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1.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 5, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe successful therapeutic strategies in statin-induced anti-HMGCR myopathy. METHODS: Retrospective data from a cohort of 55 patients with statin-induced anti-HMGCR myopathy, sequentially stratified by the presence of proximal weakness, early remission, and corticosteroid and IVIG use at treatment induction, were analyzed for optimal successful induction and maintenance of remission strategies. RESULTS: A total of 14 patients achieved remission with a corticosteroid-free induction strategy (25%). In 41 patients treated with corticosteroids, only 4 patients (10%) failed an initial triple steroid/IVIG/steroid-sparing immunosuppressant (SSI) induction strategy. Delay in treatment initiation was independently associated with lower odds of successful maintenance with immunosuppressant monotherapy (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.97, P = 0.015). While 22 patients (40%) presented with normal strength, only 9 had normal strength at initiation of treatment. CONCLUSION: While corticosteroid-free treatment of anti-HMGCR myopathy is now a safe option in selected cases, initial triple steroid/IVIG/SSI was very efficacious in induction. Delays in treatment initiation and, as a corollary, delays in achieving remission decrease the odds of achieving successful maintenance with an SSI alone. Avoiding such delays, most notably in patients with normal strength, may reset the natural history of anti-HMGCR myopathy from a refractory entity to a treatable disease.

2.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 19, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756193

RESUMO

The study design of a multidisciplinary Fracture Liaison Service (2-year follow-up) aiming to optimize fragility fracture management in an outpatient setting is presented. Patient characteristics, investigation, and treatment initiation data at baseline were recorded. Results corroborate the care gap in osteoporosis management, reinforcing the need for secondary fracture prevention programs. PURPOSE: This paper describes the study design, implementation, and baseline characteristics of a multidisciplinary Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) in Quebec (Canada). METHODS: A FLS was implemented as a prospective cohort study. After identification, fracture risk was assessed and patients were started on treatment or referred, according to guidelines and risk assessment. Thereafter, patients were systematically followed over 2 years. Clinical data (fractures, bone density, blood testing (bone turnover markers), quality of life, physical disability) as well as administrative data (pharmacological, health services, hospitalization) was collected. Baseline descriptive data was analyzed and presented. RESULTS: Of 542 recruited participants, 532 underwent baseline assessment (85.7% female, mean age 63.4 years). Overall, 29.7% of participants either withdrew from the study or were lost to follow-up. Almost 27% were referred to a specialist, while > 70% received anti-osteoporosis medication prescriptions through the FLS at baseline. Mean femoral T-score was - 1.6 ± 1.0 and vertebral T-score was - 1.7 ± 1.4. Nearly 19% of subjects reported being under anti-osteoporosis medication at the time of incident fracture. Thirty-three percent of participants reported a prior fracture history, of which 29.7% reported being given anti-osteoporosis therapy. Most fracture sites were to the wrist and ankle, while < 19% were hip/femur or vertebral fractures. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the important care gap in fragility fracture management and reinforce the need for secondary fracture prevention programs. This prospective study will allow the evaluation of key performance indicators for outpatient clinic-based FLS, such as medication usage, by combining prospective clinical and administrative data.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(3): e5694, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099331

RESUMO

The general aim of this study was to evaluate the disease spectrum in patients presenting with a pure polymyositis (pPM) phenotype. Specific objectives were to characterize clinical features, autoantibodies (aAbs), and membrane attack complex (MAC) in muscle biopsies of patients with treatment-responsive, statin-exposed necrotizing autoimmune myositis (NAM). Patients from the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal autoimmune myositis (AIM) Cohort with a pPM phenotype, response to immunosuppression, and follow-up ≥3 years were included. Of 17 consecutive patients with pPM, 14 patients had a NAM, of whom 12 were previously exposed to atorvastatin (mean 38.8 months). These 12 patients were therefore suspected of atorvastatin-induced AIM (atorAIM) and selected for study. All had aAbs to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and none had overlap aAbs, aAbs to signal recognition particle, or cancer. Three stages of myopathy were recognized: stage 1 (isolated serum creatine kinase [CK] elevation), stage 2 (CK elevation, normal strength, and abnormal electromyogram [EMG]), and stage 3 (CK elevation, proximal weakness, and abnormal EMG). At diagnosis, 10/12 (83%) patients had stage 3 myopathy (mean CK elevation: 7247 U/L). The presenting mode was stage 1 in 6 patients (50%) (mean CK elevation: 1540 U/L), all of whom progressed to stage 3 (mean delay: 37 months) despite atorvastatin discontinuation. MAC deposition was observed in all muscle biopsies (isolated sarcolemmal deposition on non-necrotic fibers, isolated granular deposition on endomysial capillaries, or mixed pattern). Oral corticosteroids alone failed to normalize CKs and induce remission. Ten patients (83%) received intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as part of an induction regimen. Of 10 patients with ≥1 year remission on stable maintenance therapy, IVIG was needed in 50%, either with methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy or combination immunosuppression. In the remaining patients, MTX monotherapy or combination therapy maintained remission without IVIG. AtorAIM emerged as the dominant entity in patients with a pPM phenotype and treatment-responsive myopathy. Isolated CK elevation was the mode of presentation of atorAIM. The new onset of isolated CK elevation on atorvastatin and persistent CK elevation on statin discontinuation should raise early suspicion for atorAIM. Statin-induced AIM should be included in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic hyperCKemia. Three patterns of MAC deposition, while nonpathognomonic, were pathological clues to atorAIM. AtorAIM was uniformly corticosteroid resistant but responsive to IVIG as induction and maintenance therapy.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/induzido quimicamente , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Polimiosite/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/imunologia , Quimioterapia de Indução , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Polimiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Polimiosite/metabolismo , Polimiosite/patologia
5.
Clin Rheumatol ; 36(6): 1341-1348, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28130685

RESUMO

6-Thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) is the active metabolite of thiopurine drugs azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. 6-Methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) is an inactive and potentially hepatotoxic metabolite. A subgroup of patients (shunters) preferentially produce 6-MMP instead of 6-TGN, therefore displaying thiopurine resistance and risk for hepatotoxicity. Outside inflammatory bowel disease literature, few data exist regarding individualized thiopurine therapy based on metabolite monitoring. This study sought to describe metabolite monitoring in patients receiving weight-based thiopurine for systemic autoimmune diseases. Patients were enrolled using a laboratory database, and data were retrospectively collected. The correlation between the highest thiopurine dose (mg/kg) and the 6-TGN concentration (pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes) was estimated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Seventy-one patients with various systemic autoimmune conditions were enrolled. The correlation between the thiopurine dose and the 6-TGN level was weak for the overall patient sample (r = 0.201, p = 0.092) and for the subgroup of non-shunters (r = 0.278, p = 0.053). Subjects with 6-MMP levels >5700 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes had more hepatic cytolysis compared to subjects with 6-MMP <5700, OR = 4.36 (CI 95% 1.18-16.13, p = 0.027). Twenty-two patients (31%) were identified as shunters. Six shunters developed hepatotoxicity, five of which had 6-MMP concentration >5700. Eleven non-shunters had hepatotoxicity, one of which had 6-MMP >5700. Thiopurine metabolite monitoring shows wide variability in 6-TGN levels among patients treated with weight-based thiopurine for systemic autoimmune diseases. Thirty-one percent of the patients in our series fulfilled the shunter definition. Thiopurine metabolite monitoring and dose adjustment to improve maintenance of remission and avoid hepatotoxicity should be studied prospectively.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/sangue , Nucleotídeos de Guanina/sangue , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/sangue , Tionucleotídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Azatioprina/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/complicações , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucopenia , Masculino , Mercaptopurina/sangue , Metiltransferases/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/complicações , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/epidemiologia , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 93(24): 383-94, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25500708

RESUMO

Autoimmune myositis encompasses various myositis-overlap syndromes, each being identified by the presence of serum marker autoantibodies. We describe a novel myositis-overlap syndrome in 4 patients characterized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes. The clinical phenotype was characterized by prominent myositis in association with erosive, anti-CCP, and rheumatoid factor-positive arthritis, trigeminal neuralgia, mild interstitial lung disease, Raynaud phenomenon, and weight loss. The myositis was typically chronic, relapsing, and refractory to corticosteroids alone, but remitted with the addition of a second immunomodulating drug. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence for liver disease. The prognosis was good with 100% long-term survival (mean follow-up 19.5 yr).By indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, sera from all 4 patients displayed a high titer of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) with a distinct punctate peripheral (rim) fluorescent pattern of the nuclear envelope characteristic of nuclear pore complexes. Reactivity with nuclear pore complexes was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. In a cohort of 100 French Canadian patients with autoimmune myositis, the nuclear pore complex fluorescent ANA pattern was restricted to these 4 patients (4%). It was not observed in sera from 393 adult patients with systemic sclerosis (n = 112), mixed connective tissue disease (n = 35), systemic lupus (n = 94), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 45), or other rheumatic diseases (n = 107), nor was it observed in 62 normal adults.Autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes were predominantly of IgG isotype. No other IgG autoantibody markers for defined connective tissue diseases or overlap syndromes were present, indicating a selective and highly focused immune response. In 3 patients, anti-nuclear pore complex autoantibody titers varied in parallel with myositis activity, suggesting a pathogenic link to pathophysiology. The nuclear pore complex proteins, that is, nucleoporins (nup), recognized by these sera were heterogeneous and included Nup358/RanBP2 (n = 2 patients), Nup90 (n = 1), Nup62 (n = 1), and gp210 (n = 1). Taken together the data suggest that nup autoantigens themselves drive the anti-nup autoimmune response. Immunogenetically, the 4 patients shared the DQA1*0501 allele associated with an increased risk for autoimmune myositis.In conclusion, we report an apparent novel subset of autoimmune myositis in our population of French Canadian patients with connective tissue diseases. This syndrome is recognized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes that react with nups, consistent with an "anti-nup syndrome."


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Miosite/imunologia , Poro Nuclear/imunologia , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Síndrome
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 93(24): 318-32, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25500701

RESUMO

Dermatomyositis (DM) is a major clinical subset of autoimmune myositis (AIM). The characteristic DM rash (Gottron papules, heliotrope rash) and perifascicular atrophy at skeletal muscle biopsy are regarded as specific features for this diagnosis. However, new concepts are challenging the current definition of DM. A modified Bohan and Peter classification of AIM was proposed in which the core concept was the inclusion of the diagnostic significance of overlap connective tissue disease features. In this clinical classification, a DM rash in association with myositis in the absence of overlap features indicates a diagnosis of pure DM. However, overlap features in association with myositis allow a diagnosis of overlap myositis (OM), irrespective of the presence or absence of the DM rash. Perifascicular atrophy may be present in both pure DM and OM. Recently, the presence of perifascicular atrophy in myositis without a DM rash was proposed as diagnostic of a novel entity, adermatopathic DM. We conducted the present study to evaluate these new concepts to further differentiate pure DM from OM.Using the modified Bohan and Peter classification, we performed a follow-up study of a longitudinal cohort of 100 consecutive adult French Canadian patients with AIM, including 44 patients with a DM phenotype, defined as a DM rash, and/or DM-type calcinosis, and/or the presence of perifascicular atrophy on muscle biopsy. A detailed evaluation was performed for overlap features, the extent and natural history of the DM rash, adermatopathic DM, DM-specific and overlap autoantibodies by protein A immunoprecipitation on coded serum samples, and associations with cancer and survival.Two distinct subsets were identified in patients with a DM phenotype: pure DM (n = 24) and OM with DM features, or OMDM (n = 20). In pure DM, the DM rash was a dominant finding. It was the first disease manifestation, was always present at the time of myositis diagnosis, and was associated with a high cutaneous score and chronicity. Concurrent heliotrope rash and Gottron papules (positive predictive value [PPV] 91%), as well as the V-sign and/or shawl sign (PPV 100%), were diagnostic of pure DM. Anti-Mi-2, anti-MJ, and anti-p155 autoantibodies were present in 50% of pure DM patients and were restricted to this subset (PPV 100%). Cancer was present in 21% of pure DM patients. The 15-year survival was excellent (92%).In contrast, in patients with OMDM, the first manifestation was proximal muscle weakness or other skeletal muscle-related complaints. The DM rash appeared at diagnosis or at follow-up, was associated with a low cutaneous extent score and was transient. Adermatopathic DM, which was absent in pure DM, was highly predictive (PPV 100%) of OMDM. Overlap autoantibodies (including anti-Jo-1, anti-PL-7, anti-PM-Scl, anti-U1RNP, and/or anti-U5-RNP) were found in 70% of OMDM patients. OMDM was not associated with cancer, but the 15-year survival was significantly decreased (65%).Perifascicular atrophy occurred as commonly in OMDM (n = 6/20, 30%) as in pure DM (n = 4/24, 17%) patients. These 6 OMDM patients had adermatopathic DM at myositis diagnosis, and only 1 of them developed a DM rash at follow-up, emphasizing the lack of specificity of perifascicular atrophy for pure DM.In conclusion, using the modified Bohan and Peter classification of AIM allowed identification of OMDM, a new clinical subset of OM. Furthermore, identification of OMDM allowed recognition of pure DM as a new entity that was distinct from OMDM or from OM without DM features. However, the absolute specificity of a DM rash and perifascicular muscle atrophy for the diagnosis of pure DM was lost. The distinctive clinical manifestations and autoantibody profiles presented are proposed as diagnostic criteria to differentiate pure DM from OMDM.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atrofia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Dermatomiosite/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exantema/diagnóstico , Exantema/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/patologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Pharmacother ; 48(5): 648-51, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24523395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the use of febuxostat in order to potentiate thiopurines' metabolism in a patient on azathioprine (AZA) therapy with low metabolite 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) levels and elevated metabolite 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) levels. CASE SUMMARY: A 44-year-old woman with a history of anti-signal recognition particle necrotizing myopathy was treated with AZA-allopurinol combination therapy. When she developed an atypical drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, allopurinol was replaced by the new xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor febuxostat, at a daily dose of 40 mg. Febuxostat-AZA combination was successful with 6-TGN reaching therapeutic levels while 6-MMP levels remained low. After 5 months, she developed similar manifestations that she had presented on AZA-allopurinol combination. Febuxostat and AZA were then stopped. DISCUSSION: AZA and 6-MP are both inactive pro-drugs that undergo a complex metabolic transformation leading to active 6-TGN and potentially hepatotoxic 6-MMP. Some patients with unfavorable thiopurine metabolism might benefit from addition of XO inhibitor allopurinol in order to potentiate 6-TGN and reduce 6-MMP levels. It is likely that febuxostat, via its XO inhibition, would exhibit the same effect on thiopurines' metabolism. CONCLUSION: It has been shown that low dose of febuxostat was able to prevent hypermethylation and to potentiate 6-TGN levels in an AZA-treated patient. Thus, febuxostat could be useful in optimizing thiopurines' metabolism, but more data are needed before this practice can be recommended. The mechanisms by which febuxostat optimizes thiopurines' metabolism remain to be confirmed. Also, the optimal dose of febuxostat for this use remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Nucleotídeos de Guanina/sangue , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Mercaptopurina/análogos & derivados , Doenças Musculares/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tionucleotídeos/sangue , Adulto , Interações de Medicamentos , Febuxostat , Feminino , Humanos , Mercaptopurina/sangue , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 8(3): 416-23, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23220426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is treated with potent immunosuppressive regimens. This study sought to determine risk factors associated with infections during first-intention therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This retrospective study involved two separate cohorts of consecutive cases of AAV seen from 2004 to 2011 at two university hospitals. The following were assessed: vasculitis severity; therapy; and periods with no, moderate (lymphocyte count, 0.3-1.0× 10(9)/L), or severe (lymphocyte count ≤ 0.3×10(9)/L) lymphopenia and neutropenia (neutrophil count ≤ 1.5×10(9)/L). RESULTS: One hundred patients had a mean age of 57±15 years and a Birmingham vasculitis activity score of 7.7±3.6. Therapy consisted of pulse methylprednisolone (59%), cyclophosphamide (85%), methotrexate (6%), and plasmapheresis (25%) in addition to oral corticosteroids. During follow-up, 53% of patients experienced infection and 28% were hospitalized for infection (severe infection). Only 18% experienced neutropenia, but 72% and 36% presented moderate and severe lymphopenia for a total duration of <0.1%, 73%, and 8% of the treatment follow-up, respectively. Lower initial estimated GFR, longer duration of corticosteroid use, and presence of lymphopenia were risk factors of infections. The rate was 2.23 events/person-year in the presence of severe lymphopenia compared with 0.41 and 0.19 during periods with moderate or no lymphopenia (P<0.001). Similarly, the rate of severe infections was 1.00 event/person-year with severe lymphopenia and 0.08 and 0.10 with moderate and no lymphopenia (P<0.001). This association remained independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphopenia is frequent during the treatment of AAV, and its severity is associated with the risk of infectious complications.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/induzido quimicamente , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Linfopenia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/diagnóstico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Lineares , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Linfopenia/imunologia , Linfopenia/mortalidade , Masculino , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/imunologia , Plasmaferese , Quebeque , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 9(4): R78, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17688695

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, mutual associations, clinical manifestations, and diagnoses associated with serum autoantibodies, as detected using recently available immunoassays, in patients with autoimmune myositis (AIM). Sera and clinical data were collected from 100 patients with AIM followed longitudinally. Sera were screened cross-sectionally for 21 autoantibodies by multiplex addressable laser bead immunoassay, line blot immunoassay, immunoprecipitation of in vitro translated recombinant protein, protein A assisted immunoprecipitation, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diagnoses were determined using the Bohan and Peter classification as well as recently proposed classifications. Relationships between autoantibodies and clinical manifestations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. One or more autoantibodies encompassing 19 specificities were present in 80% of the patients. The most common autoantibodies were anti-Ro52 (30% of patients), anti-Ku (23%), anti-synthetases (22%), anti-U1RNP (15%), and anti-fibrillarin (14%). In the presence of autoantibodies to Ku, synthetases, U1RNP, fibrillarin, PM-Scl, or scleroderma autoantigens, at least one more autoantibody was detected in the majority of sera and at least two more autoantibodies in over one-third of sera. The largest number of concurrent autoantibodies was six autoantibodies. Overall, 44 distinct combinations of autoantibodies were counted. Most autoantibodies were unrestricted to any AIM diagnostic category. Distinct clinical syndromes and therapeutic responses were associated with anti-Jo-1, anti-fibrillarin, anti-U1RNP, anti-Ro, anti-Ro52, and autoantibodies to scleroderma autoantigens. We conclude that a significant proportion of AIM patients are characterized by complex associations of autoantibodies. Certain myositis autoantibodies are markers for distinct overlap syndromes and predict therapeutic outcomes. The ultimate clinical features, disease course, and response to therapy in a given AIM patient may be linked to the particular set of associated autoantibodies. These results provide a rationale for patient profiling and its application to therapeutics, because it cannot be assumed that the B-cell response is the same even in the majority of patients in a given diagnostic category.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Miosite/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Miosite/diagnóstico
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 84(4): 231-49, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16010208

RESUMO

Our objective was to improve the currently imperfect classifications of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). In clinical practice, overlap features are common in IIM. This provided a rationale for positioning overlap clinical features at the core of a new classification system. We conducted a longitudinal study of 100 consecutive adult French Canadian patients with IIM. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained by retrospective chart review. Sera were analyzed for autoantibodies (aAbs) by protein A-assisted immunoprecipitation and double immunodiffusion. Overlap aAbs encompassed aAbs to synthetases, systemic sclerosis-associated aAbs, anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) and anti-nucleoporins. Patients were classified both at IIM diagnosis, based on data at presentation, and at the end of follow-up, based on cumulative findings. Three classifications were used: 1) the Bohan and Peter original classification, 2) a new version of that classification as modified by us, and 3) a novel clinicoserologic classification. As investigators were blinded to aAb results, the modified classification is strictly a clinical classification. Its core concept is the attribution of diagnostic significance to the presence of overlap features, that is, their presence resulted in a diagnosis of overlap myositis (OM). This approach allowed direct comparison with the original Bohan and Peter classification. By integrating aAb results to the modified classification, we also defined the clinicoserologic classification, which allowed to examine the added value of aAbs to diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic stratification. Whereas polymyositis (PM) was the most common IIM according to the original classification, accounting for 45% of the cohort at diagnosis, its frequency fell to 14% with the modified classification. Conversely, while the frequency of myositis associated with connective tissue disease was 24% according to the original classification, the frequency of OM was 60% when using the modified classification. At last follow-up, the frequency of PM fell further to only 9%, while the frequency of OM rose to 67%. Systemic sclerosis was the most common connective tissue disease associated with IIM, accounting for 42.6% of OM patients and 29% of the cohort. The frequencies of overlap aAbs in the cohort and in OM patients were 48% and 70.5% (n =48/68), respectively. The presence of overlap aAbs at IIM diagnosis identified additional OM patients unrecognized by the modified classification. The sensitivity of the modified classification for OM at diagnosis was 87%, suggesting that clinicians may rely on the modified classification for identification of most OM patients, while awaiting results of aAb assays. The new classifications predicted the response to prednisone and IIM course. Using stringent definitions, IIM was classified as responsive or refractory after an adequate initial corticosteroid therapy, and the disease course as monophasic or chronic after a single adequate trial of prednisone. PM was always chronic and was associated with the highest rate (50%) of refractoriness to initial corticosteroid treatment. Dermatomyositis was almost always chronic (92% rate); however, its responsiveness to initial corticosteroid treatment was high (87%). OM was almost always responsive to corticosteroids (89%-100% rates). When OM patients were divided according to aAb subsets, anti-synthetase, SRP, or nucleoporin aAbs were markers for chronic myositis, whereas aAbs to U1RNP, Pm-Scl, or Ku were markers for monophasic myositis. We conclude that the original Bohan and Peter classification should be abandoned as it leads to misclassification of patients. Much of IIM is composed of OM. The proposed modified and clinicoserologic classifications have diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/análise , Miosite/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatomiosite/classificação , Dermatomiosite/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ligases/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/imunologia , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/imunologia , Polimiosite/classificação , Polimiosite/imunologia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Quebeque , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/imunologia , Método Simples-Cego , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
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