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1.
Cancer ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that racial/ethnic disparities exist with regard to initiation of and adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). However, the relationship among American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) individuals is poorly understood, particularly among those who reside in urban areas. We evaluated whether AET initiation and adherence were lower among AIAN individuals than those of other races/ethnicities who were enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente of Northern California (KPNC) health system. METHODS: We identified 23,680 patients from the period 1997 to 2014 who were eligible for AET (first primary, stage I-III, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer) and used KPNC pharmacy records to identify AET prescriptions and refill dates. We assessed AET initiation (≥1 filled prescription within 1 year of diagnosis) and AET adherence (proportion of days covered ≥80%) every year up to 5 years after AET initiation. RESULTS: At the end of the 5-year follow-up period, 83% of patients were AET initiators, and 58% were AET adherent. Compared with other races/ethnicities, AIAN women had the second-lowest rate of AET initiation (non-Hispanic Black [NHB], 78.0%; AIAN, 78.6%; Hispanic, 83.0%; non-Hispanic White [NHW], 82.5%; Asian/Pacific Islander [API], 84.7%), the lowest rate of AET adherence after 1 year and 5 years of follow-up (70.3% and 50.8%, respectively), and the greatest annual decline in AET adherence during the 4- to 5-year period of follow-up (a 13.8% decrease in AET adherence [from 64.6% to 50.8%]) after initiation of AET. In adjusted multivariable models, AIAN, Hispanic, and NHB women were less likely than NHW women to be AET adherent. At the end of the 5-year period, total underutilization (combining initiation and adherence) in AET-eligible patients was greatest among AIAN (70.6%) patients, followed by NHB (69.6%), Hispanic (63.2%), NHW (58.7%), and API (52.3%) patients, underscoring the AET treatment gap. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that AET initiation and adherence are particularly low for insured AIAN women.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544892

RESUMO

Breast cancer survivors have a high risk of a second primary contralateral breast cancer (CBC), but there are few studies of CBC risk in minority populations. We examined whether the incidence and risk factors for CBC differed by race/ethnicity in the United States. Women with a first invasive stage I-IIB breast cancer diagnosis at ages 20-74 years between 2000 and 2015 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) 18 registries were followed through 2016 for a diagnosis of invasive CBC ≥1 year after the first breast cancer diagnosis. We used cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models to test the association between race/ethnicity and CBC, adjusting for age, hormone receptor status, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and stage at first diagnosis, and evaluated the impact of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, socioeconomic status, and insurance status on the association. After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 9,247 women (2.0%) were diagnosed with CBC. Relative to non-Hispanic (NH) White women, CBC risk was increased in NH Black women (hazard ratio = 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.54) and Hispanic women (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20), with the largest differences among women diagnosed at younger ages. Adjustment for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, socioeconomic status, and health insurance did not explain the associations. Therefore, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women have an increased risk of CBC that is not explained by clinical or socioeconomic factors collected in SEER. Large studies of diverse breast cancer survivors with detailed data on treatment delivery and adherence are needed to inform interventions to reduce this disparity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524140

RESUMO

Targeted mRNA expression panels, measuring up to 800 genes, are used in academic and clinical settings due to low cost and high sensitivity for archived samples. Most samples assayed on targeted panels originate from bulk tissue comprised of many cell types, and cell-type heterogeneity confounds biological signals. Reference-free methods are used when cell-type-specific expression references are unavailable, but limited feature spaces render implementation challenging in targeted panels. Here, we present DeCompress, a semi-reference-free deconvolution method for targeted panels. DeCompress leverages a reference RNA-seq or microarray dataset from similar tissue to expand the feature space of targeted panels using compressed sensing. Ensemble reference-free deconvolution is performed on this artificially expanded dataset to estimate cell-type proportions and gene signatures. In simulated mixtures, four public cell line mixtures, and a targeted panel (1199 samples; 406 genes) from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, DeCompress recapitulates cell-type proportions with less error than reference-free methods and finds biologically relevant compartments. We integrate compartment estimates into cis-eQTL mapping in breast cancer, identifying a tumor-specific cis-eQTL for CCR3 (C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 3) at a risk locus. DeCompress improves upon reference-free methods without requiring expression profiles from pure cell populations, with applications in genomic analyses and clinical settings.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439408

RESUMO

Basal-like breast cancers (BBC) exhibit subtype-specific phenotypic and transcriptional responses to stroma, but little research has addressed how stromal-epithelial interactions evolve during early BBC carcinogenesis. It is also unclear how common genetic defects, such as p53 mutations, modify these stromal-epithelial interactions. To address these knowledge gaps, we leveraged the MCF10 progression series of breast cell lines (MCF10A, MCF10AT1, and MCF10DCIS) to develop a longitudinal, tissue-contextualized model of p53-deficient, pre-malignant breast. Acinus asphericity, a morphogenetic correlate of cell invasive potential, was quantified with optical coherence tomography imaging, and gene expression microarrays were performed to identify transcriptional changes associated with p53 depletion and stromal context. Co-culture with stromal fibroblasts significantly increased the asphericity of acini derived from all three p53-deficient, but not p53-sufficient, cell lines, and was associated with the upregulation of 38 genes. When considered as a multigene score, these genes were upregulated in co-culture models of invasive BBC with increasing stromal content, as well as in basal-like relative to luminal breast cancers in two large human datasets. Taken together, stromal-epithelial interactions during early BBC carcinogenesis are dependent upon epithelial p53 status, and may play important roles in the acquisition of an invasive morphologic phenotype.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests etiologic heterogeneity among breast cancer subtypes. Previous studies with six-marker IHC classification of intrinsic subtypes included small numbers of black women. METHODS: Using centralized laboratory results for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, proliferation marker, Ki-67, EGFR, and cytokeratin (CK)5/6, we estimated case-only and case-control ORs for established breast cancer risk factors among cases (n = 2,354) and controls (n = 2,932) in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. ORs were estimated by ER status and intrinsic subtype using adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: Case-only analyses by ER status showed etiologic heterogeneity by age at menarche, parity (vs. nulliparity), and age at first birth. In case-control analyses for intrinsic subtype, increased body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk of luminal A subtype, whereas older age at menarche and parity, regardless of breastfeeding, were associated with reduced risk. For basal-like cancers, parity without breastfeeding and increasing WHR were associated with increased risk, whereas breastfeeding and age ≥25 years at first birth were associated with reduced risk among parous women. Basal-like and ER-/HER2+ subtypes had earlier age-at-incidence distribution relative to luminal subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer subtypes showed distinct etiologic profiles in the AMBER consortium, a study of more than 5,000 black women with centrally assessed tumor biospecimens. IMPACT: Among black women, high WHR and parity without breastfeeding are emerging as important intervention points to reduce the incidence of basal-like breast cancer.

6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996592

RESUMO

Oral breast cancer prevention medications entail systemic exposure, limiting acceptance by high-risk women. Delivery through the breast skin, although an attractive alternative, requires demonstration of drug distribution throughout the breast. We conducted a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial comparing telapristone acetate, a progesterone receptor antagonist, administered orally (12 mg/day) or transdermally (12 mg/breast) for 4 ± 1 weeks to women planning mastectomy. Plasma and tissue concentrations, measured at five locations in the mastectomy specimen using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were compared. In 60 evaluable subjects, median drug concentration (ng/g tissue) was 103 (interquartile range (IQR): 46.3-336) in the oral vs. 2.82 (IQR: 1.4-5.5) in the transdermal group. Despite poor dermal permeation, within-breast drug distribution pattern was identical in both groups (R2  = 0.88, P = 0.006), demonstrating that transdermally and orally delivered drug is distributed similarly through the breast, and is strongly influenced by tissue adiposity (P < 0.0001). Other skin-penetrant drugs should be tested for breast cancer prevention.

7.
Cancer ; 126(22): 4957-4966, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer mortality is higher for Black and younger women. This study evaluated 2 possible contributors to disparities-time to treatment and treatment duration-by race and age. METHODS: Among 2841 participants with stage I-III disease in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, we identified groups of women with similar patterns of socioeconomic status (SES), access to care, and tumor characteristics using latent class analysis. We then evaluated latent classes in association with treatment delay (initiation >60 days after diagnosis) and treatment duration (in quartiles by treatment modality). RESULTS: Thirty-two percent of younger Black women were in the highest quartile of treatment duration (versus 22% of younger White women). Black women experienced a higher frequency of delayed treatment (adjusted relative frequency difference [RFD], 5.5% [95% CI, 3.2%-7.8%]) and prolonged treatment duration (RFD, 8.8% [95% CI, 5.7%-12.0%]). Low SES was significantly associated with treatment delay among White women (RFD, 3.5% [95% CI, 1.1%-5.9%]), but treatment delay was high at all levels of SES in Black women (eg, 11.7% in high SES Black women compared with 10.6% and 6.7% among low and high SES White women, respectively). Neither SES nor access to care classes were significantly associated with delayed initiation among Black women, but both low SES and more barriers were associated with treatment duration across both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that influence treatment timeliness persist throughout the care continuum, with prolonged treatment duration being a sensitive indicator of differences by race, SES, and care barriers.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are positively associated with time to menopause and breast cancer risk. We examined breast cancer associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AMH gene or its receptor genes, ACVR1 and AMHR2, among African American women. METHODS: In the AMBER consortium, we tested 65 candidate SNPs, and 1130 total variants, in or near AMH, ACVR1, and AMHR2 and breast cancer risk. Overall, 3649 cases and 4230 controls contributed to analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: After correction for multiple comparisons (false-discovery rate of 5%), there were no statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Without correction for multiple testing, four candidate SNPs in ACVR1 and one near AMH were associated with breast cancer risk. In ACVR1, rs13395576[C] was associated with lower breast cancer risk overall (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72, 0.97) and for ER+ disease (OR 0.75; CI 0.62, 0.89) (p < 0.05). Rs1220110[A] and rs1220134[T] each had ORs of 0.89-0.90 for postmenopausal and ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.03). Conversely, rs1682130[T] was associated with higher risk of ER+ breast cancer (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04, 1.32). Near AMH, rs6510652[T] had ORs of 0.85-0.90 for breast cancer overall and after menopause (p ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The present results, from a large study of African American women, provide limited support for an association between AMH-related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and require replication in other studies.

9.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789507

RESUMO

The NanoString RNA counting assay for formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples is unique in its sensitivity, technical reproducibility and robustness for analysis of clinical and archival samples. While commercial normalization methods are provided by NanoString, they are not optimal for all settings, particularly when samples exhibit strong technical or biological variation or where housekeeping genes have variable performance across the cohort. Here, we develop and evaluate a more comprehensive normalization procedure for NanoString data with steps for quality control, selection of housekeeping targets, normalization and iterative data visualization and biological validation. The approach was evaluated using a large cohort ($N=\kern0.5em 1649$) from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, two cohorts of moderate sample size ($N=359$ and$130$) and a small published dataset ($N=12$). The iterative process developed here eliminates technical variation (e.g. from different study phases or sites) more reliably than the three other methods, including NanoString's commercial package, without diminishing biological variation, especially in long-term longitudinal multiphase or multisite cohorts. We also find that probe sets validated for nCounter, such as the PAM50 gene signature, are impervious to batch issues. This work emphasizes that systematic quality control, normalization and visualization of NanoString nCounter data are an imperative component of study design that influences results in downstream analyses.

10.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 227: 113522, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) influence mortality following breast cancer. We examined plasma levels of 17 PCB congeners in association with mortality among women with breast cancer. METHODS: Participants included 456 white and 292 black women in North Carolina who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer from 1993 to 1996, and who had PCB and lipid measurements from blood samples obtained an average of 4.1 months after diagnosis. Over a median follow-up of 20.6 years, there were 392 deaths (210 from breast cancer). We used Cox regression to estimate covariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and breast cancer-specific 5-year mortality, and 20-year mortality (conditional on 5-year survival) in association with tertiles and continuous ln-transformed lipid-adjusted PCB levels. RESULTS: The highest (vs. lowest) tertiles of PCB74, PCB99, and PCB118 were associated with 5-year breast cancer-specific mortality HRs of 1.46 (95%CI = 0.86-2.47), 1.57 (95%CI = 0.90-2.73), and 1.86 (95%CI = 1.07-3.23), respectively. Additionally, one-ln unit increases in PCB74, PCB99, PCB118, and total PCBs were each associated with 33-40% increases in 5-year breast cancer-specific mortality rates. The PCBs were not, however, associated with longer-term breast cancer-specific mortality. For all-cause mortality, one-ln unit increases in PCB118, PCB146, PCB153, PCB182, PCB187, and total PCBs were associated with 20-37% increases in 20-year all-cause mortality rates among women who survived at least 5 years. CONCLUSION: PCBs may increase the risk of short-term breast cancer-specific mortality and long-term all-cause mortality among women with breast cancer.

11.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia ; 25(1): 51-68, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152951

RESUMO

Exposure to estrogen is strongly associated with increased breast cancer risk. While all women are exposed to estrogen, only 12% are expected to develop breast cancer during their lifetime. These women may be more sensitive to estrogen, as rodent models have demonstrated variability in estrogen sensitivity. Our objective was to determine individual variation in expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-induced responses in the normal human breast. Human breast tissue from female donors undergoing reduction mammoplasty surgery were collected for microarray analysis of ER expression. To examine estrogen-induced responses, breast tissue from 23 female donors were cultured ex- vivo in basal or 10 nM 17ß-estradiol (E2) media for 4 days. Expression of ER genes (ESR1 and ESR2) increased significantly with age. E2 induced consistent increases in global gene transcription, but expression of target genes AREG, PGR, and TGFß2 increased significantly only in explants from nulliparous women. E2-treatment did not induce consistent changes in proliferation or radiation induced apoptosis. Responses to estrogen are highly variable among women and not associated with levels of ER expression, suggesting differences in intracellular signaling among individuals. The differences in sensitivity to E2-stimulated responses may contribute to variation in risk of breast cancer.

12.
Psychooncology ; 29(4): 647-654, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, long-term endocrine therapy (ET) can greatly reduce the risk of recurrence, yet adherence is low- particularly among traditionally underserved populations. METHODS: The Carolina Breast Cancer Study oversampled Black and young women (<50 years of age). Participants answered an ET-specific medication adherence questionnaire assessing reasons for non-adherence. We used principal factor analysis to identify latent factors describing ET non-adherence. We then performed multivariable regression to determine clinical and demographic characteristics associated with each ET non-adherence factor. RESULTS: 1,231 women were included in analysis, 59% reported at least one barrier to ET adherence. We identified three latent factors which we defined as: habit - challenges developing medication-taking behavior; tradeoffs - high perceived side effect burden and medication safety concerns; and resource barriers - challenges related to cost or accessibility. Older age (50+) was associated with less reporting of habit (Adjusted Risk Ratio (aRR) 0.54[95% CI: 0.43-0.69] and resource barriers (aRR 0.66[0.43-0.997]), but was not associated with tradeoff barriers. Medicaid-insured women were more likely than privately-insured to report tradeoff (aRR:1.53 [1.10-2.13]) or resource barriers (aRR:4.43[2.49-6.57]). Black race was associated with increased reporting of all factors (habit: aRR 1.29[1.09-1.53]; tradeoffs: 1.32[1.09-1.60], resources: 1.65[1.18-2.30]). CONCLUSION: Barriers to ET adherence were described by three distinct factors, and strongly associated with sociodemographic characteristics. Barriers to ET adherence appear inadequately addressed for younger, Black, and publicly-insured breast cancer survivors. These findings underscore the importance of developing multi-faceted, patient-centered interventions that address a diverse range of barriers to ET adherence.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 42, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between germline genetic variation and breast cancer survival is largely unknown, especially in understudied minority populations who often have poorer survival. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have interrogated breast cancer survival but often are underpowered due to subtype heterogeneity and clinical covariates and detect loci in non-coding regions that are difficult to interpret. Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) show increased power in detecting functionally relevant loci by leveraging expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from external reference panels in relevant tissues. However, ancestry- or race-specific reference panels may be needed to draw correct inference in ancestrally diverse cohorts. Such panels for breast cancer are lacking. RESULTS: We provide a framework for TWAS for breast cancer in diverse populations, using data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), a population-based cohort that oversampled black women. We perform eQTL analysis for 406 breast cancer-related genes to train race-stratified predictive models of tumor expression from germline genotypes. Using these models, we impute expression in independent data from CBCS and TCGA, accounting for sampling variability in assessing performance. These models are not applicable across race, and their predictive performance varies across tumor subtype. Within CBCS (N = 3,828), at a false discovery-adjusted significance of 0.10 and stratifying for race, we identify associations in black women near AURKA, CAPN13, PIK3CA, and SERPINB5 via TWAS that are underpowered in GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: We show that carefully implemented and thoroughly validated TWAS is an efficient approach for understanding the genetics underpinning breast cancer outcomes in diverse populations.

14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(3): 221-230, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding breast cancer mortality disparities by race and age is complex due to disease heterogeneity, comorbid disease, and the range of factors influencing access to care. It is important to understand how these factors group together within patients. METHODS: We compared socioeconomic status (SES) and comorbidity factors in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study Phase 3 (CBCS3, 2008-2013) to those for North Carolina using the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Study. In addition, we used latent class analysis of CBCS3 data to identify covariate patterns by SES/comorbidities, barriers to care, and tumor characteristics and examined their associations with race and age using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Major SES and comorbidity patterns in CBCS3 participants were generally similar to patterns in the state. Latent classes were identified for SES/comorbidities, barriers to care, and tumor characteristics that varied by race and age. Compared to white women, black women had lower SES (odds ratio (OR) 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2, 7.8), more barriers to care (OR 5.6, 95% CI 3.9, 8.1) and several aggregated tumor aggressiveness features. Compared to older women, younger women had higher SES (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4, 0.6), more barriers to care (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6, 2.9) and aggregated tumor aggressiveness features. CONCLUSIONS: CBCS3 is representative of North Carolina on comparable factors. Patterns of access to care and tumor characteristics are intertwined with race and age, suggesting that interventions to address disparities will need to target both access and biology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 10(1): 76-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956531

RESUMO

Background: An understanding of how the mammary gland responds to toxicant and drug exposures can shed light on mechanisms of breast cancer initiation/progression and therapeutic effectiveness, respectively. In this study, we employed noninvasive, label-free and high-throughput optical coherence tomography speckle fluctuation spectroscopy (OCT-SFS) to track exposure-response relationships in three-dimensional (3D) mammary epithelial organoid models. Methods: OCT-SFS is sensitive to relatively high speed (~0.16-8 µm/min) motions of subcellular light scattering components occurring over short (~2-114 s) time scales, termed "intracellular motility." In this study, OCT speckle fluctuation spectra are quantified by two metrics: the intracellular motility amplitude, M, and frequency-dependent motility roll-off, α. OCT-SFS was performed on human mammary organoid models comprised of pre-malignant MCF10DCIS.com cells or MCF7 adenocarcinoma cells over 6 days of exposure to either a microtubule inhibitor (Paclitaxel, Taxol) or a myosin II inhibitor (Blebbistatin). Raw values of α and M were normalized to a dynamic range corresponding to fixed (0%) and live/homeostatic (100%) organoids for each cell line. Results: In this work, we observed a significant decrease in both M and α of MCF10DCIS.com organoids after 24 hours of exposure to Taxol (P<0.001), and a significant decrease only in α for MCF7 organoids after 48 hours of exposure (P<0.0001). We also observed a significant decrease in both M and α of MCF7 organoids at the longest exposure time of 6 days to Blebbistatin (P<0.0001), and a significant decrease only in M for MCF10DCIS.com organoids after 24 hours of exposure (P<0.01). Conclusions: OCT-SFS revealed cell line-specific response patterns, in terms of intracellular motility, to different motility suppression mechanisms. This provides a foundation for future OCT-SFS studies of longitudinal responses of the mammary gland in toxicology and drug research.

16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(1): 185-195, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Female breast cancer demonstrates bimodal age frequency distribution patterns at diagnosis, interpretable as two main etiologic subtypes or groupings of tumors with shared risk factors. While RNA-based methods including PAM50 have identified well-established clinical subtypes, age distribution patterns at diagnosis as a proxy for etiologic subtype are not established for molecular and genomic tumor classifications. METHODS: We evaluated smoothed age frequency distributions at diagnosis for Carolina Breast Cancer Study cases within immunohistochemistry-based and RNA-based expression categories. Akaike information criterion (AIC) values compared the fit of single density versus two-component mixture models. Two-component mixture models estimated the proportion of early-onset and late-onset categories by immunohistochemistry-based ER (n = 2860), and by RNA-based ESR1 and PAM50 subtype (n = 1965). PAM50 findings were validated using pooled publicly available data (n = 8103). RESULTS: Breast cancers were best characterized by bimodal age distribution at diagnosis with incidence peaks near 45 and 65 years, regardless of molecular characteristics. However, proportional composition of early-onset and late-onset age distributions varied by molecular and genomic characteristics. Higher ER-protein and ESR1-RNA categories showed a greater proportion of late age-at-onset. Similarly, PAM50 subtypes showed a shifting age-at-onset distribution, with most pronounced early-onset and late-onset peaks found in Basal-like and Luminal A, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bimodal age distribution at diagnosis was detected in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, similar to national cancer registry data. Our data support two fundamental age-defined etiologic breast cancer subtypes that persist across molecular and genomic characteristics. Better criteria to distinguish etiologic subtypes could improve understanding of breast cancer etiology and contribute to prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Genômica/métodos , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de RNA
17.
Breast ; 49: 108-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to U.S. white women, African American women are more likely to die from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Elucidation of risk factors for DCIS in African American women may provide opportunities for risk reduction. METHODS: We used data from three epidemiologic studies in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium to study risk factors for estrogen receptor (ER) positive DCIS (488 cases; 13,830 controls). Results were compared to associations observed for ER+ invasive breast cancer (n = 2,099). RESULTS: First degree family history of breast cancer was associated with increased risk of ER+ DCIS [odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 2.17]. Oral contraceptive use within the past 10 years (vs. never) was also associated with increased risk (OR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.97), as was late age at first birth (≥25 years vs. <20 years) (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 0.96, 1.67). Risk was reduced in women with older age at menarche (≥15 years vs. <11 years) (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.93) and higher body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood (≥25 vs. <20 kg/m2 at age 18 or 21) (OR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.55, 1.01). There was a positive association of recent BMI with risk in postmenopausal women only. In general, associations of risk factors for ER+ DCIS were similar in magnitude and direction to those for invasive ER+ breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that most risk factors for invasive ER+ breast cancer are also associated with increased risk of ER+ DCIS among African American women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(7): 728-736, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some breast tumors expressing greater than 1% and less than 10% estrogen receptor (ER) positivity (ER-borderline) are clinically aggressive; others exhibit luminal biology. Prior ER-borderline studies included few black participants. METHODS: Using the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (phase I: 1993-1996; 2: 1996-2001; 3: 2008-2013), a population-based study that oversampled black women, we compared ER-borderline (n = 217) to ER-positive (n = 1885) and ER-negative (n = 757) tumors. PAM50 subtype and risk of recurrence score (ROR-PT, incorporates subtype, proliferation, tumor size) were measured. Relative frequency differences (RFD) were estimated using multivariable linear regression. Disease-free interval (DFI) was evaluated by ER category and endocrine therapy receipt, overall and by race, using Kaplan Meier and Cox models. Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: ER-borderlines were more frequently basal-like (RFD = +37.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.1% to 48.4%) and high ROR-PT (RFD = +52.4%, 95% CI = 36.8% to 68.0%) relative to ER-positives. Having a high ROR-PT ER-borderline tumor was statistically significantly associated with black race (RFD = +26.2%, 95% CI = 9.0% to 43.3%). Compared to ER-positives, DFI of ER-borderlines treated with endocrine therapy was poorer but not statistically significantly different (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03, 95% CI = 0.89% to 4.65%), whereas DFI was statistically significantly worse for ER-borderlines without endocrine therapy (HR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.84% to 6.02%). However, black women with ER-borderline had worse DFI compared to ER-positives, even when treated with endocrine therapy (HR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.09% to 7.04%). CONCLUSIONS: ER-borderline tumors were genomically heterogeneous, with survival outcomes that differed by endocrine therapy receipt and race. Black race predicted high-risk ER-borderlines and may be associated with poorer endocrine therapy response.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(6): 647-650, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599949

RESUMO

The financial implications of breast cancer diagnosis may be greater among rural and black women. Women with incident breast cancer were recruited as part of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. We compared unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of cancer-related job or income loss, and a composite measure of either outcome, by rural residence and stratified by race. We included 2435 women: 11.7% were rural; 48.5% were black; and 38.0% reported employment changes after diagnosis. Rural women more often reported employment effects, including reduced household income (43.6% vs 35.4%, two-sided χ2 test P = .04). Rural white, rural black, and urban black women each more often reported income reduction (statistically significant vs. urban white women), although these groups did not meaningfully differ from each other. In multivariable regression, rural differences were mediated by socioeconomic factors, but racial differences remained. Programs and policies to reduce financial toxicity in vulnerable patients should address indirect costs of cancer, including lost wages and employment.

20.
Am J Ind Med ; 63(10): 859-867, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to estimate the association between radon and site-specific cancer mortality among a large contemporary cohort of male uranium miners. METHODS: Annual occupational radon exposure was estimated based on a worker's duration of underground mining in a year and estimates of potential alpha energy of radon progeny in their location of work. Cancer mortality over the period 1977-1992 was ascertained for a cohort of 16 434 male underground uranium miners employed in the Czech Republic between 1946 and 1992. Poisson regression was used to estimate relationships between cumulative radiation exposure (in working level months [WLM]) and site-specific cancer mortality. RESULTS: Radon is positively associated with lung cancer mortality (excess relative rate [ERR] per 100 WLM = 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10, 0.37). The best fit of the dose-response relationship between radon and lung cancer mortality was linear and estimates of radon-lung cancer associations varied by windows of time-since-exposure. Positive associations between radon and several types of cancer other than lung cancer were identified, notably chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ERR/100 WLM = 0.24; 95% CI: [not determined [ND], 5.10]) and extrathoracic cancer (ERR/100 WLM = 0.12; 95% CI: [ND, 0.69]). We observed no associations between radon and stomach cancer, nor between radon and several hematopoietic cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the established radon-lung cancer association and suggests that radon may also be associated with other types of cancer mortality. Further investigations of extrathoracic and CLL cancer, with the aim of obtaining more precise estimates, are warranted to understand associations between radon and cancers other than lung.

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