duration than whites receiving similar treatment. Interventions that target access barriers may be needed to improve timely delivery of care.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distinctions in the etiology of triple negative versus luminal breast cancer have become well-established using immunohistochemical surrogates (notably estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]). However, it is unclear whether established immunohistochemical subtypes are the sole or definitive means of etiologically subdividing breast cancers. METHODS: We evaluated clinical biomarkers and tumor suppressor p53 with risk factor data from cases and controls in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of incident breast cancers. For each individual marker and combinations of markers, we calculated an aggregate measure to distinguish the etiologic heterogeneity of different classification schema. To compare schema, we estimated subtype-specific case-control odds ratios for individual risk factors and fit age-at-incidence curves with two-component mixture models. We also evaluated subtype concordance of metachronous contralateral breast tumors in the California Cancer Registry. RESULTS: ER was the biomarker that individually explained the greatest variability in risk factor profiles. However, further subdivision by p53 significantly increased the degree of etiologic heterogeneity. Age at diagnosis, nulliparity, and race were heterogeneously associated with ER/p53 subtypes. The ER-/p53+ subtype exhibited a similar risk factor profile and age-at-incidence distribution to the triple negative subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical marker-based intrinsic subtypes have established value, yet other schema may also yield important etiologic insights. IMPACT: Novel environmental or genetic risk factors may be identifiable by considering different etiologic schema, including cross-classification based on ER/p53.

3.
Hum Pathol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271812

RESUMO

In breast tumors, it is well established that intratumoral angiogenesis is crucial for malignant progression, but little is known about the vascular characteristics of extratumoral, cancer-adjacent breast. Genome-wide transcriptional data suggest that extratumoral microenvironments may influence breast cancer phenotypes; thus, histologic features of cancer-adjacent tissue may also have clinical implications. To this end, we developed a digital algorithm to quantitate vascular density in approximately 300 histologically benign tissue specimens from breast cancer patients enrolled in the UNC Normal Breast Study (NBS). Specimens were stained for CD31, and vascular content was compared to demographic variables, tissue composition metrics, and tumor molecular features. We observed that the vascular density of cancer-adjacent breast was significantly higher in older and obese women, and was strongly associated with breast adipose tissue content. Consistent with observations that older and heavier women experience higher frequencies of ER+ disease, higher extratumoral vessel density was also significantly associated with positive prognostic tumor features such as lower stage, negative nodal status, and smaller size (<2cm). These results reveal biological relationships between extratumoral vascular content and body size, breast tissue composition, and tumor characteristics, and suggest biological plausibility for the relationship between weight gain (and corresponding breast tissue changes) and breast cancer progression.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In a screened population, breast cancer-specific mortality is lower for screen-detected versus symptom-detected breast cancers; however, it is unclear whether this association varies by follow-up time and/or tumor characteristics. To further understand the prognostic utility of mode of detection, we examined its association with breast cancer-specific mortality, overall and by follow-up time, estrogen receptor status, tumor size, and grade. METHODS: In the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, 3975 routinely screened women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (1992-2015). Among 2686 screen-detected and 1289 symptom-detected breast cancers, 206 and 209 breast cancer deaths, respectively, occurred up to 24 years post diagnosis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Controlling for prognostic factors, symptom detection was associated with higher risk of breast cancer-specific death up to 5 years after diagnosis (HR≤5years = 1.88, 95% CI 1.21-2.91) this association was attenuated in subsequent follow-up (HR>5years = 1.26, 95% CI 0.98-1.63). Within tumor characteristic strata, there was a 1.3-2.7-fold higher risk of breast cancer death associated with symptom-detected cancers ≤ 5 years of follow-up, although associations were only significant for women with tumors < 2 cm (HR≤5years = 2.42, 95% CI 1.19-4.93) and for women with grade 1 or 2 tumors (HR≤5years = 2.72, 95% CI 1.33-5.57). In subsequent follow-up, associations were closer to the null. CONCLUSIONS: Screen detection is a powerful prognostic factor for short-term survival. Among women who survived at least 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis, other clinical factors may be more predictive of breast cancer survival.

5.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(8): 511-518, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Uranium miners in Príbram, Czech Republic were exposed to low and moderate levels of radon gas and other hazards. It is unknown whether these hazards increase the risk of mortality or cancer incidence when compared with the general Czech population. METHODS: A cohort of 16 434 male underground miners employed underground for at least 1 year between 1946 and 1976, and alive and residing in the Czech Republic in 1977, were followed for mortality and cancer incidence through 1992. We compared observed deaths and cancer incidence to expectation based on Czech rates. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and causal mortality ratios were calculated. RESULTS: Underground workers in the Príbram mines had higher rates of death than expected due to all causes (SMR=1.23, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.27), all cancers (SMR=1.52, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.60), lung cancer (SMR=2.12, 95% CI 1.96 to 2.28) and extrathoracic cancer (SMR=1.41, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.77). Similar excess was observed in cancer incidence analyses, with the addition of stomach cancer (SIR=1.37, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.63), liver cancer (SIR=1.70, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.25) and rectal cancer (SIR=1.41, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.66). The SIR was elevated for all leukaemias (SIR=1.51, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.07) and for lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers combined (SIR=1.31, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.61), but results for specific subtypes were imprecise. Deaths due to hazardous mining conditions resulted in 0.33 person-years of life lost per miner. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to the Príbram mines resulted in excess cancers at several sites, including sites previously linked to radon and uranium exposure. Incidence analyses showed relative excess of several additional cancer subtypes.

6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1055-1065, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938765

RESUMO

The biological mechanisms driving associations between alcohol consumption and chronic diseases might include epigenetic modification of DNA methylation. We explored the hypothesis that alcohol consumption is associated with methylation in an epigenome-wide association study of blood and normal breast tissue DNA. Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, California) array data on blood DNA methylation was examined in a discovery set of 2,878 non-Hispanic white women from the Sister Study (United States, 2004-2015) who provided detailed questionnaire information on lifetime alcohol use. Robust linear regression modeling was used to identify significant associations (false discovery rate of Q < 0.05) between the number of alcoholic drinks per week and DNA methylation at 5,458 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. Associations were replicated (P < 0.05) for 677 CpGs in an independent set of 187 blood DNA samples from the Sister Study and for 628 CpGs in an independent set of 171 normal breast DNA samples; 1,207 CpGs were replicated in either blood or normal breast, with 98 CpGs replicated in both tissues. Individual gene effects were notable for phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGHDH), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIF), solute carrier 15 (SLC15), solute carrier family 43 member 1 (SLC43A1), and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11). We also found that high alcohol consumption was associated with significantly lower global methylation as measured by the average of CpGs on the entire array.

7.
Epigenetics ; 14(2): 146-157, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821641

RESUMO

Hormone therapy (HT) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, strongly dependent on type, duration, and recency of use. HT use could affect cancer risk by changing breast tissue transcriptional programs. We hypothesize that these changes are preceded by changes in DNA methylation. To explore this hypothesis we used histologically normal-appearing breast tissue from the Normal Breast Study (NBS). DNA methylation ß-values were obtained using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChips for 90 samples including all NBS-participants who used HT within 5 y before surgery. Data were analyzed using the reference-free cell mixture method. Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) mRNA-Seq data were used to assess correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression. We identified 527 CpG sites in 403 genes that were associated with ever using HT at genome wide significance (FDR q < 0.05), of these, 68 sites were also significantly associated with duration of use or recency of use. Twelve sites reached significance in all analyses one of which was cg01382688 in ARHGEF4 (p < 1.2x10-7). Mutations in ARHGEF4 have been reported in breast tumors, but this is the first report of possible breast cancer-related DNA methylation changes. In addition, 22 genes included more than one significant CpG site and a majority of these sites were significantly correlated with gene expression. Although based on small numbers, these findings support the hypothesis that HT is associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tissue, and identifies genes with altered DNA methylation states which could be linked to breast cancer development.

8.
Breastfeed Med ; 14(4): 249-255, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839228

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of diabetes is rising, and with it, the number of pregnancies affected by diabetes. U.S. black women have a disproportionately high prevalence of diabetes and lower rates of breastfeeding. Objective: The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between diabetes before pregnancy and breastfeeding duration among black women in the United States. Materials and Methods: We analyzed women from the Black Women's Health Study (N = 59,000) to assess the relationship between prepregnancy diabetes and time to breastfeeding cessation occurring up to 24 months postdelivery using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models. The study population included primiparous women with births between 1995 and 2009 (N = 3,404). Obesity, hypertension before pregnancy, and family history of diabetes were examined for effect modification. Results: Survival curves demonstrated a markedly reduced duration of breastfeeding in women who had been diagnosed with prepregnancy diabetes (p < 0.01). The hazard ratio for breastfeeding cessation for women with prepregnancy diabetes was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.1-2.0) compared with women without prepregnancy diabetes after control for age, body mass index (BMI) at age 18, prepregnancy BMI, other metabolic factors, demographics, and health behaviors. Conclusions: Our results suggest that prepregnancy diabetes is a strong predictor of curtailed breastfeeding duration, even after control for BMI. This underscores the need for targeted lactation support for diabetic women.

9.
Environ Int ; 125: 161-171, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine plasma levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in association with survival among women with breast cancer who participated in a population-based case-control study. METHODS: Participants included 456 white and 292 black women from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study Phase I who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer from 1993 to 1996, and who had available DDE/DDT and lipid measurements from blood samples obtained on average 4.1 months after diagnosis. Using the National Death Index, we identified 392 deaths (210 from breast cancer) over a median follow-up of 20.6 years. We used Cox regression to estimate covariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and breast cancer-specific 5-year mortality, and 20-year mortality conditional on 5-year survival, for lipid-standardized DDE and DDT levels. Associations stratified by race and estrogen receptor (ER) status were also examined. RESULTS: The highest versus lowest DDE tertile and the highest vs non-detectable DDT quantile were associated with HRs of 1.95 (95% CI = 1.31-2.92) and 1.64 (95% CI = 1.10-2.44), respectively, for 20-year conditional all-cause mortality. DDE levels above versus below the median were associated with a HR of 1.69 (95% CI = 1.06-2.68) for 20-year conditional breast cancer-specific mortality among women overall, and HRs were 2.36 (95% CI = 1.03-5.42) among black women and 1.57 (95% CI = 0.86-2.89) among white women (PInteraction = 0.42), and 3.24 (95% CI = 1.38-7.58) among women with ER- tumors and 1.29 (95% CI = 0.73-2.28) among women with ER+ tumors (PInteraction = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Exposure to DDE/DDT may adversely impact overall and breast cancer-specific survival. DDE exposure may contribute to the racial disparities in breast cancer survival.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211488, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682163

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Invasive breast cancers are thought to arise from in situ lesions, but some ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are indolent with low likelihood of progressing to invasive carcinoma. Comparison of risk factor associations between DCIS and invasive disease may elucidate which factors influence early versus late stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, we determined whether there were differences in risk factor profiles for screen-detected DCIS and invasive breast cancer among Luminal A lesions. METHODS: We conducted a case-control analysis using data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993-2001). Analyses were restricted to Luminal A tumors and screen-detected tumors among mammography-eligible women, to limit confounding by mode of detection (N = 108 DCIS; N = 203 invasive). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between risk factors and lesion type. RESULTS: In stratified analyses, we observed qualitative differences in the direction of association for ever smoking, obese BMI, high waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), and ≥10 years of oral contraceptive use between DCIS and invasive disease. Breastfeeding was inversely associated with invasive disease and was not associated with DCIS. Interaction tests for risk factor associations between Luminal A DCIS and invasive breast cancer were not statistically significant (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among Luminal A tumors, established breast cancer risk factors may exert stronger effects on progression of early lesions to invasive disease, with lesser effects on risk of DCIS.

11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(1): 31-39, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dominant invasive breast cancer histologic subtype, ductal carcinoma, shows intrinsic subtype diversity. However, lobular breast cancers are predominantly Luminal A. Both histologic subtypes show distinct relationships with patient and tumor characteristics, but it is unclear if these associations remain after accounting for intrinsic subtype. METHODS: Generalized linear models were used to estimate relative frequency differences (RFDs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations between age, race, tumor characteristics, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RNA-based intrinsic subtype, TP53 status, and histologic subtype in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS, n = 3,182) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, n = 808). RESULTS: Relative to ductal tumors, lobular tumors were significantly more likely to be Luminal A [CBCS RNA RFD: 44.9%, 95% CI (39.6, 50.1); TCGA: RFD: 50.5%, 95% CI (43.9, 57.1)], were less frequent among young (≤ 50 years) and black women, were larger in size, low grade, less frequently had TP53 pathway defects, and were diagnosed at later stages. These associations persisted among Luminal A tumors (n = 242). CONCLUSIONS: While histology is strongly associated with molecular characteristics, histologic associations with age, race, size, grade, and stage persisted after restricting to Luminal A subtype. Histology may continue to be clinically relevant among Luminal A breast cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Epidemiology ; 30(1): 83-92, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the impact of lifestyle patterns on survival following breast cancer. We aimed to identify distinct lifestyle patterns based on five behavior/dietary exposures among a population-based sample of women diagnosed with breast cancer and to examine their association with subsequent survival. METHODS: In the Carolina Breast Cancer Study Phases I/II, we interviewed 1,808 women 20-74 years of age following diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. We determined vital status using the National Death Index (717 deaths, 427 from breast cancer; median follow-up 13.56 years). We assessed lifestyle patterns using a latent class analysis based on five behavioral and dietary exposures: current versus never/former smokers; low versus high vegetable and fruit intake; high and low/moderate, versus no alcohol consumption; and no and low/moderate, versus high regular physical activity. We used Cox regression to estimate covariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality, and cause-specific and subdistribution HRs for breast cancer-specific mortality within 5 years and 13 years postdiagnosis conditional on 5-year survival. RESULTS: We identified three distinct lifestyle patterns: healthy behavior and diet (n = 916); healthy behavior and unhealthy diet (n = 624); and unhealthy behavior and diet (n = 268). The unhealthy (vs. healthy) behavior and diet pattern was associated with a 13-year conditional all-cause mortality HR of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) and with 13-year conditional breast cancer-specific and subdistribution HRs of 1.2 (95% CI = 0.79, 1.9) and 1.2 (95% CI = 0.77, 1.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral and dietary patterns can be used to identify lifestyle patterns that influence survival patterns following breast cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In post-menopausal women, high body mass index (BMI) is an established breast cancer risk factor and is associated with worse breast cancer prognosis. We assessed the associations between BMI and gene expression of both breast tumor and adjacent tissue in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) diseases to help elucidate the mechanisms linking obesity with breast cancer biology in 519 post-menopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. METHODS: Differential gene expression was analyzed separately in ER+ and ER- disease both comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 to < 30) or obese (BMI ≥ 30) women to women with normal BMI (BMI < 25), and per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Analyses controlled for age and year of diagnosis, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and hormone therapy use. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed and validated among a subset of post-menopausal cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (for tumor) and Polish Breast Cancer Study (for tumor-adjacent). RESULTS: No gene was differentially expressed by BMI (FDR < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with increased cellular proliferation pathways, particularly in ER+ tumors, and increased inflammation pathways in ER- tumor and ER- tumor-adjacent tissues (FDR < 0.05). High BMI was associated with upregulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ER+ tumor-adjacent tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into molecular mechanisms of BMI influencing post-menopausal breast cancer biology. Tumor and tumor-adjacent tissues provide independent information about potential mechanisms.

14.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 4: 30, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182055

RESUMO

RNA-based, multi-gene molecular assays are available and widely used for patients with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancers. However, RNA-based genomic tests can be costly and are not available in many countries. Methods for inferring molecular subtype from histologic images may identify patients most likely to benefit from further genomic testing. To identify patients who could benefit from molecular testing based on H&E stained histologic images, we developed an image analysis approach using deep learning. A training set of 571 breast tumors was used to create image-based classifiers for tumor grade, ER status, PAM50 intrinsic subtype, histologic subtype, and risk of recurrence score (ROR-PT). The resulting classifiers were applied to an independent test set (n = 288), and accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of each was assessed on the test set. Histologic image analysis with deep learning distinguished low-intermediate vs. high tumor grade (82% accuracy), ER status (84% accuracy), Basal-like vs. non-Basal-like (77% accuracy), Ductal vs. Lobular (94% accuracy), and high vs. low-medium ROR-PT score (75% accuracy). Sampling considerations in the training set minimized bias in the test set. Incorrect classification of ER status was significantly more common for Luminal B tumors. These data provide proof of principle that molecular marker status, including a critical clinical biomarker (i.e., ER status), can be predicted with accuracy >75% based on H&E features. Image-based methods could be promising for identifying patients with a greater need for further genomic testing, or in place of classically scored variables typically accomplished using human-based scoring.

15.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(11): 1143-1150, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267174

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metformin has been associated with a reduced incidence of prostate cancer and improved prostate cancer outcomes. However, whether race modifies the association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness remains uncertain. The association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness was examined separately in Black Americans (Blacks) and White Americans (Whites). METHODS: The study population consisted of 305 Black and 195 White research participants with incident prostate cancer and self-reported diabetes from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. High-aggressive prostate cancer was defined using a composite measure of Gleason sum, prostate-specific antigen, and clinical stage. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between metformin use and high-aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis, separately among Whites and Blacks, with adjustment for age, screening history, site, education, insurance, and body mass index. RESULTS: Metformin use was associated positively with high-aggressive prostate cancer in Blacks (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.05, 3.83). By contrast, a weak inverse association between metformin use and high-aggressive prostate cancer was found in Whites (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.34, 1.85). CONCLUSIONS: The association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness may be modified by race.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9137, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904148

RESUMO

Several studies have sought to identify novel transcriptional biomarkers in normal breast or breast microenvironment to predict tumor risk and prognosis. However, systematic efforts to evaluate intra-individual variability of gene expression within normal breast have not been reported. This study analyzed the microarray gene expression data of 288 samples from 170 women in the Normal Breast Study (NBS), wherein multiple histologically normal breast samples were collected from different block regions and different sections at a given region. Intra-individual differences in global gene expression and selected gene expression signatures were quantified and evaluated in association with other patient-level factors. We found that intra-individual reliability was relatively high in global gene expression, but differed by signatures, with composition-related signatures (i.e., stroma) having higher intra-individual variability and tumorigenesis-related signatures (i.e., proliferation) having lower intra-individual variability. Histological stroma composition was the only factor significantly associated with heterogeneous breast tissue (defined as > median intra-individual variation; high nuclear density, odds ratio [OR] = 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-10.15; low area, OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.10-0.86). Other factors suggestively influencing the variability included age, BMI, and adipose nuclear density. Our results underscore the importance of considering intra-individual variability in tissue-based biomarker development, and have important implications for normal breast research.

17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 45, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and influence cancer. Primary transcripts of miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) are poorly annotated and little is known about the role of germline variation in miRNA genes and breast cancer (BC). We sought to identify germline miRNA variants associated with BC risk and tumor subtype among African-American (AA) women. METHODS: Under the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium, genotyping and imputed data from four studies on BC in AA women were combined into a final dataset containing 224,188 miRNA gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 8350 women: 3663 cases and 4687 controls. The primary miRNA sequence was identified for 566 miRNA genes expressed in Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Tier 1 cell types and human pancreatic islets. Association analysis was conducted using logistic regression for BC status overall and by tumor subtype. RESULTS: A novel BC signal was localized to an 8.6-kb region of 17q25.3 by four SNPs (rs9913477, rs1428882938, rs28585511, and rs7502931) and remained statistically significant after multiple test correction (odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26-1.65; p = 3.15 × 10-7; false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.03). These SNPs reside in a genomic location that includes both the predicted primary transcript of the noncoding miRNA gene MIR3065 and the first intron of the gene for brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAIAP2). Furthermore, miRNA-associated SNPs on chromosomes 1p32.3, 5q32, and 3p25.1 were the strongest signals for hormone receptor, luminal versus basal-like, and HER2 enrichment status, respectively. A second phase of genotyping (1397 BC cases, 2418 controls) that included two SNPs in the 8.6-kb region was used for validation and meta-analysis. While neither rs4969239 nor rs9913477 was validated, when meta-analyzed with the original dataset their association with BC remained directionally consistent (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.16-1.44 (p = 4.18 × 10-6) and OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.17-1.51 (p = 1.6 × 10-5), respectively). CONCLUSION: Germline genetic variation indicates that MIR3065 may play an important role in BC development and heterogeneity among AA women. Further investigation to determine the potential functional effects of these SNPs is warranted. This study contributes to our understanding of BC risk in AA women and highlights the complexity in evaluating variation in gene-dense regions of the human genome.

18.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 4: 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951581

RESUMO

Mutations in tumor suppressor TP53 have been inconsistently linked to breast cancer risk factors and survival. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, a primary clinical means of TP53 mutation determination, only detects mutations that facilitate protein accumulation (e.g., missense mutations). RNA-based pathway methods capture functional status and may aid in understanding the role of TP53 function in racial disparities of breast cancer. TP53 status was assessed among invasive breast cancer cases from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) (2008-2013) using IHC and an established RNA-based TP53 signature (CBCS and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)). Frequency of TP53 status (IHC, RNA-based) was estimated in association with tumor characteristics, PAM50 intrinsic subtype, age, and race using relative frequency differences (RFDs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as the measure of association. Approximately 60% of basal-like tumors were TP53 protein positive (IHC), while nearly 100% were TP53 mutant-like (RNA). Luminal A tumors had low frequency of TP53 positivity (IHC: 7.9%) and mutant-like status (RNA: 1.7%). Mutant-like TP53 (RNA) was strongly associated with age ≤50 years, high tumor grade, advanced stage of disease, large tumor size, and basal-like and HER2 intrinsic subtypes. Black race was strongly associated with TP53 mutant-like status (RNA) (RFD: 24.8%, 95% CI: 20.5, 29.0) even after adjusting for age, grade, stage (RFD: 11.3%; 95% CI: 7.6, 15.0). Associations were attenuated and non-significant when measured by IHC. IHC-based TP53 status is an insensitive measurement of TP53 functional status. RNA-based methods suggest a role for TP53 in tumor prognostic features and racial disparities.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 14(6): e1007368, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879116

RESUMO

Selection pressure due to exposure to infectious pathogens endemic to Africa may explain distinct genetic variations in immune response genes. However, the impact of those genetic variations on human immunity remains understudied, especially within the context of modern lifestyles and living environments, which are drastically different from early humans in sub Saharan Africa. There are few data on population differences in constitutional immune environment, where genetic ancestry and environment are likely two primary sources of variation. In a study integrating genetic, molecular and epidemiologic data, we examined population differences in plasma levels of 14 cytokines involved in innate and adaptive immunity, including those implicated in chronic inflammation, and possible contributing factors to such differences, in 914 AA and 855 EA women. We observed significant differences in 7 cytokines, including higher plasma levels of CCL2, CCL11, IL4 and IL10 in EAs and higher levels of IL1RA and IFNα2 in AAs. Analyses of a wide range of demographic and lifestyle factors showed significant impact, with age, education level, obesity, smoking, and alcohol intake, accounting for some, but not all, observed population differences for the cytokines examined. Levels of two pro-inflammatory chemokines, CCL2 and CCL11, were strongly associated with percent of African ancestry among AAs. Through admixture mapping, the signal was pinpointed to local ancestry at 1q23, with fine-mapping analysis refined to the Duffy-null allele of rs2814778. In AA women, this variant was a major determinant of systemic levels of CCL2 (p = 1.1e-58) and CCL11 (p = 2.2e-110), accounting for 19% and 40% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Our data reveal strong ancestral footprints in inflammatory chemokine regulation. The Duffy-null allele may indicate a loss of the buffering function for chemokine levels. The substantial immune differences by ancestry may have broad implications to health disparities between AA and EA populations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Citocinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Seleção Genética , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Alelos , Evolução Biológica , Citocinas/sangue , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy/genética , Meio Ambiente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6574, 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700408

RESUMO

E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.

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