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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638304

RESUMO

Resistance to targeted therapies is a complex and multifactorial process that culminates in the selection of a cancer clone with the ability to evade treatment. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was the first malignancy recognized to be associated with a genetic alteration, the t(9;22)(q34;q11). This translocation originates the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, encoding the cytoplasmic chimeric BCR-ABL1 protein that displays an abnormally high tyrosine kinase activity. Although the vast majority of patients with CML respond to Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), resistance might occur either de novo or during treatment. In CML, the TKI resistance mechanisms are usually subdivided into BCR-ABL1-dependent and independent mechanisms. Furthermore, patients' compliance/adherence to therapy is critical to CML management. Techniques with enhanced sensitivity like NGS and dPCR, the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, and the development of mathematical modeling and computational prediction methods could reveal the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and facilitate the design of more effective treatment strategies for improving drug efficacy in CML patients. Here we review the molecular mechanisms and other factors involved in resistance to TKIs in CML and the new methodologies to access these mechanisms, and the therapeutic approaches to circumvent TKI resistance.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153757, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged maintenance of proteome stability and functionality (proteostasis) is of emerging significance in aging retardation and healthspan. PURPOSE: An enriched polyphenolic extract obtained from the hydrodistillation of rose petals was tested for its capacity to activate the proteostasis network modules, and thus modulate health- and/or lifespan at the cellular and whole organism level. METHODS: The aqueous extract that remained after the hydrodistillation of Rosa damascena petals, was processed with a polystyrene-FPX66 adsorption resin and sequentially fractionated by FCPC. NMR and UHPLC-HRMS analyses revealed the presence of 28 metabolites, mainly glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin. RESULTS: The extract showed high in vitro antioxidant activity and was not toxic in normal human skin fibroblasts, while it promoted the upregulation of NRF2-induced antioxidant genes and main proteostatic modules. Consistently, supplementation of this extract in Drosophila flies' culture medium induced a cncC/NRF2-mediated upregulation of antioxidant and proteostatic modules. Prolonged administration of the extract in flies' culture medium was not toxic and did not affect food intake rate or fecundity; also, it delayed the age-related decline of stress tolerance and locomotion performance (neuromuscular functionality) and dose-dependently extended flies' lifespan. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the enriched polyphenolic extract obtained from the residue of R. damascena hydrodistillation activates cytoprotective cellular modules that, likely, contribute to its potential anti-aging properties.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628475

RESUMO

Data regarding the safety and efficacy of COVID-10 vaccines among cancer patients are lacking. Factors such as age, underlying disease and antineoplastic treatment confer negatively to the immune response due to vaccination. The degree of immunosuppression though may be lessen by targeted treatments like the androgen receptor-targeted agents (ARTA) that are commonly used in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Herein, we report our data on 25 patients with prostate cancer under treatment with ARTA who were vaccinated for COVID-19. Our data suggest that these patients develop neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 similarly to healthy volunteers. No safety issues were noted.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carfilzomib is a first-line proteasome inhibitor indicated for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM), with its clinical use being hampered by cardiotoxic phenomena. We have previously established a translational model of carfilzomib cardiotoxicity in young adult mice, in which metformin emerged as a prophylactic therapy. Considering that MM is an elderly disease and that age is an independent risk factor for cardiotoxicity, herein, we sought to validate carfilzomib's cardiotoxicity in an in vivo model of aging. METHODS: Aged mice underwent the translational two- and four-dose protocols without and with metformin. Mice underwent echocardiography and were subsequently sacrificed for molecular analyses in the blood and cardiac tissue. RESULTS: Carfilzomib decreased proteasomal activity both in PBMCs and myocardium in both protocols. Carfilzomib induced mild cardiotoxicity after two doses and more pronounced cardiomyopathy in the four-dose protocol, while metformin maintained cardiac function. Carfilzomib led to an increased Bip expression and decreased AMPKα phosphorylation, while metformin coadministration partially decreased Bip expression and induced AMPKα phosphorylation, leading to enhanced myocardial LC3B-dependent autophagy. CONCLUSION: Carfilzomib induced cardiotoxicity in aged mice, an effect significantly reversed by metformin. The latter possesses translational importance as it further supports the clinical use of metformin as a potent prophylactic therapy.

5.
Life (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685448

RESUMO

Elucidating long-term immunity following COVID-19 vaccination is essential for decision-making regarding booster shots. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) against SARS-CoV-2 up to six months after the second vaccination dose with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Nabs levels were measured on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 8, 22 (before the second shot), 36, 50, and 3 and 6 months after the second vaccination (NCT04743388). Three hundred and eight healthy individuals without malignant disease were included in this study. At six months, 2.59% of the participants had a Nabs value less than 30%, while 11.9% had Nabs values of less than 50%. Importantly, 58% of the subjects had Nabs values of more than 75%. Nabs were initially eliminated at a relatively slow rate, but after three months their elimination was 5.7 times higher. Older age was inversely associated with Nabs levels at all examined timepoints. Interestingly, a population modeling analysis estimated that half of the subjects will have Nabs values less than 73.8% and 64.6% at 9 and 12 months, respectively, post vaccination completion. In conclusion, we found a persistent but declining anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity at six months following full vaccination with BNT162b2 in healthy individuals, which was more pronounced among older persons. These data may inform the public health policies regarding the prioritization of booster vaccine shots.

6.
Breast ; 60: 58-61, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481366

RESUMO

Undoubtedly, the development of COVID-19 vaccines displays a critical step towards ending this devastating pandemic, considering their protective benefits in the general population. Yet, data regarding their efficacy and safety in cancer patients are limited. Herein we provide the initial analysis of immune responses after the first dose of vaccination in 21 breast cancer patients receiving cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors. The levels of neutralizing antibodies post vaccination were similar to the matched healthy controls, whereas no safety issues have been raised. Further exploration is needed to reduce the uncertainty of SARS-CoV-2 immunity among cancer patients under treatment.

7.
J Imaging ; 7(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564098

RESUMO

Several imaging techniques are used in biological and biomedical studies. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a non-destructive imaging technique that allows the rapid digitisation of internal and external structures of a sample in three dimensions and with great resolution. In this review, the strengths and weaknesses of some common imaging techniques applied in biological and biomedical fields, such as optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, are presented and compared with the micro-CT technique through five use cases. Finally, the ability of micro-CT to create non-destructively 3D anatomical and morphological data in sub-micron resolution and the necessity to develop complementary methods with other imaging techniques, in order to overcome limitations caused by each technique, is emphasised.

8.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529762

RESUMO

The urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to accelerated vaccine development within less than a year. Immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies are more susceptible to COVID-19 and at higher risk of severe complications and worse outcomes compared with general population. In this context, we evaluated the humoral response by determining the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) after vaccination with the BNT162b2 or AZD1222 vaccine. An FDA-approved, ELISA-based methodology was implemented to evaluate NAbs on the day of the first vaccine shot, as well as on day 22 and 50 afterwards. 106 patients with WM (43% males, median age 73 years) and 212 healthy controls (46% males, median age 66 years) who were vaccinated during the same period, at the same center were enrolled in the study (which is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04743388). Our data indicate that vaccination with either 2 doses of the BNT162b2 or 1 dose of the AZD1222 vaccine leads to lower production of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with WM compared with controls both on day 22 and on day 50 (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Disease-related immune dysregulation and therapy-related immunosuppression are involved in the low humoral response. Importantly, active treatment with either Rituximab or Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors was proven as an independent prognostic factor for suboptimal antibody response following vaccination. In conclusion, patients with WM have low humoral response following COVID-19 vaccination, which underlines the need for timely vaccination ideally during a treatment-free period and for continuous vigilance on infection control measures.

9.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528249

RESUMO

Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have a suboptimal antibody response following vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and lower seroconversion rates following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with healthy individuals. In this context, we evaluated the development of neutralising antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in non-vaccinated patients with MM and COVID-19 compared with patients after vaccination with two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Serum was collected either four weeks post confirmed diagnosis or four weeks post a second dose of BNT162b2. NAbs were measured with a Food and Drug Administration-approved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Thirty-five patients with COVID-19 and MM along with 35 matched patients were included. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, body mass index, prior lines of therapy, disease status, lymphocyte count, immunoglobulin levels and comorbidities. Patients with MM and COVID-19 showed a superior humoral response compared with vaccinated patients with MM. The median (interquartile range) NAb titre was 87·6% (71·6-94%) and 58·7% (21·4-91·8%) for COVID-19-positive and vaccinated patients, respectively (P = 0·01).Importantly, there was no difference in NAb production between COVID-19-positive and vaccinated patients who did not receive any treatment (median NAb 85·1% vs 91·7%, P = 0·14). In conclusion, our data indicate that vaccinated patients with MM on treatment without prior COVID-19 should be considered for booster vaccine doses.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503172

RESUMO

The ability of tumor cells to evade apoptosis is established as one of the hallmarks of cancer. The deregulation of apoptotic pathways conveys a survival advantage enabling cancer cells to develop multi-drug resistance (MDR), a complex tumor phenotype referring to concurrent resistance toward agents with different function and/or structure. Proteins implicated in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, including the Bcl-2 superfamily and Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) family members, as well as their regulator, tumor suppressor p53, have been implicated in the development of MDR in many cancer types. The PI3K/AKT pathway is pivotal in promoting survival and proliferation and is often overactive in MDR tumors. In addition, the tumor microenvironment, particularly factors secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts, can inhibit apoptosis in cancer cells and reduce the effectiveness of different anti-cancer drugs. In this review, we describe the main alterations that occur in apoptosis-and related pathways to promote MDR. We also summarize the main therapeutic approaches against resistant tumors, including agents targeting Bcl-2 family members, small molecule inhibitors against IAPs or AKT and agents of natural origin that may be used as monotherapy or in combination with conventional therapeutics. Finally, we highlight the potential of therapeutic exploitation of epigenetic modifications to reverse the MDR phenotype.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503290

RESUMO

Emerging data suggest suboptimal antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies. We evaluated the humoral response following the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). An FDA-approved, ELISA-based methodology was implemented to evaluate the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 on day 1 of the first vaccine, and afterwards on day 22 and 50. One hundred and thirty-two patients with CLL/lymphomas and 214 healthy matched controls vaccinated during the same period, at the same center were enrolled in the study (NCT04743388). Vaccination with two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine led to lower production of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with CLL/lymphomas compared with controls both on day 22 and on day 50 (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Disease-related immune dysregulation and therapy-related immunosuppression are involved in the low humoral response. Importantly, active treatment with Rituximab, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or chemotherapy was an independent prognostic factor for suboptimal antibody response. Patients with HL showed superior humoral responses to the NHL/CLL subgroups. In conclusion, patients with CLL/lymphomas have low humoral response following COVID-19 vaccination, underlining the need for timely vaccination ideally during a treatment-free period and for continuous vigilance on infection control measures.

12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 208, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused a still evolving global pandemic. Given the worldwide vaccination campaign, the understanding of the vaccine-induced versus COVID-19-induced immunity will contribute to adjusting vaccine dosing strategies and speeding-up vaccination efforts. METHODS: Anti-spike-RBD IgGs and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titers were measured in BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinated participants (n = 250); we also investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in vaccinated individuals (n = 21) of this cohort 5 months post-vaccination and assayed NAbs levels in COVID-19 hospitalized patients (n = 60) with moderate or severe disease, as well as in COVID-19 recovered patients (n = 34). RESULTS: We found that one (boosting) dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine triggers robust immune (i.e., anti-spike-RBD IgGs and NAbs) responses in COVID-19 convalescent healthy recipients, while naïve recipients require both priming and boosting shots to acquire high antibody titers. Severe COVID-19 triggers an earlier and more intense (versus moderate disease) immune response in hospitalized patients; in all cases, however, antibody titers remain at high levels in COVID-19 recovered patients. Although virus infection promotes an earlier and more intense, versus priming vaccination, immune response, boosting vaccination induces antibody titers significantly higher and likely more durable versus COVID-19. In support, high anti-spike-RBD IgGs/NAbs titers along with spike (vaccine encoded antigen) specific T cell clones were found in the serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively, of vaccinated individuals 5 months post-vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support vaccination efficacy, also suggesting that vaccination likely offers more protection than natural infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Cinética , Leucócitos Mononucleares , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440710

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-S-RBD IgGs up to three months after the second vaccination dose with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. NAbs and anti-S-RBD levels were measured on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 8, 22 (before the second shot), 36, 50, and three months after the second vaccination (D111) (NCT04743388). 283 health workers were included in this study. NAbs showed a rapid increase from D8 to D36 at a constant rate of about 3% per day and reached a median (SD) of 97.2% (4.7) at D36. From D36 to D50, a slight decrease in NAbs values was detected and it became more prominent between D50 and D111 when the rate of decline was determined at -0.11 per day. The median (SD) NAbs value at D111 was 92.7% (11.8). A similar pattern was also observed for anti-S-RBD antibodies. Anti-S-RBDs showed a steeper increase during D22-D36 and a lower decline rate during D36-D111. Prior COVID-19 infection and younger age were associated with superior antibody responses over time. In conclusion, we found a persistent but declining anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity at 3 months following full vaccination with BNT162b2 in healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Formação de Anticorpos , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439454

RESUMO

Skin health is heavily affected by ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. In addition, senile skin is characterized by major changes in the collagen, elastin and in the hyaluronan content. Natural products (NPs) have been shown to delay cellular senescence or in vivo aging by regulating age-related signaling pathways. Moreover, NPs are a preferable source of photoprotective agents and have been proven to be useful against the undesirable skin hyperpigmentation. Greek flora harvests great plant diversity with approximately 6000 plant species, as it has a wealth of NPs. Here, we report an extensive screening among hundreds of plant species. More than 440 plant species and subspecies were selected and evaluated. The extracts were screened for their antioxidant and anti-melanogenic properties, while the most promising were further subjected to various in vitro and cell-based assays related to skin aging. In parallel, their chemical profile was analyzed with High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and/or Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). A variety of extracts were identified that can be of great value for the cosmetic industry, since they combine antioxidant, photoprotective, anti-melanogenic and anti-aging properties. In particular, the methanolic extracts of Sideritis scardica and Rosa damascena could be worthy of further attention, since they showed interesting chemical profiles and promising properties against specific targets involved in skin aging.

15.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(8): 138, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341335

RESUMO

Recent data suggest a suboptimal antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated in 276 patients with plasma cell neoplasms after vaccination with either the BNT162b2 or the AZD1222 vaccine, on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 22, and 50. Patients with MM (n = 213), SMM (n = 38), and MGUS (n = 25) and 226 healthy controls were enrolled in the study (NCT04743388). Vaccination with either two doses of the BNT162b2 or one dose of the AZD1222 vaccine leads to lower production of NAbs in patients with MM compared with controls both on day 22 and on day 50 (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Furthermore, MM patients showed an inferior NAb response compared with MGUS on day 22 (p = 0.009) and on day 50 (p = 0.003). Importantly, active treatment with either anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) or belantamab mafodotin and lymphopenia at the time of vaccination were independent prognostic factors for suboptimal antibody response following vaccination. In conclusion, MM patients have low humoral response following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, especially under treatment with anti-CD38 or belamaf. This underlines the need for timely vaccination, possibly during a treatment-free period, and for continuous vigilance on infection control measures in non-responders.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Mieloma Múltiplo , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
16.
Cell Rep ; 36(6): 109504, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352226

RESUMO

Early responses to vaccination are important for shaping both humoral and cellular protective immunity. Dissecting innate vaccine signatures may predict immunogenicity to help optimize the efficacy of mRNA and other vaccine strategies. Here, we characterize the cytokine and chemokine responses to the 1st and 2nd dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer/BioNtech) vaccine in antigen-naive and in previously coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals (NCT04743388). Transient increases in interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels early after boost correlate with Spike antibody levels, supporting their use as biomarkers of effective humoral immunity development in response to vaccination. We identify a systemic signature including increases in IL-15, IFN-γ, and IP-10/CXCL10 after the 1st vaccination, which were enriched by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 after the 2nd vaccination. In previously COVID-19-infected individuals, a single vaccination results in both strong cytokine induction and antibody titers similar to the ones observed upon booster vaccination in antigen-naive individuals, a result with potential implication for future public health recommendations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-15/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445204

RESUMO

Considering the lack of effective treatments against COVID-19, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is emerging as a cost-effective approach for real-time population-wide SARS-CoV-2 monitoring. Here, we report novel molecular assays for sensitive detection and mutational/variant analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Highly stable regions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA were identified by RNA stability analysis and targeted for the development of novel nested PCR assays. Targeted DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) was applied for the analysis and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 mutations/variants, following hexamers-based reverse transcription and nested PCR-based amplification of targeted regions. Three-dimensional (3D) structure models were generated to examine the predicted structural modification caused by genomic variants. WBE of SARS-CoV-2 revealed to be assay dependent, and significantly improved sensitivity achieved by assay combination (94%) vs. single-assay screening (30%-60%). Targeted DNA-seq allowed the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 mutations/variants in wastewater, which agreed with COVID-19 patients' sequencing data. A mutational analysis indicated the prevalence of D614G (S) and P323L (RdRP) variants, as well as of the Β.1.1.7/alpha variant of concern, in agreement with the frequency of Β.1.1.7/alpha variant in clinical samples of the same period of the third pandemic wave at the national level. Our assays provide an innovative cost-effective platform for real-time monitoring and early-identification of SARS-CoV-2 variants at community/population levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358129

RESUMO

It is unclear whether the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine can induce the development of anti-PF4 antibodies in vaccinated individuals who have not developed thrombosis. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against heparin/PF4 in adults who received a first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine, and correlate them with clinical data and antibody responses to the vaccine. We detected non-platelet activating anti-PF4 antibodies in 67% (29/43) of the vaccinated individuals on day 22 following the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine, though these were detected in low titers. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the presence of anti-PF4 IgG antibodies and the baseline clinical characteristics of the patients. Our findings suggest that the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine can elicit anti-PF4 antibody production even in recipients without a clinical manifestation of thrombosis. The presence of anti-PF4 antibodies was not sufficient to provoke clinically evident thrombosis. Our results offer an important insight into the ongoing investigations regarding the underlying multifactorial pathophysiology of thrombotic events induced by the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine.

19.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 671, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218254

RESUMO

The balanced functionality of cellular proteostatic modules is central to both proteome stability and mitochondrial physiology; thus, the age-related decline of proteostasis also triggers mitochondrial dysfunction, which marks multiple degenerative disorders. Non-functional mitochondria are removed by mitophagy, including Parkin/Pink1-mediated mitophagy. A common feature of neuronal or muscle degenerative diseases, is the accumulation of damaged mitochondria due to disrupted mitophagy rates. Here, we exploit Drosophila as a model organism to investigate the functional role of Parkin/Pink1 in regulating mitophagy and proteostatic responses, as well as in suppressing degenerative phenotypes at the whole organism level. We found that Parkin or Pink1 knock down in young flies modulated proteostatic components in a tissue-dependent manner, increased cell oxidative load, and suppressed mitophagy in neuronal and muscle tissues, causing mitochondrial aggregation and neuromuscular degeneration. Concomitant to Parkin or Pink1 knock down cncC/Nrf2 overexpression, induced the proteostasis network, suppressed oxidative stress, restored mitochondrial function, and elevated mitophagy rates in flies' tissues; it also, largely rescued Parkin or Pink1 knock down-mediated neuromuscular degenerative phenotypes. Our in vivo findings highlight the critical role of the Parkin/Pink1 pathway in mitophagy, and support the therapeutic potency of Nrf2 (a druggable pathway) activation in age-related degenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/enzimologia , Mitofagia , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Degeneração Neural , Neurônios/enzimologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/deficiência , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Mitocôndrias Musculares/genética , Mitocôndrias Musculares/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenótipo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteostase , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
20.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283338

RESUMO

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is considered as the most important preventive strategy against COVID-19, but its efficacy in patients with hematological malignancies is largely unknown. We investigated the development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). After the first dose of the vaccine, on D22, WM/CLL/NHL patients had lower NAb titers compared to controls: the median NAb inhibition titer was 17% (range 0-91%, IQR 8-27%) for WM/CLL/NHL patients versus 32% (range 2-98%, IQR 19-48%) for controls (P < 0.001). Only 8 (14%) patients versus 114 (54%) controls developed NAb titers ≥ 30% on D22 (p < 0.001). Our data indicate that the first dose of both BNT162b2 and AZD1222 leads to lower production of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with WM/CLL/NHL compared to controls of similar age and gender and without malignant disease. Even though the response rates were not optimal, vaccination is still considered essential and if possible should be performed before treatment initiation. These patients with suboptimal responses should be considered to be prioritized for booster doses.

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