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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12108, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431677

RESUMO

Natriuretic Peptides (NP) are important in maintaining normal cardiac and metabolic status and have been used to predict cardiovascular events. Whether plasma concentrations of NP products within the normal range reflect cardio-metabolic health is unknown. Plasma NTproANP, NTproBNP and NTproCNP and their bioactive counterparts were measured in a random sample of 348 community dwellers aged 49-51 yr without heart disease and associations sought with established vascular risk factors, echocardiographic indices and a genetic variant previously linked with BNP. Stratified by sex, each of ten vascular risk factors were positively associated with NTproCNP whereas associations with NTproBNP and NTproANP were all negative. In both sexes, higher plasma NTproCNP was associated with higher arterial elastance, lower LV stroke volume and lower LV end diastolic volume. Exactly opposite associations were found with plasma NTproBNP or NTproANP. Sex specific differences were identified: positive association of NTproBNP with LV end systolic volume and the negative association with LV elastance were found only in males. The genetic variant rs198358 was independently associated with NTproBNP but not with NTproANP. In conclusion, higher NTproCNP is likely to be an adaptive response to impaired LV relaxation whereas genetic factors likely contribute to higher NTproBNP and improved cardio-metabolic health at midlife.

2.
Heart ; 105(22): 1717-1724, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing is used in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes but its role during convalescence is unknown. We investigated the long-term prognostic significance of serial convalescent high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations following acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In a prospective multicentre observational cohort study of 2140 patients with acute coronary syndrome, cardiac troponin I concentrations were measured in 1776 patients at 4 and 12 months following the index event. Patients were stratified into three groups according to the troponin concentration at 4 months using the 99th centile (women>16 ng/L, men>34 ng/L) and median concentration of those within the reference range. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Troponin concentrations at 4 months were measurable in 99.0% (1759/1776) of patients (67±12 years, 72% male), and were ≤5 ng/L (median) and >99th centile in 44.8% (795) and 9.3% (166), respectively. There were 202 (11.4%) cardiovascular deaths after a median of 4.8 years. After adjusting for the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score, troponin remained an independent predictor of cardiovascular death (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.5 per doubling) with the highest risk observed in those with increasing concentrations at 12 months. Patients with 4-month troponin concentrations >99th centile were at increased risk of cardiovascular death compared with those ≤5 ng/L (29.5% (49/166) vs 4.3% (34/795); adjusted HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.8 to 23.7). CONCLUSIONS: Convalescent cardiac troponin concentrations predict long-term cardiovascular death following acute coronary syndrome. Recognising this risk by monitoring troponin may improve targeting of therapeutic interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12605000431628;Results.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(10): 1733-1738, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gout and serum urate (SU) levels are associated with increased risk of death, time to first readmission for any cardiovascular event, or incident heart failure in individuals with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Individuals presenting with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were enrolled in the Coronary Disease Cohort Study. Clinical data were collected from the medical records at the index hospital admission, and clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical data were collected postdischarge. Gout was defined by self-report, use of urate-lowering therapy, or use of colchicine with evidence of gout on review of the medical record. The primary end points were all-cause mortality, time to readmission for a cardiac ischemic event, and time to readmission for heart failure. RESULTS: Data from 1,514 participants were available. During the follow-up period, 53 of 160 participants with gout (33.1%) and 298 of 1,354 participants without gout (22.0%) died. After adjustment for other factors known to be associated with mortality, there was no gout-specific increase in risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98 [95% confidence interval 0.69-1.38]). Time to readmission for heart failure was significantly briefer in those with, compared to those without, gout (adjusted hazard ratio 1.42 [95% confidence interval 1.02-1.97]). Irrespective of whether a participant had gout or not, as SU level increased, there was an increased risk of death and readmission for either a cardiovascular event or heart failure. CONCLUSION: Survival post-ACS is similar with and without the presence of gout. People with gout are at an increased risk of readmission for heart failure and have longer hospital stays. Risk of these events increases in parallel with increases in SU levels.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
5.
Clin Biochem ; 69: 36-44, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging marker of cardiovascular disease burden. Appropriate assessment of assay performance and reference interval are required to enable interpretation of results to facilitate its clinical application. METHODS: suPAR was measured using the suPARnostic® ELISA in 155 healthy volunteers. Assay performance was assessed for anticoagulant effect, recovery, interference, linearity and cross-reactivity. The identity of immunoreactive suPAR was confirmed by size-exclusion HPLC. To establish anatomical sites of release and uptake, we measured suPAR in regional samples from subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization. RESULTS: The median concentration of suPAR was 2.1 ng/mL (IQR:1.7-2.3) in health. In comparison with EDTA, suPAR measurements were affected by lithium heparin (>10% change) and increased with serum usage. suPAR reactivity also increased in the presence of haemolysis (10 g/L), but was suppressed with urokinase and lipids (4 g/L). In multiple regression analyses, suPAR associated independently with body weight, NT-proBNP and MR-proADM (P = .03) for healthy individuals. Regional plasma sampling showed lower suPAR concentrations in the coronary sinus and renal vein compared with concentrations in femoral arterial samples. Immunoreactive circulating suPAR species had Mr of 10-39 kDa. CONCLUSION: The suPARnostic® assay performs acceptably for a clinical assay but is limited in the presence of high levels of hemolysis, lipids and urokinase. We provide the first evidence for the heart and kidneys as organs of suPAR clearance in humans. Additional investigations are warranted to determine whether there is a need to compare the marker performance of differing circulating forms of suPAR.


Assuntos
Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , Adulto , Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peso Molecular , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/química , Padrões de Referência
6.
J Card Fail ; 25(9): 703-711, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) is closely associated with prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). As a result, there has been great interest measuring it during the course of treatment. The prognostic implications in both short-term and follow-up changes in NTproBNP need further clarification. METHODS: Baseline, 48-72 hour, and 30-day NTproBNP levels were measured in 795 subjects in the ASCEND-HF trial. Multivariable logistic and Cox-proportional hazards models were used to test the association between static, relative, and absolute changes in NTproBNP with outcomes during and after ADHF. RESULTS: The median NTproBNP at baseline was 5773 (2981-11,579) pg/mL; at 48-72 hours was 3036 (1191-6479) pg/mL; and at 30 days was 2914 (1364-6667) pg/mL. Absolute changes in NTproBNP by 48-72 hours were not associated with 30-day heart failure rehospitalization or mortality (P = .065), relative changes in NTproBNP were nominally associated (P = .046). In contrast, both absolute and relative changes in NTproBNP from baseline to 48-72 hours and to 30 days were closely associated with 180-day mortality (P < .02 for all) with increased discrimination compared to the multivariable models with baseline NTproBNP (P <.05 for models with relative and absolute change at both time points). CONCLUSIONS: Although the degree of absolute change in NTproBNP was dependent on baseline levels, both short-term absolute and relative changes in NTproBNP were independently and incrementally associated with long-term clinical outcomes. Changes in NTproBNP levels at 30-days were particularly well associated with long-term clinical outcomes.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(11): 1300-1313, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians need improved tools to better identify nonacute heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to derive and validate circulating microRNA signatures for nonacute heart failure (HF). METHODS: Discovery and validation cohorts (N = 1,710), comprised 903 HF and 807 non-HF patients from Singapore and New Zealand (NZ). MicroRNA biomarker panel discovery in a Singapore cohort (n = 546) was independently validated in a second Singapore cohort (Validation 1; n = 448) and a NZ cohort (Validation 2; n = 716). RESULTS: In discovery, an 8-microRNA panel identified HF with an area under the curve (AUC) 0.96, specificity 0.88, and accuracy 0.89. Corresponding metrics were 0.88, 0.66, and 0.77 in Validation 1, and 0.87, 0.58, and 0.74 in Validation 2. Combining microRNA panels with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) clearly improved specificity and accuracy from AUC 0.96, specificity 0.91, and accuracy 0.90 for NT-proBNP alone to corresponding metrics of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.93 in the discovery and 0.97, 0.96, and 0.93 in Validation 1. The 8-microRNA discovery panel distinguished HFpEF from HF with reduced ejection fraction with AUC 0.81, specificity 0.66, and accuracy 0.72. Corresponding metrics were 0.65, 0.41, and 0.56 in Validation 1 and 0.65, 0.41, and 0.62 in Validation 2. For phenotype categorization, combined markers achieved AUC 0.87, specificity 0.75, and accuracy 0.77 in the discovery with corresponding metrics of 0.74, 0.59, and 0.67 in Validation 1 and 0.72, 0.52, and 0.68 in Validation 2, as compared with NT-proBNP alone of AUC 0.71, specificity 0.46, and accuracy 0.62 in the discovery; with corresponding metrics of 0.72, 0.44, and 0.57 in Validation 1 and 0.69, 0.48, and 0.66 in Validation 2. Accordingly, false negative (FN) (81% Singapore and all NZ FN cases were HFpEF) as classified by a guideline-endorsed NT-proBNP ruleout threshold, were correctly reclassified by the 8-microRNA panel in the majority (72% and 88% of FN in Singapore and NZ, respectively) of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-microRNA panels in combination with NT-proBNP are highly discriminatory and improved specificity and accuracy in identifying nonacute HF. These findings suggest potential utility in the identification of nonacute HF, where clinical assessment, imaging, and NT-proBNP may not be definitive, especially in HFpEF.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 289: 6-11, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is a common reason for presenting to an emergency department (ED). Many patients re-present with similar symptoms despite reassurance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of a brief cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) in reducing re-presentations of patients who present with NCCP. METHOD: A randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing three or four sessions of NCCP directed CBT with treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome measure was reducing health service use measured as re-presentations to the ED and hospitalisations for NCCP over 12 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were chest pain, health anxiety, depression, anxiety, quality of life and social functioning. RESULTS: 214 patients received CBT and 210 TAU. There was no difference in ED visits or hospitalisation at three months or 12 months follow-up. Those with prior ED presentations for NCCP were significantly less likely to present with NCCP at three months follow-up but not at 12 months. Health anxiety was less at three months in those who received CBT but this effect was not present at 12 months. No other differences in secondary outcome measures were present. CONCLUSIONS: A brief CBT intervention for NCCP failed to reduce representations or improve psychological health over 12 months. We do not recommend such an intervention to unselected patients with NCCP. Patients presenting with prior episodes of NCCP obtain benefit for a three month period. Working with those patients to sustain their improvement might be worthwhile.

9.
Heart ; 105(11): 842-847, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ethnic differences in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) remain unclear. We compared the prevalence and clinical correlates of AF among different ethnicities in an Asian-Pacific population with HF. METHODS: Patients with validated HF were prospectively studied across Singapore and New Zealand (NZ). RESULTS: Among 1746 patients with HF (62% Asian, 26% women, mean age 66 (SD 13) years, mean ejection fraction (EF) 37 (SD 16%), 39% had AF. The prevalence of AF was markedly lower in Singapore-Asians than NZ-Europeans (24% vs 63%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for age, clinical and echocardiographic covariates, regardless of EF group (pinteraction for EF=0.39). Patients with AF were older, had higher body mass index and were more likely to have a history of hypertension, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, chronic respiratory disease and increased alcohol intake, but less likely to have diabetes. Clinical correlates were similar for Asians and NZ-Europeans, except diabetes: Asian diabetic patients with HF had less AF compared with Asian patients without diabetes (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.88), whereas among NZ-Europeans there was no significant association between diabetes and AF (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.75) (pinteraction for ethnicity=0.01). AF was associated with a higher crude composite outcome of mortality and HF hospitalisations at 2 years (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.38). CONCLUSION: There is a strikingly lower prevalence of AF among Asian compared with NZ-European patients with HF. The underlying mechanisms for the lower prevalence of AF among Asians, particularly in the presence of diabetes, deserve further study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12610000374066.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(11): 1108-1112, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347004

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency department (ED) investigations of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are time consuming, partly because of the turnaround time of laboratory tests. Current point-of-care troponin assays shorten test turnaround times but lack precision at lower concentrations. Development of point-of-care troponin assays with greater analytical precision could reduce the decision-making time in EDs for ruling out AMI. Objective: To determine the clinical accuracy for AMI of a single troponin concentration measured on arrival to ED with a new-generation, higher precision point-of-care assay with a 15-minute turnaround time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational study occurred at a single urban regional ED. Adults presenting acutely from the community to the ED with symptoms suggestive of AMI were included. Troponin concentrations were measured on ED arrival with both a novel point-of-care assay (i-STAT TnI-Nx; Abbott Point of Care) and a high-sensitivity troponin I assay (Architect hs-cTnI; Abbott Diagnostics). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was type 1 AMI during index presentation. We compared the discrimination ability of the TnI-Nx assay with the hs-cTnI assay using the area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and sensitivity, negative predictive value, and the proportion of negative test results at thresholds with 100% sensitivity. Results: Of 354 patients (255 [72.0%] men; mean [SD] age, 62 [12] years), 57 (16.1%) experienced an AMI. Eighty-five patients (24.0%) presented to the ED less than 3 hours after symptom onset. No difference was found between the AUC of the TnI-Nx assay (0.975 [95% CI, 0.958-0.993]) and the hs-cTnI assay (0.970 [95% CI, 0.949 to 0.990]; P = .46). A TnI-Nx assay result of less than 11 ng/L identified 201 patients (56.7%) as low risk, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 93.7%-100%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 98.2%-100%). In comparison, an hs-cTnI assay result of less than 3 ng/L identified 154 patients (43.5%) as low risk, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 93.7%-100%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 97.6%-100%). Conclusions and Relevance: A novel point-of-care troponin assay that can produce a result 15 minutes after blood sampling had comparable discrimination ability to an hs-cTnI assay for ruling out AMI after a single blood test. Use in the ED may facilitate earlier decision making and could expedite the safe discharge of a large proportion of low-risk patients.

11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 18(1): 169, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of collateral circulation in coronary artery disease is cardio-protective. A key process in forming new blood vessels is attraction to occluded arteries of monocytes with their subsequent activation as macrophages. In patients from a prospectively recruited post-acute coronary syndromes cohort we investigated the prognostic performance of three products of activated macrophages, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (sFlt-1 and sKDR) and pterins, alongside genetic variants in VEGF receptor genes, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. METHODS: Baseline levels of sFlt-1 (VEGFR1), sKDR (VEGFR2) and pterins were measured in plasma samples from subgroups (n = 513; 211; 144, respectively) of the Coronary Disease Cohort Study (CDCS, n = 2067). DNA samples from the cohort were genotyped for polymorphisms from the VEGFR-1 gene SNPs (rs748252 n = 2027, rs9513070 n = 2048) and VEGFR-2 gene SNPs (rs2071559 n = 2050, rs2305948 n = 2066, rs1870377 n = 2042). RESULTS: At baseline, levels of sFlt-1 were significantly correlated with age, alcohol consumption, NTproBNP, BNP and other covariates relevant to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Total neopterin levels were associated with alcohol consumption at baseline. 7,8 dihydroneopterin was associated with BMI. The A allele of VEGFR-2 variant rs1870377 was associated with higher plasma sFlt-1 and lower levels of sKDR at baseline. Baseline plasma sFlt-1 was univariately associated with all cause mortality with (p < 0.001) and in a Cox's proportional hazards regression model sFlt-1 and pterins were both associated with mortality independent of established predictors (p < 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: sFlt-1 and pterins may have potential as prognostic biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes patients. Genetic markers from VEGF system genes warrant further investigation as markers of levels of VEGF system components in these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12605000431628 . 16 September 2005, Retrospectively registered.

12.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 3(2): 163-175, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062203

RESUMO

We identified a plasma signature of 11 C14 to C26 ceramides and 1 C16 dihydroceramide predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, those with recent AMI, compared with those without recent AMI, showed a significant increase in 5 of the signature's 12 ceramides in plasma but not simultaneously-biopsied aortic tissue. In contrast, a rat AMI model, compared with sham control, showed a significant increase in myocardial concentrations of all 12 ceramides and up-regulation of 3 ceramide-producing enzymes, suggesting ischemic myocardium as a possible source of this ceramide signature.

13.
CMAJ ; 190(33): E974-E984, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) may assist triage and clinical decision-making in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome; however, this could result in the misclassification of risk because of analytical variation or laboratory error. We sought to evaluate a new laboratory-based risk-stratification tool that incorporates tests for hs-cTn, glucose level and estimated glomerular filtration rate to identify patients at risk of myocardial infarction or death when presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: We constructed the clinical chemistry score (CCS) (range 0-5 points) and validated it as a predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) or death using data from 4 cohort studies involving patients who presented to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. We calculated diagnostic parameters for the CCS score separately using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). RESULTS: For the combined cohorts (n = 4245), 17.1% of participants had an MI or died within 30 days. A CCS score of 0 points best identified low-risk participants: the hs-cTnI CCS had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.5%-100%), with 8.9% (95% CI 8.1%-9.8%) of the population classified as being at low risk of MI or death within 30 days; the hs-cTnT CCS had a sensitivity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.2%-100%), with 10.5% (95% CI 9.6%-11.4%) of the population classified as being at low risk. The CCS had better sensitivity than hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L: 96.6%, 95% CI 95.0%-97.8%; hs-cTnT < 6 ng/L: 98.2%, 95% CI 97.0%-99.0%). A CCS score of 5 points best identified patients at high risk (hs-cTnI CCS: specificity 96.6%, 95% CI 96.0%-97.2%; 11.2% [95% CI 10.3%-12.2%] of the population classified as being at high risk; hs-cTnT CCS: specificity 94.0%, 95% CI 93.1%-94.7%; 13.1% [95% CI 12.1%-14.1%] of the population classified as being at high risk) compared with using the overall 99th percentiles for the hs-cTn assays (specificity of hs-cTnI 93.2%, 95% CI 92.3-94.0; specificity of hs-cTnT 73.8%, 95% CI 72.3-75.2). INTERPRETATION: The CCS score at the chosen cut-offs was more sensitive and specific than hs-cTn alone for risk stratification of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, nos. NCT01994577; NCT02355457.

14.
Clin Chem ; 64(7): 1044-1053, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin I or T detected by high-sensitivity assays (hs-cTnI or hs-cTnT) confers an increased risk of adverse prognosis. We determined whether patients presenting with putatively normal, detectable cTn concentrations [> limit of detection and < upper reference limit (URL)] have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or all-cause mortality. METHODS: A prospective 5-year follow-up of patients recruited in the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cTn concentrations measured with hs-cTnI (Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Roche) assays. Cox regression models were generated with adjustment for covariates in those without MACE on presentation. Hazard ratios (HRs) for hs-cTn were calculated relative to the HRs at the median concentration. RESULTS: Of 1113 patients, 836 were without presentation MACE. Of these, 138 incurred a MACE and 169 died during a median 5.8-year follow-up. HRs for MACE at the URLs were 2.3 (95% CI, 1.7-3.2) for hs-cTnI and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3-2.4) for hs-cTnT. Corresponding HRs for mortality were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.2) for hs-cTnI and 2.3 (95 % CI, 1.7-3.1) for hs-cTnT. The HR for MACE increased with increasing hs-cTn concentration similarly for both assays, but the HR for mortality increased at approximately twice the rate for hs-cTnT than hs-cTnI. Patients with hs-cTnI ≥10 ng/L or hs-cTnT ≥16 ng/L had the same percentage of MACE at 5-year follow-up (33%) as patients with presentation MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with ACS ruled out and putatively normal but detectable hs-cTnI concentrations are at similar long-term risk as those with MACE. hs-cTnT concentrations are more strongly associated with 5-year mortality than hs-cTnI.

15.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.

17.
Thromb Haemost ; 118(2): 415-426, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443374

RESUMO

Studies on platelet reactivity (PR) testing commonly test PR only after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been performed. There are few data on pre- and post-PCI testing. Data on simultaneous testing of aspirin and adenosine diphosphate antagonist response are conflicting. We investigated the prognostic value of combined serial assessments of high on-aspirin PR (HASPR) and high on-adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist PR (HADPR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). HASPR and HADPR were assessed in 928 ACS patients before (initial test) and 24 hours after (final test) coronary angiography, with or without revascularization. Patients with HASPR on the initial test, compared with those without, had significantly higher intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) (8.6 vs. 1.2%, p ≤ 0.001) and higher 30-day major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; 5.2 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.05), but not 12-month MACCE (13.0 vs. 15.1%, p = 0.50). Patients with initial HADPR, compared with those without, had significantly higher IPTE (4.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.004), but not 30-day (3.5 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.32) or 12-month MACCE (14.0 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.54). The c-statistic of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score alone, GRACE score + ASPR test and GRACE score + ADPR test for discriminating 30-day MACCE was 0.649, 0.803 and 0.757, respectively. Final ADPR was associated with 30-day MACCE among patients with intermediate-to-high GRACE score (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-17.66), but not low GRACE score (adjusted OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.13-10.79). In conclusion, both HASPR and HADPR predict ischaemic events in ACS. This predictive utility is time-dependent and risk-dependent.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 39(20): 1770-1780, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390051

RESUMO

Aims: Whether prevalence and mortality of patients with heart failure with preserved or mid-range (40-49%) ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFmREF) are similar to those of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), as reported in some epidemiologic studies, remains highly controversial. We determined and compared characteristics and outcomes for patients with HFpEF, HFmREF, and HFrEF in a prospective, international, multi-ethnic population. Methods and results: Prospective multi-centre longitudinal study in New Zealand (NZ) and Singapore. Patients with HF were assessed at baseline and followed over 2 years. The primary outcome was death from any cause. Secondary outcome was death and HF hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare outcomes for patients with HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF. Of 2039 patients enrolled, 28% had HFpEF, 13% HFmrEF, and 59% HFrEF. Compared with HFrEF, patients with HFpEF were older (62 vs. 72 years), more commonly female (17% vs. 48%), and more likely to have a history of hypertension (61% vs. 78%) but less likely to have coronary artery disease (55% vs. 41%). During 2 years of follow-up, 343 (17%) patients died. Adjusting for age, sex, and clinical risk factors, patients with HFpEF had a lower risk of death compared with those with HFrEF (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.85). Plasma (NT-proBNP) was similarly related to mortality in both HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF independent of the co-variates listed and of ejection fraction. Results were similar for the composite endpoint of death or HF and were consistent between Singapore and NZ. Conclusion: These prospective multinational data showed that the prevalence of HFpEF within the HF population was lower than HFrEF. Death rate was comparable in HFpEF and HFmrEF and lower than in HFrEF. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP were independently and similarly predictive of death in the three HF phenotypes. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12610000374066).

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(3): 474-480, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serial measurement of natriuretic peptides may guide management in heart failure (HF) patients. In previous trials, natriuretic peptides were infrequently monitored, which may undervalue the benefit of this approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: HOME was an adaptive three-arm randomized clinical study to test whether home monitoring of BNP could reduce HF-related death, hospitalization due to acute decompensated HF (ADHF), and ADHF treated with intravenous diuretics in the emergency department or outpatient setting. Enrolment was terminated early because of slow enrolment, low event rates, and the belief that an algorithm for assessing BNP trends was needed. Justification for pooling data from all study arms was made and analysis as a single observational study was performed. The analysis resulted in 107 patients who were monitored for a median of 172 days with BNP measures on a median of 74% of days. BNP values were highly variable within a patient. Dispersion between serial BNPs was calculated to be 39.3%, 57.7%, and 73.6% for 1, 60, and 120 days between measures, respectively. A moving average filter (fBNP) was calculated to reduce day-to-day fluctuations and track changes from week to week. There were 27 primary events in 17 362 patient days of monitoring; the hazard ratio for time-varying fBNP was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.48-3.34) per unit natural log (corresponding to a 2.72-fold change in fBNP level). CONCLUSION: The HOME HF study demonstrates the feasibility of home BNP measurement and shows the potential value of fBNP as an index of emerging clinical deterioration. Assessment of the clinical value of this is required.

20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(4): 521-532, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352349

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate factors affecting N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) in preterm infants and the ability of NTproBNP to predict haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (HsPDA). Prospective cohort study of 51 infants < 30 weeks gestation. Blood NTproBNP and heart ultrasound were performed on day of life 3, 10, 28 and 36 weeks corrected age. NTproBNP levels analysed for prediction of HsPDA. The effect of gestational age, ventilation, hypoxia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), creatinine and haemoglobin levels on NTproBNP levels were investigated. Infants with HsPDA had higher mean (SD) day 3 NTproBNP (1840 pmol/L (1058) versus 178 pmol/L (140) p < 0.001). Receiver operator curves of day 3 NTproBNP for prediction of day 3 and day 10 HsPDA had an area under the curve of 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. A chosen day 3 NTproBNP value of ≥ 287 pmol/L for the prediction of day 3 HsPDA correctly classified 92% (sensitivity 92%, specificity 92%). NTproBNP demonstrated only modest ability to predict severe BPD. Chronological but not gestational age affected NTproBNP. Ventilation, hypoxia and haemoglobin levels did not influence NTproBNP but creatinine level was positively correlated. CONCLUSION: Day 3 NTproBNP is a useful biomarker to predict HsPDA and may be a valuable tool in future trial design. What is Known: • NTproBNP is a cardiac hormone used to diagnose and monitor cardiac dysfunction in adults and has been shown to be higher in premature infants with haemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus (HsPDA). What is new: • NTproBNP is highly predictive of ultrasound-defined HsPDA and may be a useful tool for further triage • Early NTproBNP higher in infants who develop severe BPD and with renal impairment but not affected by gestational age, recent exposure to hypoxia or haemoglobin levels while late levels unexpectedly higher in those without BPD or HsPDA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Displasia Broncopulmonar/sangue , Displasia Broncopulmonar/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/sangue , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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