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1.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35957041

RESUMO

Atomic deuterium (D) adsorption on free-standing nanoporous graphene obtained by ultra-high vacuum D2 molecular cracking reveals a homogeneous distribution all over the nanoporous graphene sample, as deduced by ultra-high vacuum Raman spectroscopy combined with core-level photoemission spectroscopy. Raman microscopy unveils the presence of bonding distortion, from the signal associated to the planar sp2 configuration of graphene toward the sp3 tetrahedral structure of graphane. The establishment of D-C sp3 hybrid bonds is also clearly determined by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spatially correlated to the Auger spectroscopy signal. This work shows that the low-energy molecular cracking of D2 in an ultra-high vacuum is an efficient strategy for obtaining high-quality semiconducting graphane with homogeneous uptake of deuterium atoms, as confirmed by this combined optical and electronic spectro-microscopy study wholly carried out in ultra-high vacuum conditions.

3.
Nano Lett ; 21(24): 10501-10506, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894699

RESUMO

Entangled photon generation at 1550 nm in the telecom C-band is of critical importance as it enables the realization of quantum communication protocols over long distance using deployed telecommunication infrastructure. InAs epitaxial quantum dots have recently enabled on-demand generation of entangled photons in this wavelength range. However, time-dependent state evolution, caused by the fine-structure splitting, currently limits the fidelity to a specific entangled state. Here, we show fine-structure suppression for InAs quantum dots using micromachined piezoelectric actuators and demonstrate generation of highly entangled photons at 1550 nm. At the lowest fine-structure setting, we obtain a maximum fidelity of 90.0 ± 2.7% (concurrence of 87.5 ± 3.1%). The concurrence remains high also for moderate (weak) temporal filtering, with values close to 80% (50%), corresponding to 30% (80%) of collected photons, respectively. The presented fine-structure control opens the way for exploiting entangled photons from quantum dots in fiber-based quantum communication protocols.

4.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741595

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution-exchanging a random secret key relying on a quantum mechanical resource-is the core feature of secure quantum networks. Entanglement-based protocols offer additional layers of security and scale favorably with quantum repeaters, but the stringent requirements set on the photon source have made their use situational so far. Semiconductor-based quantum emitters are a promising solution in this scenario, ensuring on-demand generation of near-unity-fidelity entangled photons with record-low multiphoton emission, the latter feature countering some of the best eavesdropping attacks. Here, we use a coherently driven quantum dot to experimentally demonstrate a modified Ekert quantum key distribution protocol with two quantum channel approaches: both a 250-m-long single-mode fiber and in free space, connecting two buildings within the campus of Sapienza University in Rome. Our field study highlights that quantum-dot entangled photon sources are ready to go beyond laboratory experiments, thus opening the way to real-life quantum communication.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(23): 233605, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337175

RESUMO

We investigate the degree of indistinguishability of cascaded photons emitted from a three-level quantum ladder system; in our case the biexciton-exciton cascade of semiconductor quantum dots. For the three-level quantum ladder system we theoretically demonstrate that the indistinguishability is inherently limited for both emitted photons and determined by the ratio of the lifetimes of the excited and intermediate states. We experimentally confirm this finding by comparing the quantum interference visibility of noncascaded emission and cascaded emission from the same semiconductor quantum dot. Quantum optical simulations produce very good agreement with the measurements and allow us to explore a large parameter space. Based on our model, we propose photonic structures to optimize the lifetime ratio and overcome the limited indistinguishability of cascaded photon emission from a three-level quantum ladder system.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(17): 170402, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156681

RESUMO

Resonance fluorescence has played a major role in quantum optics with predictions and later experimental confirmation of nonclassical features of its emitted light such as antibunching or squeezing. In the Rayleigh regime where most of the light originates from the scattering of photons with subnatural linewidth, antibunching would appear to coexist with sharp spectral lines. Here, we demonstrate that this simultaneous observation of subnatural linewidth and antibunching is not possible with simple resonant excitation. Using an epitaxial quantum dot for the two-level system, we independently confirm the single-photon character and subnatural linewidth by demonstrating antibunching in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss type setup and using high-resolution spectroscopy, respectively. However, when filtering the coherently scattered photons with filter bandwidths on the order of the homogeneous linewidth of the excited state of the two-level system, the antibunching dip vanishes in the correlation measurement. Our observation is explained by antibunching originating from photon-interferences between the coherent scattering and a weak incoherent signal in a skewed squeezed state. This prefigures schemes to achieve simultaneous subnatural linewidth and antibunched emission.

7.
Opt Express ; 27(24): 35290-35307, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878701

RESUMO

Light emission from solid-state quantum emitters is inherently prone to environmental decoherence, which results in a line broadening and in the deterioration of photon indistinguishability. Here we employ photon correlation Fourier spectroscopy (PCFS) to study the temporal evolution of such a broadening in two prominent systems: GaAs and In(Ga)As quantum dots. Differently from previous experiments, the emitters are driven with short laser pulses as required for the generation of high-purity single photons, the time scales we probe range from a few nanoseconds to milliseconds and, simultaneously, the spectral resolution we achieve can be as small as ∼ 2µeV. We find pronounced differences in the temporal evolution of different optical transition lines, which we attribute to differences in their homogeneous linewidth and sensitivity to charge noise. We analyze the effect of irradiation with additional white light, which reduces blinking at the cost of enhanced charge noise. Due to its robustness against experimental imperfections and its high temporal resolution and bandwidth, PCFS outperforms established spectroscopy techniques, such as Michelson interferometry. We discuss its practical implementation and the possibility to use it to estimate the indistinguishability of consecutively emitted single photons for applications in quantum communication and photonic-based quantum information processing.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13728, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551434

RESUMO

Hybrid interfaces between distinct quantum systems play a major role in the implementation of quantum networks. Quantum states have to be stored in memories to synchronize the photon arrival times for entanglement swapping by projective measurements in quantum repeaters or for entanglement purification. Here, we analyze the distortion of a single-photon wave packet propagating through a dispersive and absorptive medium with high spectral resolution. Single photons are generated from a single In(Ga)As quantum dot with its excitonic transition precisely set relative to the Cesium D1 transition. The delay of spectral components of the single-photon wave packet with almost Fourier-limited width is investigated in detail with a 200 MHz narrow-band monolithic Fabry-Pérot resonator. Reflecting the excited state hyperfine structure of Cesium, "slow light" and "fast light" behavior is observed. As a step towards room-temperature alkali vapor memories, quantum dot photons are delayed for 5 ns by strong dispersion between the two 1.17 GHz hyperfine-split excited state transitions. Based on optical pumping on the hyperfine-split ground states, we propose a simple, all-optically controllable delay for synchronization of heralded narrow-band photons in a quantum network.

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(10): 6931-6936, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486648

RESUMO

The appearance of single photon sources in atomically thin semiconductors holds great promises for the development of a flexible and ultracompact quantum technology in which elastic strain engineering can be used to tailor their emission properties. Here, we show a compact and hybrid two-dimensional semiconductor-piezoelectric device that allows for controlling the energy of single photons emitted by quantum emitters localized in wrinkled WSe2 monolayers. We demonstrate that strain fields exerted by the piezoelectric device can be used to tune the energy of localized excitons in WSe2 up to 18 meV in a reversible manner while leaving the single photon purity unaffected over a wide range. Interestingly, we find that the magnitude and, in particular, the sign of the energy shift as a function of stress is emitter dependent. With the help of finite element simulations we suggest a simple model that explains our experimental observations and, furthermore, discloses that the type of strain (tensile or compressive) experienced by the quantum emitters strongly depends on their localization across the wrinkles. Our findings are of strong relevance for the practical implementation of single photon devices based on two-dimensional materials as well as for understanding the effects of strain on their emission properties.

10.
Nat Mater ; 18(9): 916-917, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435071
11.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2404-2410, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862165

RESUMO

Photonic quantum technologies call for scalable quantum light sources that can be integrated, while providing the end user with single and entangled photons on demand. One promising candidate is strain free GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots obtained by aluminum droplet etching. Such quantum dots exhibit ultra low multi-photon probability and an unprecedented degree of photon pair entanglement. However, different to commonly studied InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots obtained by the Stranski-Krastanow mode, photons with a near-unity indistinguishability from these quantum emitters have proven to be elusive so far. Here, we show on-demand generation of near-unity indistinguishable photons from these quantum emitters by exploring pulsed resonance fluorescence. Given the short intrinsic lifetime of excitons and trions confined in the GaAs quantum dots, we show single photon indistinguishability with a raw visibility of [Formula: see text], without the need for Purcell enhancement. Our results represent a milestone in the advance of GaAs quantum dots by demonstrating the final missing property standing in the way of using these emitters as a key component in quantum communication applications, e.g., as quantum light sources for quantum repeater architectures.

12.
Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaau1255, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555916

RESUMO

All-optical quantum teleportation lies at the heart of quantum communication science and technology. This quantum phenomenon is built up around the nonlocal properties of entangled states of light that, in the perspective of real-life applications, should be encoded on photon pairs generated on demand. Despite recent advances, however, the exploitation of deterministic quantum light sources in push-button quantum teleportation schemes remains a major open challenge. Here, we perform an important step toward this goal and show that photon pairs generated on demand by a GaAs quantum dot can be used to implement a teleportation protocol whose fidelity violates the classical limit (by more than 5 SDs) for arbitrary input states. Moreover, we develop a theoretical framework that matches the experimental observations and that defines the degree of entanglement and indistinguishability needed to overcome the classical limit independently of the input state. Our results emphasize that on-demand solid-state quantum emitters are one of the most promising candidates to realize deterministic quantum teleportation in practical quantum networks.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3058, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076301

RESUMO

The optical selection rules in epitaxial quantum dots are strongly influenced by the orientation of their natural quantization axis, which is usually parallel to the growth direction. This configuration is well suited for vertically emitting devices, but not for planar photonic circuits because of the poorly controlled orientation of the transition dipoles in the growth plane. Here we show that the quantization axis of gallium arsenide dots can be flipped into the growth plane via moderate in-plane uniaxial stress. By using piezoelectric strain-actuators featuring strain amplification, we study the evolution of the selection rules and excitonic fine structure in a regime, in which quantum confinement can be regarded as a perturbation compared to strain in determining the symmetry-properties of the system. The experimental and computational results suggest that uniaxial stress may be the right tool to obtain quantum-light sources with ideally oriented transition dipoles and enhanced oscillator strengths for integrated quantum photonics.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(3): 033902, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085806

RESUMO

We report on the observation of nearly maximally entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots, without resorting to postselection techniques. We use GaAs quantum dots integrated on a patterned piezoelectric actuator capable of suppressing the exciton fine structure splitting. By using a resonant two-photon excitation, we coherently drive the biexciton state and demonstrate experimentally that our device generates polarization-entangled photons with a fidelity of 0.978(5) and a concurrence of 0.97(1) taking into account the nonidealities stemming from the experimental setup. By combining fine-structure-dependent fidelity measurements and a theoretical model, we identify an exciton spin-scattering process as a possible residual decoherence mechanism. We suggest that this imperfection may be overcome using a modest Purcell enhancement so as to achieve fidelities >0.99, thus making quantum dots evenly matched with the best probabilistic entangled photon sources.

15.
Nano Lett ; 18(1): 505-512, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239186

RESUMO

Several semiconductor quantum dot techniques have been investigated for the generation of entangled photon pairs. Among the other techniques, droplet epitaxy enables the control of the shape, size, density, and emission wavelength of the quantum emitters. However, the fraction of the entanglement-ready quantum dots that can be fabricated with this method is still limited to around 5%, and matching the energy of the entangled photons to atomic transitions (a promising route toward quantum networking) remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we overcome these obstacles by introducing a modified approach to droplet epitaxy on a high symmetry (111)A substrate, where the fundamental crystallization step is performed at a significantly higher temperature as compared with previous reports. Our method drastically improves the yield of entanglement-ready photon sources near the emission wavelength of interest, which can be as high as 95% due to the low values of fine structure splitting and radiative lifetime, together with the reduced exciton dephasing offered by the choice of GaAs/AlGaAs materials. The quantum dots are designed to emit in the operating spectral region of Rb-based slow-light media, providing a viable technology for quantum repeater stations.

16.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15506, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548081

RESUMO

The development of scalable sources of non-classical light is fundamental to unlocking the technological potential of quantum photonics. Semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as near-optimal sources of indistinguishable single photons. However, their performance as sources of entangled-photon pairs are still modest compared to parametric down converters. Photons emitted from conventional Stranski-Krastanov InGaAs quantum dots have shown non-optimal levels of entanglement and indistinguishability. For quantum networks, both criteria must be met simultaneously. Here, we show that this is possible with a system that has received limited attention so far: GaAs quantum dots. They can emit triggered polarization-entangled photons with high purity (g(2)(0) = 0.002±0.002), high indistinguishability (0.93±0.07 for 2 ns pulse separation) and high entanglement fidelity (0.94±0.01). Our results show that GaAs might be the material of choice for quantum-dot entanglement sources in future quantum technologies.

17.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4090-4095, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557459

RESUMO

Photonic quantum technologies are on the verge of finding applications in everyday life with quantum cryptography and quantum simulators on the horizon. Extensive research has been carried out to identify suitable quantum emitters and single epitaxial quantum dots have emerged as near-optimal sources of bright, on-demand, highly indistinguishable single photons and entangled photon-pairs. In order to build up quantum networks, it is essential to interface remote quantum emitters. However, this is still an outstanding challenge, as the quantum states of dissimilar "artificial atoms" have to be prepared on-demand with high fidelity and the generated photons have to be made indistinguishable in all possible degrees of freedom. Here, we overcome this major obstacle and show an unprecedented two-photon interference (visibility of 51 ± 5%) from remote strain-tunable GaAs quantum dots emitting on-demand photon-pairs. We achieve this result by exploiting for the first time the full potential of a novel phonon-assisted two-photon excitation scheme, which allows for the generation of highly indistinguishable (visibility of 71 ± 9%) entangled photon-pairs (fidelity of 90 ± 2%), enables push-button biexciton state preparation (fidelity of 80 ± 2%) and outperforms conventional resonant two-photon excitation schemes in terms of robustness against environmental decoherence. Our results mark an important milestone for the practical realization of quantum repeaters and complex multiphoton entanglement experiments involving dissimilar artificial atoms.

18.
J Appl Phys ; 121: 135303, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522879

RESUMO

In this paper, strain transfer efficiencies from a single crystalline piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate substrate to a GaAs semiconductor membrane bonded on top are investigated using state-of-the-art x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and finite-element-method (FEM) simulations. Two different bonding techniques are studied, namely, gold-thermo-compression and polymer-based SU8 bonding. Our results show a much higher strain-transfer for the "soft" SU8 bonding in comparison to the "hard" bonding via gold-thermo-compression. A comparison between the XRD results and FEM simulations allows us to explain this unexpected result with the presence of complex interface structures between the different layers.

19.
ACS Photonics ; 4(4): 868-872, 2017 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523285

RESUMO

We demonstrate the first wavelength-tunable electrically pumped source of nonclassical light that can emit photons with wavelength in resonance with the D2 transitions of 87Rb atoms. The device is fabricated by integrating a novel GaAs single-quantum-dot light-emitting diode (LED) onto a piezoelectric actuator. By feeding the emitted photons into a 75 mm long cell containing warm 87Rb vapor, we observe slow-light with a temporal delay of up to 3.4 ns. In view of the possibility of using 87Rb atomic vapors as quantum memories, this work makes an important step toward the realization of hybrid-quantum systems for future quantum networks.

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