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1.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of studies on the relationship between visual impairment (VI) and time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association of objectively and subjectively measured VI with SB in adults aged ≥18 years across 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Objective and subjective visual acuity were measured. Information on self-reported SB was also collected. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess associations with time spent in SB as the outcome. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 42,489 individuals (mean age = 43.8 [14.4] y; 50.1% females). Only severe objective VI (vs no VI) was significantly associated with ≥11 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) (odds ratio = 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-12.92). Increasing severity of subjective VI was associated with greater odds for ≥8 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) dose dependently. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified an association of both objectively and subjectively measured VI with time spent in SB in adults residing in LMICs, with subjectively measured VI being a stronger predictor of time spent in SB. Targeted interventions to decrease SB especially in those who perceive themselves to have VI are needed in LMICs.

2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726085

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Humanos
4.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People of Black and Asian ethnicities have a higher infection rate and mortality as a result of COVID-19. It has also been reported that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in this, possibly because of the multi-gene regulatory function of the vitamin D receptor. As a result, increased dietary intake and/or supplementation to attain adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels could benefit people in these ethnicities. The present study aimed to review the literature examining the changes in 25(OH)D in different types of vitamin D supplementation from randomised controlled trials in this population. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic databases were systematically searched using keywords related to vitamin D supplementation in Black and Asian ethnicities. RESULTS: Eight studies were included in the review. All the included studies found that supplementation of vitamin D (D2 and D3 ), regardless of dosage, increased 25(OH)D levels compared to a placebo. All trials in which participants were vitamin D deficient at baseline showed increased 25(OH)D levels to a level considered adequate. Two studies that used food fortification yielded smaller 25(OH)D increases compared to similar studies that used oral supplementation (10.2 vs. 25.5 nmol L-1 , respectively). Furthermore, vitamin D2 supplementation yielded significantly lower 25(OH)D increases than vitamin D3 supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin D supplementation may be more efficacious in increasing 25(OH)D levels than food fortification of Black and Asian ethnicities, with vitamin D3 supplementation possibly being more efficacious than vitamin D2 . It is recommended that people with darker skin supplement their diet with vitamin D3 through oral tablet modes where possible, with recent literature suggesting a daily intake of 7000-10,000 IU to be potentially protective from unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. As a result of the paucity of studies, these findings should be treated as exploratory.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 668808, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222281

RESUMO

Background: Several underlying diseases have been associated with unfavorable COVID-19 related outcomes including asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), however few studies have reported risks that are adjusted for confounding variables. This study aimed to examine the adjusted risk of COVID-19 related hospitalsation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality in patients with vs. without asthma or COPD. Methods: A systematic review of major databases was undertaken for studies published between 1/12/2019 and 19/4/2021. Studies reporting the adjusted (for one or more confounder) risks of either hospitalsation, ICU admission, or mortality in asthmatics or COPD patients (control group = no asthma or no COPD) were identified. Risk of bias was determined via the QUIPS tool. A random effect meta-analysis was undertaken. Findings: 37 studies were eligible for analysis, with a total of 1,678,992 participants. The pooled ORs of COVID-19 hospitalsation in subjects with asthma and COPD was 0.91 (95% CI 0.76-1.09) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.29-1.46), respectively. For ICU admission, OR in subjects with asthma and COPD was 0.89 (95% CI 0.74-1.07) and 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.42), respectively. For mortality, ORs were 0.88 (95% CI 0.77-1.01) and 1.25 (95% CI 1.08-1.34) for asthma and COPD, respectively. Further, the pooled risk of mortality as measured via Cox regression was 0.93 (95% CI 0.87-1.00) for asthma and 1.30 (95% CI 1.17-1.44) for COPD. All of these findings were of a moderate level of certainty. Interpretation: COPD was significantly associated with COVID-19 related hospital admission, ICU admission, and mortality. Asthma was not associated with negative COVID-19 related health outcomes. Individuals with COPD should take precautions to limit the risk of COVID-19 exposure to negate these potential outcomes. Limitations include differing population types and adjustment for differing cofounding variables. Practitioners should note these findings when dealing with patients with these comorbidities. Review Protocol Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.

6.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 22: 100809, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195472

RESUMO

Background: Participation in physical activity has been found to be beneficial for mental and physical health outcomes among cancer survivors. However, to date no intervention exists specifically to promote physical activity among bladder cancer survivors. In light of this knowledge a home-based exercise intervention was co-created for those recently diagnosed with bladder cancer. Aim: The aim of the present study, financially supported by Action Bladder Cancer UK [1], is to pilot the home-based exercise intervention tailored specifically for bladder cancer survivors (i.e. from the point of diagnosis) to improve physical and mental health outcomes (during treatment and beyond) in this population. Methods: This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Arm one will consists of the 14 week home-based exercise intervention and arm two usual care (15 participants will be randomised to each arm). Baseline data collection will take place shortly after clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer, and follow-up approximately 7 weeks and then again approximately 14 weeks after commencement of the intervention. At each data collection point data will be collected from participants relating to demographics, physical and mental health. Participants will aslo be asked to wear an Actigraph Accelerometer at each data collection point for seven consecutive days. Immediately after baseline data collection participants in the intervention arm will be given the home-based exercise booklet. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval was obtained for the present study via The London- City and East Research Ethics Committee (ID:291676). Results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations.

7.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1361-1372, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction after cancer treatment are clinically important complications, but their exact prevalence by various kinds of cancer site and type of treatment is unknown. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the available evidence and provide pooled estimates for prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction in relation to all cancer sites and identify characteristics associated with EjD in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and case-control studies. We searched 4 electronic databases (Medline®, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Embase®) until July 22, 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting the prevalence of EjD in male patients with cancer were included in this review. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted calculating prevalence proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence proportions were calculated for the incidences of EjD by cancer site and type of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 64 studies (a total of 10,057 participants) were included for analysis. The most common cancer sites were bladder, colon, testis and rectum. The prevalence rates of EjD after surgical intervention ranged from 14.5% (95% CI 2.2-56.3) in colon cancer to 53.0% (95% CI 23.3-80.7) in bladder cancer. The prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 6.8% (95% CI 0.8-39.1) in bladder cancer to 68.7% (95% CI 55.2-79.6) in cancer of the rectum. CONCLUSIONS: In a large study-level meta-analysis, we looked at a high prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction at various cancer sites and across different treatment types. Prospective studies of EjD and erectile dysfunction after various kinds of cancer treatments are warranted.

8.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272511

RESUMO

Globally, 2.2 billion people live with some form of vision impairment and/or eye disease. To date, most systematic reviews examining associations have focused on a single eye disease and there is no systematic evaluation of the relationships between eye diseases and diverse physical and mental health outcomes. Moreover, the strength and reliability of the literature is unclear. We performed an umbrella review of observational studies with meta analyses for any physical and/or mental comorbidities associated with eye disease. For each association, random-effects summary effect size, heterogeneity, small-study effect, excess significance bias and 95% prediction intervals were calculated, and used to grade significant evidence from convincing to weak. 34 studies were included covering 58 outcomes. No outcomes yielded convincing evidence, six outcomes yielded highly suggestive results (cataract positively associated with type 2 diabetes, open-angled glaucoma positively associated with myopia and diabetes, diabetic retinopathy positively associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality, and retinopathy of prematurity positively associated with chorioamnionitis), eight outcomes yielded suggestive results (diabetic retinopathy positively associated with all-cause mortality and depression, diabetic macular oedema positively associated with dyslipidaemia, cataract positively associated with gout, nuclear sclerosis positively associated with all-cause mortality, open angled glaucoma positively associated with migraine and hypertension, and age-related macular degeneration positively associated with diabetes), and 18 outcomes yielded weak evidence. Results show highly suggestive or suggestive evidence for associations between several types of eye diseases with several comorbid outcomes. Practitioners and public health policies should note these findings when developing healthcare policies.

9.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(19-20): 1028-1041, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, it is estimated that approximately 1.3 billion people live with some form of hearing impairment. Major causes of hearing loss include infection/disease, age-related factors, and occupational factors. Numerous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have attempted to synthesise literature on these topics. To date there has not been a systematic evaluation of the relationships between hearing impairment and diverse physical, mental, and social outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We performed an umbrella review of systematic reviews of observational studies with meta-analyses for any physical disease, biomarkers of disease, mental health or cognitive outcomes, and/or modifiable risk factors associated with hearing impairment. METHODS: For each meta-analytic association, random effects summary effect size, 95% confidence intervals, heterogeneity, evidence for small-study effect, excess significance bias and 95% prediction intervals were calculated, and risk of bias was assessed via the AMSTAR2 tool. These were used to grade significant evidence (p < 0.05) from I to IV, using the recommendations from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. RESULTS: From 3747 studies, 21 were included covering 54 outcomes. Overall, 44/54 outcomes (82%) yielded significant results. Of the highest quality evidence, age-related hearing loss and non-specific hearing impairment were negatively associated with several types of cognitive impairments; pediatric bilateral hearing loss was negatively associated with quality of life, sensorineural hearing loss was positively associated with rheumatoid arthritis and tinnitus was positively associated with temporomandibular disorders. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Results show moderate quality evidence for associations between several types of hearing impairments and cognitive difficulties, quality of life and systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Practitioners and public health policies should note these findings when developing relevant healthcare policies.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Perda Auditiva , Criança , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071312

RESUMO

Laparoscopy is a procedure that ultimately reduces hospital stay time and speeds up post-operative recovery. It is mainly performed in high-income countries but its implementation in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing. However, no aggregate data exist regarding the outcomes of this procedure in resource-limited settings. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of laparoscopy recorded from January 2007 to March 2017 at the Department of Surgery of Beira to assess the related outcomes. Moreover, we performed a systematic review of the laparoscopic practices and outcomes in low-income countries. Data from the Department of Surgery of Beira identified 363 laparoscopic procedures, mainly relating to gynecological diseases, cholelithiasis, and appendicectomy with only a 1.6% complication rate (6 cases) and a 1.9% conversion rate (7 cases) to open surgery. The systematic review showed a pooled risk of overall complications significantly lower in laparoscopic vs. open appendicectomy (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.19-0.97; I2 = 85.7%) and a significantly lower risk of infection (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.43-0.65; I2 = 0.00%). The pooled SMD in operation duration in laparoscopic vs. open appendectomy was 0.58 (95% CI -0.00; 1.15; I2 = 96.52), while the pooled SMD in hospitalization days was -1.35 (95% CI -1.87; -0.82; I2 = 96.41). Laparoscopy is an expensive procedure to adopt as it requires new equipment and specialized trained health workers. However, it could reduce post-operative costs and complications, especially in terms of infections. It is crucial to increase its accessibility, acceptability, and quality particularly in LMICs, especially during this COVID-19 era when the reduction of patient hospitalization is essential.


Assuntos
Apendicite , COVID-19 , Laparoscopia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 7(1): e000960, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192010

RESUMO

Objective: In March 2020, several countries banned unnecessary outdoor activities during COVID-19, commonly called 'lockdowns. These lockdowns have the potential to impact associated levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Given the numerous health outcomes associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour, the aim of this review was to summarise literature that investigated differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour before vs during the COVID-19 lockdown. Design data sources and eligibility criteria: Electronic databases were searched from November 2019 to October 2020 using terms and synonyms relating to physical activity, sedentary behaviour and COVID-19. The coprimary outcomes were changes in physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour captured via device-based measures or self-report tools. Risk of bias was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Sixty six articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review (total n=86 981). Changes in physical activity were reported in 64 studies, with the majority of studies reporting decreases in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviours during their respective lockdowns across several populations, including children and patients with a variety of medical conditions. Conclusion: Given the numerous physical and mental benefits of increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour, public health strategies should include the creation and implementation of interventions that promote safe physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour should other lockdowns occur.

12.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(2): 87-88, mar.-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279307
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113831, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652248

RESUMO

The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of COVID-19 quarantines on morbid exercise, eating, and body image behaviours pre vs post COVID-19 lockdown. Participants (n=319; mean age 36.77 SD=11.75; 84% female) were recruited to complete a battery of questions with 14 month follow-up. Exercise addiction scores were significantly lower post-lockdown; eating disorder symptomology scores were significantly higher post-COVID-19 lockdown; and leisure-time exercise significantly increased post-COVID-19 lockdown. No differences in body dysmorphic disorder were found. If future lockdowns are enforced, practitioners working with people with suspected morbid eating habits should monitor this closely.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/fisiopatologia , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Quarentena , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Academias de Ginástica , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(9): 1345-1353, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness may be a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment but studies on this topic are scarce, particularly from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between loneliness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa). METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: The final analytical sample consisted of 19,092 and 13,623 individuals aged 50-64 years (middle-aged adults) and ≥65 years (older adults), respectively. Among the middle-aged, overall, loneliness was associated with a non-significant 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-2.21) times higher odds for MCI although significant associations were observed in China (OR = 1.51; 95%CI = 1.08-2.09) and South Africa (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 1.72-8.71). As for older adults, overall, there was a significant association between loneliness and MCI (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.12-2.07). CONCLUSION: In this large representative sample of middle-aged and older adults from multiple LMICs, findings suggest that loneliness is associated with MCI. It may be prudent to consider reducing loneliness in low-economic settings to aid in the prevention of MCI and ultimately dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Solidão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
15.
Psychol Assess ; 33(4): 326-337, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617274

RESUMO

Exercise is overwhelmingly beneficial for physical and mental health, but for some people exercise addiction (EA) can develop and negatively impact an individual. This study sought to (a) compare the latent structure of two instruments assessing EA and (b) examine differences in attitudes toward stopping exercise, if required to on medical grounds, among exercise-addicted and non-addicted athletes. In a cross-sectional study, 1,011 athletes competing at different levels completed an anonymous on-line survey. The survey contained Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R), Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), and questions on adherence to medical prescriptions to stop exercise. We tested the latent structure of EDS-R and EAI with multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), across gender and competition level. Finally, we measured the difference of athletes' attitudes toward stopping exercise, if prescribed by a physician. Both instruments showed good fit indexes, even across gender. CFAs on EAI scores showed some violations of measurement invariance across competition level (ΔCFI = .03; ΔRMSEA = .02). On the contrary, CFAs on EDS-R scores did not show invariance violations across competition level (ΔCFI = <.01; ΔRMSEA = <.01). Finally, athletes who reached thresholds for exercise addiction, by means of EDS-R, were more prone to not follow medical prescriptions to cease exercise, independently of the competition level. These results suggest that athletes' answers on the EDS-R seem to be less affected by competition level, compared to EAI. Moreover, EDS-R outcomes could be used to identify individuals who may be unlikely to cease exercise for medical reasons, independently of their competition level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Phys Act Health ; 18(2): 212-218, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 17% of the UK adult population are informal carers, usually for a family member, with a majority reporting that they are not able to engage in physical activity as much as they would like. The aim of this review is to provide a greater understanding of the prevalence of, and barriers and facilitators to, physical activity of informal carers in the United Kingdom. METHODS: A systematic review of relevant databases and grey literature was undertaken, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidance, from its inception until July 17, 2020. RESULTS: Barriers to physical activity include increasing aging, not wanting to leave the caree alone, the caree being unable to take part in activities, health conditions, fatigue, lack of time, and difficulties in changing the routine for the caree. Facilitators include an appreciation of the benefits of engaging in exercise, previous participation in activities, group activities with similar people, and having some free time. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the paucity of research into the prevalence of, and barriers and facilitators to, physical activity in informal carers in the United Kingdom, this systematic review highlights the need for further research, focusing primarily on the physical activity of informal carers caring for individuals with a range of conditions. A further systematic review exploring these issues internationally is warranted.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Fadiga , Humanos , Prevalência , Reino Unido
17.
Eat Weight Disord ; 26(1): 37-46, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise addiction is associated with multiple adverse outcomes and can be classified as co-occurring with an eating disorder, or a primary condition with no indication of eating disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis exploring the prevalence of exercise addiction in adults with and without indicated eating disorders. METHODS: A systematic review of major databases and grey literature was undertaken from inception to 30/04/2019. Studies reporting prevalence of exercise addiction with and without indicated eating disorders in adults were identified. A random effect meta-analysis was undertaken, calculating odds ratios for exercise addiction with versus without indicated eating disorders. RESULTS: Nine studies with a total sample of 2140 participants (mean age = 25.06; 70.6% female) were included. Within these, 1732 participants did not show indicated eating disorders (mean age = 26.4; 63.0% female) and 408 had indicated eating disorders (mean age = 23.46; 79.2% female). The odds ratio for exercise addiction in populations with versus without indicated eating disorders was 3.71 (95% CI 2.00-6.89; I2 = 81; p ≤ 0.001). Exercise addiction prevalence in both populations differed according to the measurement instrument used. DISCUSSION: Exercise addiction occurs more than three and a half times as often as a comorbidity to an eating disorder than in people without an indicated eating disorder. The creation of a measurement tool able to identify exercise addiction risk in both populations would benefit researchers and practitioners by easily classifying samples.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Comorbidade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; 44(4): 101359, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839091

RESUMO

AIM: Contact lens wearers need to maintain optimal hygiene practices during the COVID-19 pandemic to minimise contact-lens complications including microbial keratitis and corneal infiltrative events. This online survey (UK and Ireland) explored contact lens wearers' compliance behaviours, attitudes and concerns during the pandemic. METHOD: The 60-item anonymous online survey was distributed during a 1-month period via Qualtrics (starting on 14/04/20). The survey captured: a) demographic information, b) type of lenses worn and compliance with lens wear and care procedures, c) adherence to recommendations and d) concerns associated with contact lens wear during the pandemic. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty seven responses were received (34.3 ±â€¯11.7 years old, 79% female). Seventy nine percent of participants reported that they were self-isolating or rigorously following social distance advice. Fifty-six percent of participants reported using their lenses less during the pandemic. Eighty-seven percent of respondents reported following the recommended 20-second rule most times/every time and 96% used soap and water during handwashing. Eleven percent of respondents admitted not following recommendations regarding disposal of lenses and 18% would not consider ceasing lens wear if unwell (with flu/cold) during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Respondents reported wearing their contact lenses less than usual. Good compliance with handwashing was observed but soft reusable lens wearers showed a statistically significant lower compliance with lens wear and care compared to daily disposable lens wearers (p=<0.001).


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos Descartáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene/normas , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Soluções para Lentes de Contato , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(1): 25-35, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) and low quality of life (QoL) are two common conditions. Some recent literature proposed that these two entities can be associated. However, no attempt was made to collate this literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing data to estimate the strength of the association between UI and QoL. METHODS: An electronic search of major databases up to 18th April 2020 was carried out. Meta-analysis of cross-sectional and case-control studies comparing mean values in QoL between patients with UI and controls was performed, reporting random-effects standardized mean differences (SMDs) ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect size. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2. RESULTS: Out of 8279 articles initially screened, 23 were finally included for a total of 24,983 participants, mainly women. The mean age was ≥ 50 years in 12/23 studies. UI was significantly associated with poor QoL as assessed by the short-form 36 (SF-36) total score (n = 6 studies; UI: 473 vs. 2971 controls; SMD = - 0.89; 95% CI - 1.3 to - 0.42; I2 = 93.5) and by the sub-scales of SF-36 and 5/8 of the domains included in the SF-36. Similar results were found using other QoL tools. The risk of bias of the studies included was generally high. CONCLUSIONS: UI is associated with a poor QoL, with a strong level of certainty. This work, however, mainly based on cross-sectional and case-control studies, highlights the necessity of future longitudinal studies for better understanding the importance of UI on QoL.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Incontinência Urinária , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(4): 4095-4103, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196997

RESUMO

Male fertility and semen quality have declined over recent decades. Among other causes, exposure to environmental and occupational pollution has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes, but effects on male semen quality are still uncertain. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess current evidence regarding the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental and occupational pollution on sperm quality in humans. In the meta-analysis, 22 studies are included showing that environmental and occupational pollutants may affect sperm count, volume, concentration, motility, vitality and sperm DNA, and chromatin integrity. All included articles reported significant alterations in at least one of the outcomes studied in association with at least one of the pollutants studied. Considering that sperm quality can be considered a proxy for general health and that pollutants have a dramatic impact on climate change, it would be strongly recommended to better understand the role of pollutants on human, animal, and planetary health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Infertilidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodução , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
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