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1.
Hippocampus ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675165

RESUMO

Hippocampal subfield segmentation on in vivo MRI is of great interest for cognition, aging, and disease research. Extant subfield segmentation protocols have been based on neuroanatomical references, but these references often give limited information on anatomical variability. Moreover, there is generally a mismatch between the orientation of the histological sections and the often anisotropic coronal sections on in vivo MRI. To address these issues, we provide a detailed description of hippocampal anatomy using a postmortem dataset containing nine specimens of subjects with and without dementia, which underwent a 9.4 T MRI and histological processing. Postmortem MRI matched the typical orientation of in vivo images and segmentations were generated in MRI space, based on the registered annotated histological sections. We focus on the following topics: the order of appearance of subfields, the location of subfields relative to macroanatomical features, the location of subfields in the uncus and tail and the composition of the dark band, a hypointense layer visible in T2-weighted MRI. Our main findings are that: (a) there is a consistent order of appearance of subfields in the hippocampal head, (b) the composition of subfields is not consistent in the anterior uncus, but more consistent in the posterior uncus, (c) the dark band consists only of the CA-stratum lacunosum moleculare, not the strata moleculare of the dentate gyrus, (d) the subiculum/CA1 border is located at the middle of the width of the hippocampus in the body in coronal plane, but moves in a medial direction from anterior to posterior, and (e) the variable location and composition of subfields in the hippocampal tail can be brought back to a body-like appearance when reslicing the MRI scan following the curvature of the tail. Our findings and this publicly available dataset will hopefully improve anatomical accuracy of future hippocampal subfield segmentation protocols.

2.
Lancet Neurol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) is an ongoing observational, longitudinal cohort study of participants with Parkinson's disease, healthy controls, and carriers of the most common Parkinson's disease-related genetic mutations, which aims to define biomarkers of Parkinson's disease diagnosis and progression. All participants are assessed annually with a battery of motor and non-motor scales, 123-I Ioflupane dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging, and biological variables. We aimed to examine whether non-manifesting carriers of LRRK2 and GBA mutations have prodromal features of Parkinson's disease that correlate with reduced DAT binding. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis is based on assessments done at enrolment in the subset of non-manifesting carriers of LRRK2 and GBA mutations enrolled into the PPMI study from 33 participating sites worldwide. The primary objective was to examine baseline clinical and DAT imaging characteristics in non-manifesting carriers with GBA and LRRK2 mutations compared with healthy controls. DAT deficit was defined as less than 65% of putamen striatal binding ratio expected for the individual's age. We used t tests, χ2 tests, and Fisher's exact tests to compare baseline demographics across groups. An inverse probability weighting method was applied to control for potential confounders such as age and sex. To account for multiple comparisons, we applied a family-wise error rate to each set of analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01141023. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2014, and Jan 1, 2019, the study enrolled 208 LRRK2 (93% G2019S) and 184 GBA (96% N370S) non-manifesting carriers. Both groups were similar with respect to mean age, and about 60% were female. Of the 286 (73%) non-manifesting carriers that had DAT imaging results, 18 (11%) LRRK2 and four (3%) GBA non-manifesting carriers had a DAT deficit. Compared with healthy controls, both LRRK2 and GBA non-manifesting carriers had significantly increased mean scores on the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (total score 4·6 [SD 4·4] healthy controls vs 8·4 [7·3] LRRK2 vs 9·5 [9·2] GBA, p<0·0001 for both comparisons) and the Scale for Outcomes for PD - autonomic function (5·8 [3·7] vs 8·1 [5·9] and 8·4 [6·0], p<0·0001 for both comparisons). There was no difference in daytime sleepiness, anxiety, depression, impulsive-compulsive disorders, blood pressure, urate, and rapid eye movement (REM) behaviour disorder scores. Hyposmia was significantly more common only in LRRK2 non-manifesting carriers (69 [36%] of 194 healthy controls vs 114 [55%] of 208 LRRK2 non-manifesting carriers; p=0·0003). Finally, GBA but not LRRK2 non-manifesting carriers showed increased DAT striatal binding ratios compared with healthy controls in the caudate (healthy controls 2·98 [SD 0·63] vs GBA 3·26 [0·63]; p<0·0001), putamen (2·15 [0·56] vs 2·48 [0·52]; p<0·0001), and striatum (2·56 [0·57] vs 2·87 [0·55]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Our data show evidence of subtle motor and non-motor signs of Parkinson's disease in non-manifesting carriers compared with healthy controls that can precede DAT deficit. Longitudinal data will be essential to confirm these findings and define the trajectory and predictors for development of Parkinson's disease. FUNDING: Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research.

3.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 168: 183-201, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699314

RESUMO

The perceived role of the immune system in neurodegenerative diseases has undergone drastic changes over time. Initially considered as a passive bystander, then condemned as a mediator of neurodegeneration and now established as an important player in the pathogenetic cascade, neuroimmune interactions have come a long way to arrive center stage in Alzheimer's disease research. Despite major breakthroughs in recent years, basic questions remain unanswered as conflicting data describe immune overactivation, inadequate response or exhaustion of the immune system in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, difficulties in translating in vitro and in vivo studies in model systems to the complex human disease condition with multiple overlapping pathologies and the long disease duration in patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases have hampered progress. Development of novel, advanced model systems, as well as new technologies to interrogate existing disease models and valuable collections of human tissue samples, including brain tissue in parallel with improved imaging and biomarker technologies are guiding the way to better understand the role of the immune system in Alzheimer's disease with hopes for more effective interventions in the future.

4.
Brain ; 142(11): 3565-3579, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580415

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that intrastriatal injections of fibrillar α-synuclein in rodent brain induced a Parkinson's disease-like propagation of Lewy body pathology with significant nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. This study evaluated the pathological features when exogenous α-synuclein preformed fibrils were injected into the putamen of non-human primates. Eight cynomolgus monkeys received unilateral intraputamen injections of α-synuclein preformed fibrils and four monkeys received sham surgery. Monkeys were assessed with 123I-PE2I single-photon emission computerized tomography scans targeting the dopamine transprter at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Imaging revealed a robust increase in dopamine transporter binding, an effect confirmed by port-mortem immunohistochemical analyses, suggesting that upregulation of dopamine transporter occurs as part of an early pathological process. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed that α-synuclein preformed fibrils injections into the putamen induced intraneuronal inclusions positive for phosphorylated α-synuclein in ipsilateral substantia nigra and adjacent to the injection site. α-Synuclein inclusions were thioflavin-S-positive suggesting that the inclusions induced by α-synuclein preformed fibrils exhibited pathological properties similar to amyloid-like Lewy body pathology in Parkinson's disease brains. The α-synuclein preformed fibrils resulted in Lewy pathology in the ipsilateral substantia nigra with significant reduction (-29.30%) of dopaminergic neurons as compared with controls. Nigral neurons with α-synuclein inclusions exhibited a phenotypic downregulation of the dopamine markers tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that α-synuclein preformed fibrils induce a synucleinopathy in non-human primates with authentic Lewy pathology and nigrostriatal changes indicative of early Parkinson's disease.

5.
Radiology ; : 190406, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617796

RESUMO

Background The differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Lewy body disorders, which include Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, is often challenging due to the overlapping symptoms. Purpose To develop a diagnostic tool based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to distinguish between PSP and Lewy body disorders at the individual-subject level. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, skeletonized DTI metrics were extracted from two independent data sets: the discovery cohort from the Swedish BioFINDER study and the validation cohort from the Penn Frontotemporal Degeneration Center (data collected between 2010 and 2018). Based on previous neuroimaging studies and neuropathologic evidence, a combination of regions hypothesized to be sensitive to pathologic features of PSP were identified (ie, the superior cerebellar peduncle and frontal white matter) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was used to compute an FA score for each individual. Classification performances were assessed by using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results In the discovery cohort, 16 patients with PSP (mean age ± standard deviation, 73 years ± 5; eight women, eight men), 34 patients with Lewy body disorders (mean age, 71 years ± 6; 14 women, 20 men), and 44 healthy control participants (mean age, 66 years ± 8; 26 women, 18 men) were evaluated. The FA score distinguished between clinical PSP and Lewy body disorders with an area under the curve of 0.97 ± 0.04, a specificity of 91% (31 of 34), and a sensitivity of 94% (15 of 16). In the validation cohort, 34 patients with PSP (69 years ± 7; 22 women, 12 men), 25 patients with Lewy body disorders (70 years ± 7; nine women, 16 men), and 32 healthy control participants (64 years ± 7; 22 women, 10 men) were evaluated. The accuracy of the FA score was confirmed (area under the curve, 0.96 ± 0.04; specificity, 96% [24 of 25]; and sensitivity, 85% [29 of 34]). Conclusion These cross-validated findings lay the foundation for a clinical test to distinguish progressive supranuclear palsy from Lewy body disorders. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Shah in this issue.

6.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002931, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting about 5 million people worldwide with no disease-modifying therapies. We sought blood-based biomarkers in order to provide molecular characterization of individuals with PD for diagnostic confirmation and prediction of progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 141 plasma samples (96 PD, 45 neurologically normal control [NC] individuals; 45.4% female, mean age 70.0 years) from a longitudinally followed Discovery Cohort based at the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn), we measured levels of 1,129 proteins using an aptamer-based platform. We modeled protein plasma concentration (log10 of relative fluorescence units [RFUs]) as the effect of treatment group (PD versus NC), age at plasma collection, sex, and the levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), deriving first-pass candidate protein biomarkers based on p-value for PD versus NC. These candidate proteins were then ranked by Stability Selection. We confirmed findings from our Discovery Cohort in a Replication Cohort of 317 individuals (215 PD, 102 NC; 47.9% female, mean age 66.7 years) from the multisite, longitudinally followed National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Parkinson's Disease Biomarker Program (PDBP) Cohort. Analytical approach in the Replication Cohort mirrored the approach in the Discovery Cohort: each protein plasma concentration (log10 of RFU) was modeled as the effect of group (PD versus NC), age at plasma collection, sex, clinical site, and batch. Of the top 10 proteins from the Discovery Cohort ranked by Stability Selection, four associations were replicated in the Replication Cohort. These blood-based biomarkers were bone sialoprotein (BSP, Discovery false discovery rate [FDR]-corrected p = 2.82 × 10-2, Replication FDR-corrected p = 1.03 × 10-4), osteomodulin (OMD, Discovery FDR-corrected p = 2.14 × 10-2, Replication FDR-corrected p = 9.14 × 10-5), aminoacylase-1 (ACY1, Discovery FDR-corrected p = 1.86 × 10-3, Replication FDR-corrected p = 2.18 × 10-2), and growth hormone receptor (GHR, Discovery FDR-corrected p = 3.49 × 10-4, Replication FDR-corrected p = 2.97 × 10-3). Measures of these proteins were not significantly affected by differences in sample handling, and they did not change comparing plasma samples from 10 PD participants sampled both on versus off dopaminergic medication. Plasma measures of OMD, ACY1, and GHR differed in PD versus NC but did not differ between individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, n = 59) versus NC. In the Discovery Cohort, individuals with baseline levels of GHR and ACY1 in the lowest tertile were more likely to progress to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia in Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration (hazard ratio [HR] 2.27 [95% CI 1.04-5.0, p = 0.04] for GHR, and HR 3.0 [95% CI 1.24-7.0, p = 0.014] for ACY1). GHR's association with cognitive decline was confirmed in the Replication Cohort (HR 3.6 [95% CI 1.20-11.1, p = 0.02]). The main limitations of this study were its reliance on the aptamer-based platform for protein measurement and limited follow-up time available for some cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that the blood-based biomarkers BSP, OMD, ACY1, and GHR robustly associated with PD across multiple clinical sites. Our findings suggest that biomarkers based on a peripheral blood sample may be developed for both disease characterization and prediction of future disease progression in PD.

7.
Neurology ; 93(18): e1707-e1714, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine autosomal dominant genetic predictors of survival in individuals with behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 174 cases with a clinical phenotype of bvFTD but no associated elementary neurologic features was performed, with diagnosis either autopsy-confirmed (n = 57) or supported by CSF evidence of non-Alzheimer pathology (n = 117). Genetic analysis of the 3 most common genes with pathogenic autosomal dominant mutations associated with frontotemporal degeneration was performed in all patients, which identified cases with C9orf72 expansion (n = 28), progranulin (GRN) mutation (n = 12), and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mutation (n = 10). Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to test for associations between survival and mutation status, sex, age at symptom onset, and education. RESULTS: Across all patients with bvFTD, the presence of a disease-associated pathogenic mutation was associated with shortened survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.164, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.391, 3.368). In separate models, a GRN mutation (HR 2.423, 95% CI 1.237, 4.744), MAPT mutation (HR 8.056, 95% CI 2.938, 22.092), and C9orf72 expansion (HR 1.832, 95% CI 1.034, 3.244) were each individually associated with shorter survival relative to sporadic bvFTD. A mutation on the MAPT gene results in an earlier age at onset than a C9orf72 expansion or mutation on the GRN gene (p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that autosomal dominantly inherited mutations, modulated by age at symptom onset, associate with shorter survival among patients with bvFTD. We suggest that clinical trials and clinical management should consider mutation status and age at onset when evaluating disease progression.

8.
Brain ; 142(9): 2581-2589, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497858

RESUMO

Autopsy measures of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology have been leveraged as endophenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite evidence of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease risk, sex-stratified models have not been incorporated into previous GWAS analyses. We looked for sex-specific genetic associations with Alzheimer's disease endophenotypes from six brain bank data repositories. The pooled dataset included 2701 males and 3275 females, the majority of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at autopsy (70%). Sex-stratified GWAS were performed within each dataset and then meta-analysed. Loci that reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in stratified models were further assessed for sex interactions. Additional analyses were performed in independent datasets leveraging cognitive, neuroimaging and CSF endophenotypes, along with age-at-onset data. Outside of the APOE region, one locus on chromosome 7 (rs34331204) showed a sex-specific association with neurofibrillary tangles among males (P = 2.5 × 10-8) but not females (P = 0.85, sex-interaction P = 2.9 × 10-4). In follow-up analyses, rs34331204 was also associated with hippocampal volume, executive function, and age-at-onset only among males. These results implicate a novel locus that confers male-specific protection from tau pathology and highlight the value of assessing genetic associations in a sex-specific manner.

9.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(10): 877-890, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504665

RESUMO

Synucleinopathies are composed of Parkinson disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) forms aggregates mainly in neurons in PD and DLB, while oligodendroglial α-Syn aggregates are characteristic of MSA. Recent studies have demonstrated that injections of synthetic α-Syn preformed fibrils (PFFs) into the brains of wild-type (WT) animals induce intraneuronal α-Syn aggregates and the subsequent interneuronal transmission of α-Syn aggregates. However, injections of α-Syn PFFs or even brain lysates of patients with MSA have not been reported to induce oligodendroglial α-Syn aggregates, raising questions about the pathogenesis of oligodendroglial α-Syn aggregates in MSA. Here, we report that WT mice injected with mouse α-Syn (m-α-Syn) PFFs develop neuronal α-Syn pathology after short postinjection (PI) intervals on the scale of weeks, while oligodendroglial α-Syn pathology emerges after longer PI intervals of several months. Abundant oligodendroglial α-Syn pathology in white matter at later time points is reminiscent of MSA. Furthermore, comparison between young and aged mice injected with m-α-Syn PFFs revealed that PI intervals rather than aging correlate with oligodendroglial α-Syn aggregation. These results provide novel insights into the pathological mechanisms of oligodendroglial α-Syn aggregation in MSA.

10.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(507)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462511

RESUMO

Loss of function of TREM2, a key receptor selectively expressed by microglia in the brain, contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We therefore examined whether soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were associated with reduced rates of cognitive decline and clinical progression in subjects with AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We measured sTREM2 in CSF samples from 385 elderly subjects, including cognitively normal controls, individuals with MCI, and subjects with AD dementia (follow-up period: mean, 4 years; range 1.5 to 11.5 years). In subjects with AD defined by evidence of CSF Aß1-42 (amyloid ß-peptide 1 to 42; A+) and CSF p-tau181 (tau phosphorylated on amino acid residue 181; T+), higher sTREM2 concentrations in CSF at baseline were associated with attenuated decline in memory and cognition. When analyzed in clinical subgroups, an association between higher CSF sTREM2 concentrations and subsequent reduced memory decline was consistently observed in individuals with MCI or AD dementia, who were positive for CSF Aß1-42 and CSF p-tau181 (A+T+). Regarding clinical progression, a higher ratio of CSF sTREM2 to CSF p-tau181 concentrations predicted slower conversion from cognitively normal to symptomatic stages or from MCI to AD dementia in the subjects who were positive for CSF Aß1-42 and CSF p-tau181. These results suggest that sTREM2 is associated with attenuated cognitive and clinical decline, a finding with important implications for future clinical trials targeting the innate immune response in AD.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e197978, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365104

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing evidence suggests an important role of liver function in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The liver is a major metabolic hub; therefore, investigating the association of liver function with AD, cognition, neuroimaging, and CSF biomarkers would improve the understanding of the role of metabolic dysfunction in AD. Objective: To examine whether liver function markers are associated with cognitive dysfunction and the "A/T/N" (amyloid, tau, and neurodegeneration) biomarkers for AD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, serum-based liver function markers were measured from September 1, 2005, to August 31, 2013, in 1581 AD Neuroimaging Initiative participants along with cognitive measures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, brain atrophy, brain glucose metabolism, and amyloid-ß accumulation. Associations of liver function markers with AD-associated clinical and A/T/N biomarkers were assessed using generalized linear models adjusted for confounding variables and multiple comparisons. Statistical analysis was performed from November 1, 2017, to February 28, 2019. Exposures: Five serum-based liver function markers (total bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase) from AD Neuroimaging Initiative participants were used as exposure variables. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included diagnosis of AD, composite scores for executive functioning and memory, CSF biomarkers, atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging, brain glucose metabolism measured by fludeoxyglucose F 18 (18F) positron emission tomography, and amyloid-ß accumulation measured by [18F]florbetapir positron emission tomography. Results: Participants in the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 1581; 697 women and 884 men; mean [SD] age, 73.4 [7.2] years) included 407 cognitively normal older adults, 20 with significant memory concern, 298 with early mild cognitive impairment, 544 with late mild cognitive impairment, and 312 with AD. An elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and lower levels of ALT were associated with AD diagnosis (AST to ALT ratio: odds ratio, 7.932 [95% CI, 1.673-37.617]; P = .03; ALT: odds ratio, 0.133 [95% CI, 0.042-0.422]; P = .004) and poor cognitive performance (AST to ALT ratio: ß [SE], -0.465 [0.180]; P = .02 for memory composite score; ß [SE], -0.679 [0.215]; P = .006 for executive function composite score; ALT: ß [SE], 0.397 [0.128]; P = .006 for memory composite score; ß [SE], 0.637 [0.152]; P < .001 for executive function composite score). Increased AST to ALT ratio values were associated with lower CSF amyloid-ß 1-42 levels (ß [SE], -0.170 [0.061]; P = .04) and increased amyloid-ß deposition (amyloid biomarkers), higher CSF phosphorylated tau181 (ß [SE], 0.175 [0.055]; P = .02) (tau biomarkers) and higher CSF total tau levels (ß [SE], 0.160 [0.049]; P = .02) and reduced brain glucose metabolism (ß [SE], -0.123 [0.042]; P = .03) (neurodegeneration biomarkers). Lower levels of ALT were associated with increased amyloid-ß deposition (amyloid biomarkers), and reduced brain glucose metabolism (ß [SE], 0.096 [0.030]; P = .02) and greater atrophy (neurodegeneration biomarkers). Conclusions and Relevance: Consistent associations of serum-based liver function markers with cognitive performance and A/T/N biomarkers for AD highlight the involvement of metabolic disturbances in the pathophysiology of AD. Further studies are needed to determine if these associations represent a causative or secondary role. Liver enzyme involvement in AD opens avenues for novel diagnostics and therapeutics.

12.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(5): 795-811, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327044

RESUMO

Microsatellite repeat expansion disease loci can exhibit pleiotropic clinical and biological effects depending on repeat length. Large expansions in C9orf72 (100s-1000s of units) are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). However, whether intermediate expansions also contribute to neurodegenerative disease is not well understood. Several studies have identified intermediate repeats in Parkinson's disease patients, but the association was not found in autopsy-confirmed cases. We hypothesized that intermediate C9orf72 repeats are a genetic risk factor for corticobasal degeneration (CBD), a neurodegenerative disease that can be clinically similar to Parkinson's but has distinct tau protein pathology. Indeed, intermediate C9orf72 repeats were significantly enriched in autopsy-proven CBD (n = 354 cases, odds ratio = 3.59, p = 0.00024). While large C9orf72 repeat expansions are known to decrease C9orf72 expression, intermediate C9orf72 repeats result in increased C9orf72 expression in human brain tissue and CRISPR/cas9 knockin iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells. In contrast to cases of FTD/ALS with large C9orf72 expansions, CBD with intermediate C9orf72 repeats was not associated with pathologic RNA foci or dipeptide repeat protein aggregates. Knock-in cells with intermediate repeats exhibit numerous changes in gene expression pathways relating to vesicle trafficking and autophagy. Additionally, overexpression of C9orf72 without the repeat expansion leads to defects in autophagy under nutrient starvation conditions. These results raise the possibility that therapeutic strategies to reduce C9orf72 expression may be beneficial for the treatment of CBD.

13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(8): 1248-1257, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346295

RESUMO

Studies of patients afflicted by neurodegenerative diseases suggest that misfolded proteins spread through the brain along anatomically connected networks, prompting progressive decline. Recently, mouse models have recapitulated the cell-to-cell transmission of pathogenic proteins and neuron death observed in patients. However, the factors regulating the spread of pathogenic proteins remain a matter of debate due to an incomplete understanding of how vulnerability functions in the context of spread. Here we use quantitative pathology mapping in the mouse brain, combined with network modeling to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of spread. Patterns of α-synuclein pathology are well described by a network model that is based on two factors: anatomical connectivity and endogenous α-synuclein expression. The map and model allow the assessment of selective vulnerability to α-synuclein pathology development and neuron death. Finally, we use quantitative pathology to understand how the G2019S LRRK2 genetic risk factor affects the spread and toxicity of α-synuclein pathology.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Conectoma/psicologia , Redes Neurais (Computação) , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Morte Celular , Feminino , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/patologia
15.
J Biol Chem ; 294(34): 12754-12765, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273083

RESUMO

In cortical regions of brains from individuals with preclinical or clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), extracellular ß-amyloid (Aß) deposition precedes the aggregation of pathological intracellular tau (the product of the gene microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)). To our knowledge, current mouse models of tauopathy reconstitute tau pathology by overexpressing mutant human tau protein. Here, through a homologous recombination approach that replaced the entire murine Mapt gene with the human ortholog, we developed knock-in mice with humanized Mapt to create an in vivo platform for studying human tauopathy. Of note, the humanized Mapt expressed all six tau isoforms present in humans. We next cross-bred the MAPT knock-in mice with single amyloid precursor protein (App) knock-in mice to investigate the Aß-tau axis in AD etiology. The double-knock-in mice exhibited higher tau phosphorylation than did single MAPT knock-in mice but initially lacked apparent tauopathy and neurodegeneration, as observed in the single App knock-in mice. We further observed that tau humanization significantly accelerates cell-to-cell propagation of AD brain-derived pathological tau both in the absence and presence of Aß-amyloidosis. In the presence of Aß-amyloidosis, tau accumulation was intensified and closely associated with dystrophic neurites, consistently showing that Aß-amyloidosis affects tau pathology. Our results also indicated that the pathological human tau interacts better with human tau than with murine tau, suggesting species-specific differences between these orthologous pathogenic proteins. We propose that the MAPT knock-in mice will make it feasible to investigate the behaviors and characteristics of human tau in an animal model.

16.
Mov Disord ; 34(9): 1354-1364, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggregation of α-synuclein is central to the pathophysiology of PD. Biomarkers related to α-synuclein may be informative for PD diagnosis/progression. OBJECTIVES: To analyze α-synuclein in CSF in drug-naïve PD, healthy controls, and prodromal PD in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. METHODS: Over up to 36-month follow-up, CSF total α-synuclein and its association with MDS-UPDRS motor scores, cognitive assessments, and dopamine transporter imaging were assessed. RESULTS: The inception cohort included PD (n = 376; age [mean {standard deviation} years]: 61.7 [9.62]), healthy controls (n = 173; age, 60.9 [11.3]), hyposmics (n = 16; age, 68.3 [6.15]), and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (n = 32; age, 69.3 [4.83]). Baseline CSF α-synuclein was lower in manifest and prodromal PD versus healthy controls. Longitudinal α-synuclein decreased significantly in PD at 24 and 36 months, did not change in prodromal PD over 12 months, and trended toward an increase in healthy controls. The decrease in PD was not shown when CSF samples with high hemoglobin concentration were removed from the analysis. CSF α-synuclein changes did not correlate with longitudinal MDS-UPDRS motor scores or dopamine transporter scan. CONCLUSIONS: CSF α-synuclein decreases early in the disease, preceding motor PD. CSF α-synuclein does not correlate with progression and therefore does not reflect ongoing dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Decreased CSF α-synuclein may be an indirect index of changes in the balance between α-synuclein secretion, solubility, or aggregation in the brain, reflecting its overall turnover. Additional biomarkers more directly related to α-synuclein pathophysiology and disease progression and other markers to be identified by, for example, proteomics and metabolomics are needed. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

17.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(4): 613-630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350575

RESUMO

Identification of multiple immune-related genetic risk factors for sporadic AD (sAD) have put the immune system center stage in mechanisms underlying this disorder. Comprehensive analysis of microglia in different stages of AD in human brains revealed microglia activation to follow the progression of AD neuropathological changes and requiring the co-occurrence of beta-Amyloid (Aß) and tau pathology. Carriers of AD-associated risk variants in TREM2 (Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2) showed a reduction of plaque-associated microglia and a substantial increase in dystrophic neurites and overall pathological tau compared with age and disease stage matched AD patients without TREM2 risk variants. These findings were substantiated by digital spatial profiling of the plaque microenvironment and targeted gene expression profiling on the NanoString nCounter system, which revealed striking brain region dependent differences in immune response patterns within individual cases. The demonstration of profound brain region and risk-variant specific differences in immune activation in human AD brains impacts the applicability of immune-therapeutic approaches for sAD and related neurodegenerative diseases.

18.
Neurosci Lett ; 709: 134316, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170426

RESUMO

Over 20 years ago, the synaptic protein α-synuclein was identified as the primary component of the Lewy bodies (LBs) that are a sine qua non of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since that time, extensive research has demonstrated that α-synuclein pathology is not only a hallmark of PD, but can also cause neuronal dysfunction and death. Detailed staging of α-synuclein pathology in the brains of patients has revealed a progressive pattern of pathology that correlates with the symptoms of disease. Early in the disease course, PD patients exhibit motor dysfunction, and α-synuclein pathology at this stage is primarily found in regions controlling motor function. At later stages of disease as patients' cognitive function deteriorates, α-synuclein pathology can be found in cortical structures responsible for higher cognitive processing. The stereotypical progression of α-synuclein pathology through the brain over time suggests that there may be a physical transmission of pathological α-synuclein from one area of the brain to another. The transmission hypothesis posits that an initial seed of pathological α-synuclein in one neuron may be released and taken up by another vulnerable neuron and thereby initiate pathological misfolding of α-synuclein in the recipient neuron. In recent years, convergent evidence from various studies has indicated that pathological protein transmission can occur in the human brain. Cell and animal models based on the transmission hypothesis have shown not only that pathological α-synuclein can be transmitted from cell-to-cell, but that this pathology can lead to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. The α-synuclein transmission hypothesis has profound implications for treatment of what is currently an intractable neurodegenerative disease. In this review, we explore the evidence for cell-to-cell transmission of pathological α-synuclein, the current understanding of how pathological α-synuclein can move to a new cell and template misfolding, and the therapeutic implications of α-synuclein transmission.

19.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(3): 389-399, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152201

RESUMO

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is reported at high prevalence in selected autopsy case series of former contact sports athletes. Nevertheless, the contribution of CTE pathology to clinical presentation and its interaction with co-morbid neurodegenerative pathologies remain unclear. To address these issues, we performed comprehensive neuropathology assessments on the brains of former athletes with dementia and considered these findings together with detailed clinical histories to derive an integrated clinicopathological diagnosis for each case. Consecutive, autopsy-acquired brains from former soccer and rugby players with dementia were assessed for neurodegenerative pathologies using established and preliminary consensus protocols. Thereafter, next of kin interviews were conducted to obtain detailed accounts of the patient's clinical presentation and course of disease to inform a final, integrated clinicopathological diagnosis. Neuropathologic change consistent with CTE (CTE-NC) was confirmed in five of seven former soccer and three of four former rugby players' brains, invariably in combination with mixed, often multiple neurodegenerative pathologies. However, in just three cases was the integrated dementia diagnosis consistent with CTE, the remainder having alternate diagnoses, with the most frequent integrated diagnosis Alzheimer's disease (AD) (four cases; one as mixed AD and vascular dementia). This consecutive autopsy series identifies neuropathologic change consistent with preliminary diagnostic criteria for CTE (CTE-NC) in a high proportion of former soccer and rugby players dying with dementia. However, in the majority, CTE-NC appears as a co-morbidity rather than the primary, dementia causing pathology. As such, we suggest that while CTE-NC might be common in former athletes with dementia, in many cases its clinical significance remains uncertain.

20.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 65, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036086

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but the underlying disease mechanisms remain unclear. In an unbiased screen in Drosophila for RBPs that genetically interact with TDP-43, we found that downregulation of the mRNA export factor Ref1 (fly orthologue to human ALYREF) mitigated TDP-43 induced toxicity. Further, Ref1 depletion also reduced toxicity caused by expression of the C9orf72 GGGGCC repeat expansion. Ref1 knockdown lowered the mRNA levels for these related disease genes and reduced the encoded proteins with no effect on a wild-type Tau disease transgene or a control transgene. Interestingly, expression of TDP-43 or the GGGGCC repeat expansion increased endogenous Ref1 mRNA levels in the fly brain. Further, the human orthologue ALYREF was upregulated by immunohistochemistry in ALS motor neurons, with the strongest upregulation occurring in ALS cases harboring the GGGGCC expansion in C9orf72. These data support ALYREF as a contributor to ALS/FTD and highlight its downregulation as a potential therapeutic target that may affect co-existing disease etiologies.

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